• Frame Synchronization At 300 Mbps And Beyond ...

      Wunderlich, Kristin; Chesney, Jim; Bennett, Toby; Goddard Space Flight Center; Ford Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      While most current ground based space telemetry acquisition systems are designed for and support data rates up to a few megabits per second (Mbps), NASA’s Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) can support downlink rates up to 300 Mbps. In addition, the Advanced TDRSS (ATDRSS) is expected to support rates up to 650 Mbps. These high data rates will be required to support NASA’s future large scale operational programs such as the Space Station Freedom and the Earth Observation System. At the Goddard Space Flight Center, a prototype Frame Synchronizer card is under development which will operate at a minimum of 300 Mbps while providing a full suite of programmable functions such as 32 bit correlation, search-check-lock strategy, bit slip tolerance, fly wheeling, etc. In addition, cumulative quality data generation, on-board self diagnostics, and status/control processing are all integrated in this single card design. This level of functionality and very high data rate is made possible by the design of NASA application specific Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits to support space telemetry data system standards specified by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems. This paper will describe functions performed by this card and its supporting VLSI components.

      McGiven, Fred A.; TIW Systems Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      TIW Systems has developed a modern, compact, modular, antenna controller (ACU) for telemetry, tracking, and communications antennas. The controller combines the functions of an antenna control unit, a position conversion/display chassis, and a polarization control unit. By using plug-in cards, a tracking receiver, autophasing control unit, tracking synthesizer, and other functions can be added. Depending on the requirements, the tracking receiver can be a simple wide-band steptrack receiver, or can be a full function phase-locked-loop (PLL) autotrack receiver. In the past, all this capability would have taken a large portion of an entire equipment rack. The unit uses modern microprocessor technology for digitally controlling the position and rate of the antenna. Advanced tracking modes and remote control can be added by connecting an external computer (PTIC) to one of the ACU’s serial ports. The PTIC also provides a user friendly operator interface through the use of high resolution color graphics and easy to understand menus.

      Malone, Erle W.; Breedlove, Phillip; Boeing Aerospace, Seattle, WA; Loral Conic, San Diego, CA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      A telemetry system which integrates MIL-STD-1553 bus data, dual-simplex bus data, vehicle performance data, and environmental sensor data multiplexing involves many interfacing constraints. The engineering design considerations and hardware constraints required to implement this system are presented in this paper.
    • Color Extension for the HORACE TV Compression Protocol

      Gattis, Sherri L.; Rieger, James L.; Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The HORACE protocol[5] was designed as a common medium of exchange for digitized black-and-white television images at varying resolutions at bit rates from below 9600 to over 50M bits per second. At the 1 time of the protocol’s creation, “hooks” were added to allow use of the system to transmit and receive two-and three-color images from an NTSC, RGBY, RGB, or “S-type” input and produce outputs in the same format, but those systems remained undefined. Two systems implementing various features of the extended color protocol have been built and demonstrated by two different manufacturers, and an effort to standardize the protocol for all users and manufacturers is underway.
    • An Integrated Workstation Environment for Operational Support of Satellite System Planning & Analysis

      Hamilton, Marvin J.; Sutton, Stewart A.; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      This paper describes a prototype integrated environment, the Advanced Satellite Workstation (ASW), that has been developed and delivered for evaluation and operator feedback in an operational satellite control center. The current ASW hardware consists of a Sun Workstation and Macintosh II Workstation connected via an ethernet Network Hardware and Software, Laser Disk System, optical Storage System, and Telemetry Data File Interface. The central mission of ASW is to provide an intelligent decision support and training environment for operator/analysts of complex systems such as satellites. There have been many workstation implementations recently which incorporate graphical telemetry displays and expert systems. ASW is a considerably broader look at intelligent, integrated environments for decision support, based upon the premise that the central features of such an environment are intelligent data access and integrated toolsets. A variety of tools have been constructed in support of this prototype environment including: an automated pass planner for scheduling vehicle support activities, architectural modeler for hierarchical simulation and analysis of satellite vehicle subsystems, multimedia-based information systems that provide an intuitive and easily accessible interface to Orbit Operations Handbooks and other relevant support documentation, and a data analysis architecture that integrates user modifiable telemetry display systems, expert systems for background data analysis, and interfaces to the multimedia system via inter-process communication.

