• International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 22 (1986)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 1986-10
    • A SURVEY AND COMPARISON OF MULTIPLICATION TECHNIQUES FOR ANALOG VLSI

      Dalloul, Nizar M.; Baghdady, Elie J.; Boston University, College of Engineering Boston (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1986-10)
      This paper addresses the problem of analog multiplication for analog VLSI implementation, with particular emphasis on multiplication accuracy (low intrinsic noise) and speed. High-speed low noise analog multiplication for analog VLSI has very important implications in analog signal processing, signal generation, signal detection and ultra precise frequency and phase control. The various candidate multiplier mechanisms and circuits proposed todate are surveyed and a comprehensive comparison of them developed, leading to the conclusion that the Steerable Localized Injection Multiplier (SLIM) holds the greatest promise for low noise and high speed analog VLSI multiplication.
    • Review of Spectrum Support Information for U.S. Air Force Telemetry Equipment Development and Procurement

      BARNES, LARRY; U. S. Air Force Frequency Management Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1986-10)
      This paper presents a review of spectrum support information as it pertains to the development and procurement of U. S. Air Force Telemetry Equipment. Highlights of this review include: Definitions of terms used in this paper that are peculiar to spectrum management; frequency bands encouraged by the U. S. Air Force for Telemetry Equipment Development and Procurement for use in the United States including station, channeling, and bandwidth information; frequency bands discouraged by the U. S. Air Force for Telemetry Equipment Development and Procurement for use in the United States; summary of Telemetry Equipment Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Parameters required when requesting certification of spectrum support in the United States; and finally a summary of telemetry equipment EMC standards associated with the certification of spectrum support in the United States.
    • A UNIVERSAL RANGE TIMING SYSTEM USING NAVSTAR GPS

      McConnell, John B.; Hoefener, Carl E.; Western Space and Missile Center; Interstate Electronics Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1986-10)
      The NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) allows extremely accurate global determination of time as well as position and velocity. Currently, the DoD test and training ranges of the United States are working towards using GPS to obtain position and velocity information and recently attention has been given to using GPS for precise range timing. This paper provides background information, discusses the advantages of using GPS for range timing, and describes two timing system configurations using Tri-Service GPS range equipment.
    • ARTS UPDATE

      Skinner, Patrick J.; Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1986-10)
      Modernizing labor intensive Remote Tracking Stations (RTS), increasing individual station capacity, and providing interoperable links between three separate Air Force satellite networks are the objectives of the Automated RTS (ARTS) program now half way to completion.
    • TELEMETRY MEASUREMENT ATTRIBUTES PROCESSING AT THE WESTERN TEST RANGE

      Lingerfelt, C. W.; ITT-Federal Electric Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1986-10)
      The processing of telemetry data received at the Western Test Range (WTR) requires the use of user supplied measurement attributes information. The telemetry streams currently being presented for support are from technologically advanced test vehicles which often involve complex measurement definition schemes. This document describes some of the current definition schemes and the processing required to obtain and utilize the data. The chaotic state of this environment is in no small part due to the lack of standardization of the measurement definition scheme and its media. The trend has been, and will continue to be, a condition of ever increasing complexity and variety unless some standardization is applied.
    • Data Synthesis in PCM Telemetry System

      Futang, Zhang; Xinan Electronic Engineering Institute, China (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1986-10)
      In the field of re-entry telemetry, data synthesis is an important research task for multibeam and multi-reseiver system. This paper presents a microcmputer-based method to synthesize PCM data in real-time. The performances of various criteria used in data synthesis systems are also analyzed here.
    • DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR AIRCRAFT QUALIFICATION

