• A Quantized PSK 8-State Decoder for Spectrally Efficient Communications

      Ross, Michael D.; Carden, Frank; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Trellis Coded Modulation [5] combines the Viterbi Algorithm [4] with PSK or QAM signalling to achieve a coding gain, using signal set expansion as an alternative to bandwidth expansion. Optimum detection of TCM requires the calculation of Euclidean distances in the signal set space. Circular Quantization of received signal vectors as an alternative to Euclidean distance calculation has been shown to result in minimal loss of performance when used with a 4-state trellis codes [1, 2, 3]. This paper investigates the effect of circular quantization on 2 different 8-state trellis codes. The 8-state codes showed a modest gain over the 4-state code, while the effect of circular quantization on the 8-state codes paralleled the effect on the 4-state code.

      Crabtree, Steven B.; Feather, Bobby J.; Loral Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Telemetry applications today are requiring more and more computing power. The computing industry is responding to this need with more powerful machines. With these new machines the UNIX operating system is rapidly being accepted as the system of choice for the popular lowend and midrange RISC and CISC computers. The system discussed addresses the long standing question, “Can a complete UNIX system perform in a high-data-rate real-time environment?”. This paper describes the Loral Data Systems development of a Real-Time Data Transcription System (RDTS) built for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and TRW. This system utilizes a powerful telemetry preprocessor, internally bus-coupled to a real time UNIX host computer. An industry-standard VME-to-VME coupling provides an efficient setup, control and computational gateway for preprocessed telemetry data. This architecture illustrates a UNIX operating system to support a pseudo-real-time telemetry application.

      KIBLER, R.; RODGERS, B.; BEERS, R.; JOSEPH, D.; MODCOMP; ARCATA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      This paper describes the history, planning, analysis, design and performance specifications/results of a very fast, real time data acquisition and processing system. The heart of the system is MODCOMP’s fully pre-emptive, realtime UNIX operating system REAL/IX2. The entire system consists of 19 intelligent communication/interface processors on a VME bus all managed by the REAL/X2 master processor. The application for this system was developed by Arcata Assoc. of Las Vegas, NV. for use at Nellis Air Force Base. It resides in the Nellis Range Support network as the master switching node subsystem. The Nellis Network is a data communications system which supports interactive, fullduplex communication of digital data between terminal nodes on electronic combat ranges and range user nodes at Nellis AFB. Many obstacles to meeting the specified performance had to be overcome. When the system was delivered and installed by MODCOMP it met or exceeded the original data handling requirements and throughput. Other system features involve communication processor products from SIMPACT Inc. a San Diego company. The paper will present their involvement in delivering this solution system to ARCATA and ultimately Nellis AFB as well as all performance data achieved from this multi-company venture.

      Gaskill, David M.; Astro-Med, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Rapid technological improvements in components and manufacturing techniques have set the stage for a thorough renovation of chart recording concepts. Today, thermal array, galvanometer, electrostatic, and lightbeam recorders co-exist for reasons both historical and practical. At one time or another each has held a competitive advantage but now it is time to synthesize a new recorder standard combining the strengths of each of today’s technologies with a generous reserve for future enhancements.
    • The Research on Optimization of DPSK Errors Propagation

      Mukun, Wang; Bingxing, Xu; Tingxiag, Zhou; Harbin Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      This paper put its focus on the errors propagation given by Differential phase shift keying (DPSK below) in industrial telemetering systems. There is analytical, comparative and calculative work about DPSK signals formed with different encoding moduses and about their errors propagation after demodulation.

      Salazar, V. P.; Franco, R. J.; Sandia National Laboratories Telemetry Department (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Sandia National Laboratories Telemetry Technology Development Division has designed and fielded earth and ice penetrator instrumentation recorders for many years. Recently we developed a miniature, reusable, transient-event recorder for use in scale model penetration tests. The miniature size of the recorder permits testing of penetrators as small as 4 inches in outside diameter by 20 inches in length. The recorder can survive and record shock environments exceeding 4,000 times the acceleration of gravity (gs). Typical applications are rock, soil, and ice penetration tests launched from a gas gun developed by Advanced Projects Division III. Typical impact velocities range from 600 to 1,000 feet per second.

      Jie, Cao; Qiu-cheng, Xie; Nanjing Aeronautical Institute, China (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      As the code length is increasing, the search of optimum group sync codes will be more and more difficult, even impossible. This paper gives the searching method of quasi-optimum group sync codes on the small subset of PN sequences -- CVT-TAIL SEARCHING METHOD and PREFIX-SUFFIX SEARCHING METHOD. We have searched out quasi-optimum group sync codes for their lengths N=32-63 by this method and compared them with corresponding optimum group sync codes for their lengths N=32-54. They are very approximative. The total searching time is only several seconds. This method may solves the problems among error sync probability, code length and searching time. So, it is a good and practicable searching method for long code.
    • Self-Contained High-G Wideband Telemetry System for the SADARM Program

