• A Parallel Computer Approach for Processing Space Station Telemetry Packets

      Polson, John T.; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      In the Space Station Era, the amount of required telemetry data will be enormous. NASA has proposed a space based network that may ultimately have peak data rates up to 1.2 billion bits per second. There are several levels of processing for the data once it is on the ground. The level zero processing involves reordering of packets, error correction, on line storage, and simple conversion to engineering units. Once the level zero processing is complete the data will be routed over conventional networks to the end users for further processing. The level zero processing will be done by the Data Handling Service, DHS, in real time. This paper discusses a research effort at New Mexico State University to design and simulate the DHS function using a Global Memory Message Passing, GMMP, parallel computer architecture under development in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department. This GMMP computer is capable of moving data into and out of main memory at the peak rate. The processing is partitioned by virtual channel number. This proposed implementation does not add much latency to the network. It appears that the entire GMMP computer can be built by cleverly using existing technology.

      Ferguson, D.; Meyers, D.; Gemmill, P.; Pereira, C.; Honeywell Systems and Research Center; Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Instrumentation for taking dynamic in-bore measurements during high accelerations typically has been limited to accelerations under 20,000 g’s. In munition development and testing, there is a need for telemetry instrumentation that can relay dynamic performance data at 100,000 g’s. This paper describes the development and testing of a stable, regulated, telemetry transmitter that has been successfully tested to 67,400 g’s.
    • A Quantized PSK 8-State Decoder for Spectrally Efficient Communications

      Ross, Michael D.; Carden, Frank; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Trellis Coded Modulation [5] combines the Viterbi Algorithm [4] with PSK or QAM signalling to achieve a coding gain, using signal set expansion as an alternative to bandwidth expansion. Optimum detection of TCM requires the calculation of Euclidean distances in the signal set space. Circular Quantization of received signal vectors as an alternative to Euclidean distance calculation has been shown to result in minimal loss of performance when used with a 4-state trellis codes [1, 2, 3]. This paper investigates the effect of circular quantization on 2 different 8-state trellis codes. The 8-state codes showed a modest gain over the 4-state code, while the effect of circular quantization on the 8-state codes paralleled the effect on the 4-state code.

      Vander Stoep, Donald R.; Ball Systems Engineering Division, San Diego, CA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Sensor slaying consists of pointing a secondary (slave) sensor to a target vehicle, coordinates of which are defined by measurements from a primary (master) sensor or set of master sensors. For typical range applications, the secondary sensor does not possess an autonomous tracking capability; thus, pointing commands for the secondary sensors must be derived from an external source, i.e., the primary sensor or system. A common example of a range slaving system consists of an optical sensor (e.g., a cine- of video theodolite) slaved to a tracking radar. In this instance, radar measurements (range, azimuth, elevation) are typically converted into a cartesian set (x, y, z), followed by the computation of the azimuth and elevation angles from the theodolite site to the designated point. These angles define commands for theodolite pointing.

      Duffy, Harold A.; Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, CA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The goal of Word Selector hardware design is to place the selection and scaling of displayed data parameters under the control of destination observers. An initial design, discussed at the 1984 ITC, received its input telemetry data from a Compressor with modest throughput. The proliferation of nontraditional formats has forced the adoption of telemetry data preprocessors in place of simple Compressors. A new generation of Word Selectors is being developed with greater speed (1 million parameters/second), a serial data interface, and the equivalent scaling capability of traditional patch panel demultiplexers. The number of nonvolatile local setup files has been increased by 40%.

      Chi, Danny T.; Kodak Berkeley Research (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Interleaving is a simple and effective way to improve the performance of an error correction scheme on a bursty channel. The interleaving of codewords will spread the effects of a long burst error into short bursts over several encoded sequences instead of a single codeword, and thus the chosen error correction scheme can correct them. This paper addresses a recently developed method, called helical interleaving ([1]) and presents some of its applications. The advantages of helical interleavers as compared with traditional interleavers are discussed. A relationship between helical interleavers and convolutional interleavers is also presented.

      GUISINGER, BARRETT E.; Datatape Technology Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      This paper describes the design and implementation of a low cost, analog, DC to 6 MHz bandwidth instrumentation recorder based on an industrial grade SVHS transport mechanism. The system is designed to meet all of it’s specifications utilizing standard offthe-shelf SVHS media. Novel digital processing is described allowing a fully timebase corrected recorder/reproducer to be housed in a one-half rack enclosure measuring 7"H x 8.5"W x 18"D and weighing less than 25 pounds.