      Blasdel, Arthur N., Jr.; Hartman, Wayne; Ford Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Ford Aerospace Corporation has been working for several years on Independent Research and Development (IR&D) that brings artificial intelligence technology to bear on space mission operations tasks. During this time, we have developed a flexible and sophisticated tool, called Paragon, that supports knowledge representation in a very intuitive and easy to maintain manner. As a fallout of our knowledge representation approach in Paragon, we get a simulation capability that supports testing and verification of the model. This same capability can be used to support various space operations training and readiness activities (1). Recently, we became aware of the very flexible telemetry generation and display capabilities of the Loral 500 system, and found that we could combine our Paragon modeling and simulation capability with the Loral equipment to create an intelligent telemetry simulator that has the potential to dramatically reduce acquisition, development, installation, and maintenance costs for space system simulation. This paper discusses the features and capabilities of the Paragon/Loral 500 Intelligent Telemetry Simulator (ITS) as well as the prototyping we have accomplished to date.
    • International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 26 (1990)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11

      Crabtree, Steven B.; Feather, Bobby J.; Loral Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Telemetry applications today are requiring more and more computing power. The computing industry is responding to this need with more powerful machines. With these new machines the UNIX operating system is rapidly being accepted as the system of choice for the popular lowend and midrange RISC and CISC computers. The system discussed addresses the long standing question, “Can a complete UNIX system perform in a high-data-rate real-time environment?”. This paper describes the Loral Data Systems development of a Real-Time Data Transcription System (RDTS) built for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and TRW. This system utilizes a powerful telemetry preprocessor, internally bus-coupled to a real time UNIX host computer. An industry-standard VME-to-VME coupling provides an efficient setup, control and computational gateway for preprocessed telemetry data. This architecture illustrates a UNIX operating system to support a pseudo-real-time telemetry application.

      Watson, John Calvin; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The Packet Telemetry Ground Station which receives telemetry data from the Space Station must be able to receive and process various data types including high-rate video, audio, instrumentation, electronic mail, telecommand, and engineering. The Packet Telemetry Ground Station must also be flexible to accommodate changing missions and payloads. Computer simulations of the Packet Telemetry Ground Station provide information about device specifications required to achieve an acceptable level of performance under changing telemetry data traffic configurations. This paper describes a computer simulation model for a Packet Telemetry Ground Station Architecture which was tested using ten different traffic components randomly transmitting data. The Packet Telemetry Ground Station Simulation status and utilization plots are discussed in terms of interpreting the simulation results.

      CHIMENE, MARK C.; ROCKWELL INTERNATIONAL MISSILE SYSTEMS DIV. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Telemetry system requirements are driven by technological developments in other areas, thus the capabilities of one are mirrored in the capabilities of the other. Contemporary systems typically involve two or more digital subsystems, each operating at a unique clock rate; an increase in complexity that needs to be addressed by the Telemetry system designer. Although the subsystems may be exchanging information, complete synchronization is seldom realized in discrete systems. Because the Telemetry system must provide information sufficient to isolate data/process corruption, it must accept data from the various subsytems at different rates and times. What is needed is a technique to de-couple the Telemetry system clock rate from that of the Subject system or any of its subsystems. This technique must bridge the gap between the synchronous data transmission fundamental to the Telemetry system and the asynchronous data transfer required by the various non integrated subsystems. This paper will discuss the design challenges offered by such a Subject system for both real time and post flight analysis. It will discuss how the restrictions imposed by the IRIG standards and anticipated mission requirements factored into developing the architecture for a Generic Multi-Port Digital Telemetry Interface.

      PENHARLOW, DAVID; AYDIN VECTOR DIVISION (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The new generation of advanced tactical aircraft and missiles places unique demands on the electronic and mechanical designs for flight test instrumentation, high bit rates, operating temperature range and system interconnect wiring requirements. This paper describes a microminiature PCM distributed data acquisition system with integral signal conditioning (MMSC) which has been used in advanced aircraft and missile flight testing. The MMSC system is constructed from microminiature, stackable modules which allow the user to reconfigure the system as the requirements change. A second system is also described which uses the same circuitry in hermetic hybrid packages on plug-in circuit boards.

      Law, Eugene L.; Pacific Missile Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      This paper will describe the Pacific Missile Test Center’s (PMTC) approach to a computer controlled telemetry receive and record system. The advantages of this system include: fast, accurate equipment setup and interconnection, automatic verification of operational status, and simplified signal monitoring. PMTC personnel developed the system architecture and software. The system hardware is all unmodified off-the-shelf equipment. The main design drivers were cost, reliability, and minimizing the effect of any single point failure. The system uses many individual switches instead of a small number of large switch matrices. Manual patching capability has been maintained. This patching system provides a backup solution if all the computers get “zapped”. The patching system also provides increased signal routing flexibility.

      Reed, Gary; DeVries, James; Computer Sciences Corporation; Pacific Missile Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The procurement of a new or upgraded data processing system doesn’t have to take eons of time and result in a less than adequate system. The complexity of requirements definition and system development are not getting any easier, but well-defined methodologies and the use of proven capabilities are providing a means of controlling the process. Even though there are more and more demands being placed on telemetry processing systems and advancing technology offers a myriad of solutions from which to choose, the Government and contractor communities are becoming more effective in applying techniques to define and deliver adequate systems. One method of demonstrating this is to describe an example of a complex telemetry processing system currently being developed for the Navy.