      Grassano, Chris J.; U.S. Armament Research Development and Engineering Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The Telemetry Section was tasked with the effort to develop two projectile/missile wideband telemeters in support of the Sense And Destroy ARMor (SADARM) Program. These telemeters were designed to withstand the complete operating environments of three carriers, namely the Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS), and both the 155mm and 8in guns. The development of these systems was based on gun proven designs and components, but additional design and qualification had to be conducted for the added features. A re-radiation (RERAD) system was also developed to enhance data acquisition in the field. The scope of this paper will include an electrical subsystem design analysis, mechanical design overview, system capabilities, qualification testing, test scenario configuration, and a brief discussion of the RF link analysis and RERAD system. The major advantages of these telemeters are the large amount of data throughput, the fact that the entire system is self-contained, and that they are qualified for use in extreme environments.

      GUISINGER, BARRETT E.; Datatape Technology Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      This paper describes the design and implementation of a low cost, analog, DC to 6 MHz bandwidth instrumentation recorder based on an industrial grade SVHS transport mechanism. The system is designed to meet all of it’s specifications utilizing standard offthe-shelf SVHS media. Novel digital processing is described allowing a fully timebase corrected recorder/reproducer to be housed in a one-half rack enclosure measuring 7"H x 8.5"W x 18"D and weighing less than 25 pounds.
    • Small Multipurpose Stored Data Acquisition System

      Hauser, G. C.; Ryerson, D. E.; Sandia National Laboratories Telemetry Department (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Sandia National Laboratories Telemetry Department has designed and is fielding a small, inexpensive multipurpose stored data acquisition system in tests ranging from 6000 meters below the ocean surface in seafloor penetrators to 40,000 meters above sea level in gamma ray telescope balloons. The system consists of a simple microprocessor-controlled unit which digitizes analog data and stores the data in memory for readout after the test by a portable personal computer. The system has been used in over ninety tests consisting of parachute drops, water entry tests, vehicle environmental monitoring, and seafloor penetration tests. Data typically recorded with the system are acceleration, strain, temperature, pressure, and angular velocity. The system is also capable of generating control functions such as parachute release.

      Wigfall, Glenn D.; US Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The last decade brought about the development of “smart” weapons and munitions that proved to be more efficient than conventional weapons based on their efficiency in the number of targets hit relative to the number hit using conventional weapons. The awakening of sensor-controlled, sensor-guided munitions technology has introduced a definitive need for telemetry instrumentation in developmental testing of this rapidly growing field. To satisfy the Army’s need for sensor-controlled, anti-tank munitions, several development programs are under way for the research and design of these systems. Telemetry has been a critical element in the development of these programs. From the program’s conception and through to its completion, the Armament, Research, Development, and Engineering Center-Telemetry Section has developed data acquisition systems to monitor the activity of such sensorcontrolled smart projectiles to support Army programs. This paper will discuss the development and use of a PCM telemetry system that has had tremendous success in use with these types of projectile programs in their sensor development and system integration stages. The application, albeit specific to these projectile programs, can be tailored to meet the needs of numerous test configurations within the Army or other organizations facing this need.
    • A State-of-the-Art Data Acquisition System

      Talmadge, Richard D.; Radmand, Mansour; Wright Research & Development Center; Aydin Vector Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Recent developments in manufacturing technology have afforded a new capability in miniaturized instrumentation systems. The advent of ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) technology has provided the tools to implement very sophisticated signal conditioning circuits in micro-miniature instrumentation. This paper discusses the development of the Automatic Gain Ranging Amplifier (AGRA) and its implementation in the Aydin Vector MMSC-800 instrumentation package. Also discussed is the miniaturization of a 1553 Bus monitor, IRIG-B Time Code reader/accumulator and the development of a helical scan miniature tape recording system capable of recording 2+ hours of 3.4 Mbps data. The paper concludes by giving applications for and benefits of using this new state-of-the-art instrumentation.

      Duffy, Harold A.; Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, CA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The goal of Word Selector hardware design is to place the selection and scaling of displayed data parameters under the control of destination observers. An initial design, discussed at the 1984 ITC, received its input telemetry data from a Compressor with modest throughput. The proliferation of nontraditional formats has forced the adoption of telemetry data preprocessors in place of simple Compressors. A new generation of Word Selectors is being developed with greater speed (1 million parameters/second), a serial data interface, and the equivalent scaling capability of traditional patch panel demultiplexers. The number of nonvolatile local setup files has been increased by 40%.