      Gaskill, David M.; Astro-Med, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Rapid technological improvements in components and manufacturing techniques have set the stage for a thorough renovation of chart recording concepts. Today, thermal array, galvanometer, electrostatic, and lightbeam recorders co-exist for reasons both historical and practical. At one time or another each has held a competitive advantage but now it is time to synthesize a new recorder standard combining the strengths of each of today’s technologies with a generous reserve for future enhancements.

      Robillard, Jean-Claude; Brimbal, Michel; Gould Inc., Array Recorders Division; Gould Inc., Recording Systems Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      In the past 2 to 3 years, linear array recorders based on direct thermal printing technology have proven to be the recorders of choice for a large number of telemetry display stations. This technology initially developed for facsimile communications has evolved to meet speed and reliability required by the operation of recorders in the telemetry station environment. This paper discusses the performance of various direct thermal printing techniques employed. The focus is given to parameters that are critical to telemetry station operation such as quality of the chart output, maintenance and support, reliability and cost. The reliability issue is discussed at length as it is impacted by printhead thermal stress and mechanical wear. Other printing technologies available for chart recording are briefly reviewed as they may appear to be suitable alternatives in some telemetry applications.

      Perry, Ross; Kelly, Fred; Brimbal, Michel; Computer Sciences Corp.; Gould Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The Telemetry Integrated Processing System (TIPS) at the U.S. Air Force Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, California is a large scale, computer based, telemetry processing and display system installed in the early 80’s. The digital printer/plotters used in the Quick Look Display Area (QLDA) were installed in 1979 and their maintenance support has become critical. Their replacement is now necessary. This paper will present the approach used to solve the replacement of these printer/plotters by off-the shelf commercial equipment. The key objectives of providing users with a similar display output and strict hardware and software compatibility with existing system have been met. In addition, the new equipment installed can meet the display requirements of future developments or upgrades of the TIPS.

      Furht, Borko; Gluch, David; Joseph, David; Modular Computer Systems, Inc., an AEG company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The performance of general purpose computers is typically measured in terms of Millions of Instructions per Second (MIPS) or Millions of Floating-Point Operations per Second (MFLOPS). Standard benchmark programs such as Whetstone, Dhrystone, and Linpack typically measure CPU speed in a single-task environment. However, a computer may have high CPU performance, but poor real-time capabilities. Therefore there is a need for performance measures specifically intended for real-time computer systems. This paper presents four methodologies, related metrics and benchmarks for objectively measuring real-time performance: (a) Tri-Dimensional Measure, (b) Process Dispatch Latency Time, (c) Rhealstone Metric, and (d) Vanada Benchmark. This proposed methodologies and related measures are applied in the performance evaluation of several real-time computer systems, and the results obtained are presented.

      KIBLER, R.; RODGERS, B.; BEERS, R.; JOSEPH, D.; MODCOMP; ARCATA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      This paper describes the history, planning, analysis, design and performance specifications/results of a very fast, real time data acquisition and processing system. The heart of the system is MODCOMP’s fully pre-emptive, realtime UNIX operating system REAL/IX2. The entire system consists of 19 intelligent communication/interface processors on a VME bus all managed by the REAL/X2 master processor. The application for this system was developed by Arcata Assoc. of Las Vegas, NV. for use at Nellis Air Force Base. It resides in the Nellis Range Support network as the master switching node subsystem. The Nellis Network is a data communications system which supports interactive, fullduplex communication of digital data between terminal nodes on electronic combat ranges and range user nodes at Nellis AFB. Many obstacles to meeting the specified performance had to be overcome. When the system was delivered and installed by MODCOMP it met or exceeded the original data handling requirements and throughput. Other system features involve communication processor products from SIMPACT Inc. a San Diego company. The paper will present their involvement in delivering this solution system to ARCATA and ultimately Nellis AFB as well as all performance data achieved from this multi-company venture.

      Furht, Borko; Joseph, David; Gluch, David; Parker, John; Modular Computer Systems, Inc., an AEG company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      In this paper we discuss the next generation of open real-time systems for time critical applications in telemetry. Traditionally, real-time computing has been a realm of proprietary systems, with real-time applications written in assembly language. With the escalating cost of software development and the need for porting real-time applications to state-of-the-art hardware without massive conversion efforts, there is a need for real-time applications to be portable so that they can be moved to newer hardware platforms easily. Therefore, the next generation of real-time systems will be based on open systems incorporating industry standards, which will reduce system cost and time to market, increase availability of software packages, increase ease-of-use, and facilitate system integration. The open real-time system strategy, presented in this paper, is based on hardware architectures using off-the-shelf microprocessors, Motorola 680X0 and 88X00 families, and the REAL/IX operating system, a fully preemptive real-time UNIX operating system, developed by MODCOMP.