      James, Calvin L.; Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Although prefiltering prevents the aliasing phenomenon with discrete signal processing, degradation in bit error performance results even when the prefilter implementation is ideal. Degradation occurs when decisions are based on statistics derived from correlated samples, processed by a sample mean estimator. i.e., a discrete linear filter. However, an orthonormal transformation can be employed to eliminate prefiltered sample statistical dependencies, thus permitting the sample mean estimator to provide near optimum performance. This paper will present mathematical justification for elements which adversely affect the bit synchronizer’s decision process and suggest an orthonormal transform alternative. The suggested transform can be implemented in most digital bit synchronizer designs with the addition of a Read Only Memory (ROM).

      Liang, Yanxi; Dai, Lihong; Xian, Electro-Mechanical Information Technology Institute In China (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      With the speedy development of microelectronics and computer technology, there has arisen a particular memory telemetry branch in projectile telemetry area. Researches and experiments have been done a lot by telemetry communities in many countries. Various memory telemetry devices have been evolved for mutifarious application objects or purposes. The measurement of terminal environmental parameters is characterized by its ephemeral duration in which on-board system will undergo two, firing and impact, overloads, the latter, often reaching beyond 80,000g, is more severe than the former. Moreover, targets usually consist of such different materils as gravels, steel, or concrete, etc. In addition, the irregularity of these materits makes the mechanical conditions of the projectile penetrating into them a great deal more intricate. In order to measure the acceleration, the axial and tangential forces, the mechanism actions and the like of the parts of a fuze on impact, a high-g memory telemeter and accelerometer with an integrated operational amplifier have been developed. Field tests have also been carried out.
    • Chinese Development on Aero-space Telemetry Ground Station

      Chang-jie, Shi; The Ministry of Aero-space Industry P.R.C. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      This paper introduces the systematic design features of development of Chinese aero-space telemetry ground station from the following seven respects: 1. The fundamental factors to promote the 1980s’ development of telemetry ground station. 2. Increasing the flexibility of telemetry ground station. 3. The approach of one-time system design and multisteps development. 4. Decreasing the effect and influence of host computer. 5. Increasing the efficiency of buses. 6. To pay attention to magnetic recorder. 7. According to realistic utility to determine the configuration and specification of telemetry ground station.
    • Self-Contained High-G Wideband Telemetry System for the SADARM Program

      Grassano, Chris J.; U.S. Armament Research Development and Engineering Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The Telemetry Section was tasked with the effort to develop two projectile/missile wideband telemeters in support of the Sense And Destroy ARMor (SADARM) Program. These telemeters were designed to withstand the complete operating environments of three carriers, namely the Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS), and both the 155mm and 8in guns. The development of these systems was based on gun proven designs and components, but additional design and qualification had to be conducted for the added features. A re-radiation (RERAD) system was also developed to enhance data acquisition in the field. The scope of this paper will include an electrical subsystem design analysis, mechanical design overview, system capabilities, qualification testing, test scenario configuration, and a brief discussion of the RF link analysis and RERAD system. The major advantages of these telemeters are the large amount of data throughput, the fact that the entire system is self-contained, and that they are qualified for use in extreme environments.

      Xi-Hua, Li; Xinan Electronic Engineering Institute, China (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      This paper describes the technical principle that signals conversion, data-processing and data storage are directly carried out without filling up with the reference pulse for PPM and PPK (pulse position keying). By means of analysis for typical frame structure of PPM/PPK signals, a variety of math models of signal time relationship of the system were found, and based on this, a engineering way and a principle block diagram for signals conversion, data processing and data storage were given out.

      Trover, William F.; Teledyne Controls (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Development of a next generation modular PCM system to satisfy a variety of applications for a decade or more resulted in a greater design effort than the use of the latest device technology to satisfy a current customer’s functional needs. Functionality of the existing product line, as well as competitive products, was coupled with a survey of users’ present and future needs, and their opinions of both the good and bad features of existing products. The survey covered system architecture, system throughput, signal conditioning, packaging, software, telemetry, recording and support. A phased development schedule implemented current customer requirements first, followed by development of ultimate system capabilities. Proof-of-concept prototyping proved extremely cost effective as significant changes and improvements in both mechanical and electrical designs resulted from the prototyping. Extensive internal design reviews permitted a wide range of engineering talent to contribute to the overall design. This major undertaking was started just over two years ago with mechanical prototyping and environmental testing of the new “Loaf-of-Bread” (LOB) packaging concept. The core system functionality, composed of 17 different types of functional modules, is now entering the production phase following full environmental qualification. Expanded system functionality is currently developed through proof-of-concept operational hardware which will be upgraded to production hardware within the year. The mechanical modularity achieved by the LOB package will permit system users to make low cost, periodic upgrades of key system functional elements by slice replacement without obsolescence of the majority of the users’ delivered hardware.

      Qiu-Cheng, Xie; Zhong-Kui, Lei; Nanjing Aeronautical Institute, Nanjing, China (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      In this paper, twenty-four optimum group synchronization codes (N=31 to 54) for PCM telemetry systems are presented. These optimum codes are the newest development at the category of optimum group synchronization codes up to now in the world.