      Keller, G. E., Jr; Air Force Armament Laboratory (AFATL) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Current telemetry instrumentation systems are subject to space and weight limitations for use in bombs, dispensers, submunitions, projectiles and other tactical weapon systems. It is not now feasible to instrument submunitions and projectiles for weapon effectiveness data because state-of-the-art telemetry devices cannot be rapidly and cost effectively installed in unmodified munitions. Furthermore, aircraft modifications for flutter/loads testing are extremely expensive and time consuming. This program will develop a low cost telemetry chip-set consisting of integrated sensors, signal conditioning, transmitters and encryptors. “Peel-and-Stick” (See Figure 1) telemetry devices, containing a specific chip-set with integrated sensors, a battery, and antenna in an extremely small package, will also be developed. Subminiature Telemetry Technology (SMT) will directly impact all future tactical submunition development programs during pre-production RDT&E. This program will also support compatibility and safe separation testing done in the Air Force SEEK EAGLE program. Conventional and kinetic energy projectile programs and advanced missile programs will have long-term benefit. Telemetry and encryption designs developed in this program will advance the state-of-the-art in telemetry fabrication from hybrid to monolithic providing smaller, more shock resistant systems at a much lower cost. Subminiature telemetry devices could be integrated with the weapon system during its development allowing for a non-destructive, non-contaminating test of the system. This will greatly reduce the cost and logistics of determining weapon readiness and health status during long time periods of storage.

      Comeau, Charles P.; Fisher, Joseph F.; Delta Information Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      When video signals are transmitted in a telemetry system it is usually necessary to simultaneously transmit other basic data such as temperature, pressure, audio, etc. In recent years these video/data telemetry systems have been implemented by transmitting the video through an analog link and the digital data through a parallel separate digital channel. Most recently it has become practical to transmit video signals by digital means, and this makes it possible to digitally multiplex the narrowband data with the wider band video. This results in a large reduction in system complexity since both data streams are transmitted over one channel rather than two. This paper describes a particular technical approach to multiplexing data and video which supports PCM data rates up to 60 kilobits per second. The approach has the advantage that PCM data is only embedded into the Video data as required. This results in the maximum utilization of the bandwidth of the transmission link. An airborne device has been developed which implements the video encoding and data multiplexing function. The paper describes the general multiplexing concept, the communication protocol, and the particular implementation. A description of the video encoding system, including the data multiplexing option, can be found in the “Draft Standard for Digital Transmission of Television Images” - RCC/TCG 209

      Stetten, George; Koontz, Fred; Sheppard, Christine; Koontz, Charles; New York Zoological Society (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      A series of artificial eggs has been developed for the New York Zoological Society to measure conditions in the nest of the white-naped crane (Grus Vipio). Investigations undertaken at the Bronx Zoo have endeavored to improve artificial incubation of the eggs of endangered species of birds. Artificial eggs were constructed and camouflaged so that a pair of birds would accept and incubate them. Inside each counterfeit egg, a radio telemetry transmitter was hidden to report on the temperature and humidity in the nest and the orientation of the egg itself with respect to gravity.
    • Telemetry Antenna Patterns for Single and Multi-Element Arrays

      Rieger, James L.; Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The use of multiple antennas (or multiport) antennas for vehicular telemetry causes patterns to result which are unknown and not well understood by the telemetry designer. When the antenna ports are separated by distances of more than a half wavelength, the resulting patterns are rarely what was intended. The antenna plotting program, an extension of a earlier University of Utah antenna plotting routine, allows rapid creation of patterns for up to 30 (or more) antennas of like polarization displaced from each other in all three axes. Single-port antennas are modeled as compound antennas to produce the observed pattern, and combinations of these single-port antennas are then plotted. Case studies are shown for an aircraft and a missile body.

      Strock, O. J. (Jud); Witchey, Michael (Mike); Loral Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      This paper responds to a test range engineer’s need to relay one or more channels of various types of telemetry data from a remotely-located receiving station to the central telemetry station at range headquarters for real time processing and display. Several types of data are identified, and specific equipment and technology for multiplexing, transmission, and demultiplexing up to eight streams from a variety of sources is discussed. The widely-used T3 communications link, also known as DS-3, can relay data via satellite, microwave link, or other high-speed path at 44.736 megabits per second, of which about 95% can be actual telemetry data; other standard links operate at lower aggregate rates. Several links and rates are discussed, with emphasis in the high-rate T3 link.
    • Telemetry Format Compiler for the Generation of State machine Code Executed by a PCX Encoder

      Landry, Michael; Loral Conic (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Telemetry encoders commonly use programmable memory devices for the storage of data used to control the multiplexed output format. The manual generation of this program control information is tedious and error prone. A telemetry format compiler has been developed to automate this process. A high level definition of the format information is processed to result in a binary object file which is programmed into the memory of the encoder and executed by the state machine controlling the encoding.
    • Telemetry Ground Station Data Servers for Real-Time Expert Systems

      Silagi, Randall L.; Friedman, Paul J.; Loral Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Expert systems can be of great benefit to analysts, mission controllers, and flight safety officers who must make real-time decisions based upon a myriad of quickly changing parameters. Operators may require extensive training to view a limited parameter set or they can be aided by computers systematically monitoring many parameters. But, even today’s powerful general purpose computers and workstations are limited in their capabilities to monitor (i.e., process) the desired number of parameters. Thus, applications are distributed across multiple platforms. A telemetry ground station front end system (i.e., a real-time data server) that distributes preprocessed data to multiple knowledge stations over standard communications networks is presented.