      Crabtree, Steven B.; Feather, Bobby J.; Loral Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Telemetry applications today are requiring more and more computing power. The computing industry is responding to this need with more powerful machines. With these new machines the UNIX operating system is rapidly being accepted as the system of choice for the popular lowend and midrange RISC and CISC computers. The system discussed addresses the long standing question, “Can a complete UNIX system perform in a high-data-rate real-time environment?”. This paper describes the Loral Data Systems development of a Real-Time Data Transcription System (RDTS) built for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and TRW. This system utilizes a powerful telemetry preprocessor, internally bus-coupled to a real time UNIX host computer. An industry-standard VME-to-VME coupling provides an efficient setup, control and computational gateway for preprocessed telemetry data. This architecture illustrates a UNIX operating system to support a pseudo-real-time telemetry application.
    • The Unix Operating System for Telemetry Applications

      Pfeiffer, Joseph J., Jr.; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      UNIX† is a very popular operating system, in use on a wide variety of hardware platforms, in a wide variety of environments, for a wide variety of problems. It has certain well-known deficiencies, however, for time-critical applications where guaranteed response time is required. This paper considers the use of Unix and related systems for telemetry applications. Of particular interest will be Unix as a possible operating system for NASA’s Data Handling Service.
    • Enhancing the Capabilities of Digital Bit Synchronizers

      Windingland, Kim; Loral Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Bit synchronizers have traditionally provided very little feedback to the user. This paper describes features that give the user a window into the quality of the signal and verification that the bit synchronizer is performing properly. In addition, this paper describes a feature that automates some of the bit synchronizer’s functions to maximize its performance. The features described are: (1) a Built-in Oscilloscope (BIO) to provide the user with a visual representation of the input signal; (2) a Link Quality Analyzer (LQA) to provide the user with a quantitative measure of the input signal’s quality (signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurement); (3) a Built-in Test (BIT) to provide confidence in the unit’s functional and bit error performance; and (4) an Automatic Adaptive Control (AAC) to maximize acquisition and bit error rate performance.

      Daqing, Huang; Qiu-Cheng, Xie; Nanjing Aeronautical Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      In this Paper, the time-assisting code techique capable of defeating the repeat jamming is presented. The construction and antijamming performance of this technique are described and analyzed. This technique not only is robust to repeat jamming of Remote Control/Telemetring and Communication Systems, but also is used in multi-address remote control/ telemetring, multi-address communication and radar systems.

      PENHARLOW, DAVID; AYDIN VECTOR DIVISION (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The new generation of advanced tactical aircraft and missiles places unique demands on the electronic and mechanical designs for flight test instrumentation, high bit rates, operating temperature range and system interconnect wiring requirements. This paper describes a microminiature PCM distributed data acquisition system with integral signal conditioning (MMSC) which has been used in advanced aircraft and missile flight testing. The MMSC system is constructed from microminiature, stackable modules which allow the user to reconfigure the system as the requirements change. A second system is also described which uses the same circuitry in hermetic hybrid packages on plug-in circuit boards.
    • A State-of-the-Art Data Acquisition System

      Talmadge, Richard D.; Radmand, Mansour; Wright Research & Development Center; Aydin Vector Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Recent developments in manufacturing technology have afforded a new capability in miniaturized instrumentation systems. The advent of ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) technology has provided the tools to implement very sophisticated signal conditioning circuits in micro-miniature instrumentation. This paper discusses the development of the Automatic Gain Ranging Amplifier (AGRA) and its implementation in the Aydin Vector MMSC-800 instrumentation package. Also discussed is the miniaturization of a 1553 Bus monitor, IRIG-B Time Code reader/accumulator and the development of a helical scan miniature tape recording system capable of recording 2+ hours of 3.4 Mbps data. The paper concludes by giving applications for and benefits of using this new state-of-the-art instrumentation.

      Yovanof, Gregory S.; Kodak Berkeley Research (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The ever-increasing demands of the modern telemetry system for the transmission of high resolution digital video data at primary and sub-primary bit rates necessitate the employment of efficient motion-compensated video coding algorithms. This paper reviews the current status of motion compensation techniques. The two major classes of motion estimation methods currently being used for predictive coding of time varying images: block matching and pel-recursive algorithms are treated in thorough detail. Examples of practical video coding systems using motion compensated compression are exhibited. Recent advances in the VLSI technology have made it possible to fit the entire circuitry required for a motion compensation algorithm onto a single chip.