      Eccles, Lee; O’Brien, Michael; Anderson, William; Boeing Commercial Airplane Company; Fairchild Weston Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1986-10)
      The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company presently uses an Airborne Data Analysis and Monitor System (ADAMS) to support extensive qualification testing on new and modified commercial aircraft. The ADAMS system consists of subsystems controlled by independent processors which preprocess serial PCM data, perform application-specific processing, provide graphic display of data, and manage mass storage resources. Setup and control information is passed between processors using the Ethernet protocol on a fiber optic network. Tagged data is passed between processors using a data bus with networking characteristics. During qualification tests, data are dynamically selected, analyses performed, and results recorded. Decisions to proceed or repeat tests are made in real time on the aircraft. Instrumentation in present aircraft includes up to 3700 sensors, with projections for 5750 sensors in the next generation. Concurrently, data throughput rates are increasing, and data preprocessing requirements are becoming more complex. Fairchild Weston Systems, Inc., under contract to Boeing, has developed an Acquisition Interface Assembly (AIA) which accepts multiple streams of PCM data, controls recording and playback on analog tape, performs high speed data preprocessing, and distributes the data to the other ADAMS subsystems. The AIA processes one to three streams in any of the standard IRIG PCM formats using programmable bit, frame and subframe synchronizers. Data from ARINC buses with embedded measurement labels, bus ID’s, and time tags may also be processed by the AIA. Preprocessing is accomplished by two high-performance Distributed Processing Units (DPU) operating in either pipeline or parallel environments. The DPU’s perform concatenation functions, number system conversions, engineering unit conversions, and data tagging for distribution to the ADAMS system. Time information, from either a time code generator or tape playback, may be merged with data with a 0.1 msec resolution. Control and status functions are coordinated by an embedded processor, and are accessible to other ADAMS processors via both the Ethernet interface and a local operator’s terminal. Because the AIA assembly is used in aircraft, the entire functional capability has been packaged in a 14-inch high, rack-mountable chassis with EMI shielding. The unit has been designed for high temperature, high altitude, vibrating environments. The AIA will be a key element in aircraft qualification testing at Boeing well into the next generation of airframes, and specification, design, development, and implementation of the AIA has been carried out with the significance of that fact in mind.
    • DOUBLE DENSITY ANALOG MAGNETIC RECORDING

      Law, Eugene L.; Pacific Missile Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1986-10)
      This paper discusses measured performance of double density recording. Tests were conducted using different recorders, playback machines, and magnetic tapes. The main topics discussed are slot signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and high density digital bit error rate (BER).
    • REVIEW OF LASER AND RF SYSTEMS FOR SPACE PROXIMITY OPERATIONS

      Krishen, Kumar; Erwin, Harry O.; Johnson Space Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1986-10)
      This paper presents a review of the ranging and tracking systems/techniques used in the past NASA programs. A review of the anticipated requirements for future rendezvous and docking operations is also presented as rationale for further development of the technology in this area. The first American rendezvous in space was between Gemini VI-A and Gemini VII and took place on December 15, 1965. The Gemini vehicles were equipped with a noncoherent pulse radar. The target vehicle carried a transponder to assist the radar in target acquisition. Angle tracking was accomplished by the phase-comparison monopulse technique. In the Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab programs, the rendezvous and/or docking were manual operations supported by radar measurements and visual observations. The Shuttle rendezvous radar is a Ku-band, pulse-Doppler radar which doubles as a communications transceiver. This radar is not accurate enough to support close-in stationkeeping or docking. An automatic soft-docking capability has been established as a requirement for future space operations. Millimeter wave and laser radar systems have shown promise in satisfying the needed accuracy requirements and size constraints (for space applications) compared to the microwave systems for proximity attitude, position and velocity measurements. A review of these systems and their capabilities is presented in this paper. Rather than developing a separate sensor to satisfy the requirements of each new spacecraft, a hybrid design is proposed for a versatile system which can satisfy the needs for different spacecrafts and missions.
    • THE CLEANING AND TESTING OF MAGNETIC TAPES

      Lee, Lester H.; Recortec, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1986-10)
      Description of various off-line magnetic tape cleaning techniques and testing process to measure defects of tape before using it for tape recording applications. Discussions are made on the type of cleaning methods and also the ways and means to achieve better evaluation results.
    • THE PACIFIC MISSILE TEST CENTER’S AIRBORNE TELEMETRY COLLECTION CAPABILITY

      Engel, Jim; Pacific Missile Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1986-10)
      Providing realtime telemetry collection to the Pacific Missile Test Center’s (PMTC) range users presents some unique problems. Operations are staged in an open sea environment with participants often at very low altitude and/or far from land based collection instrumentation. This paper will present an overview of the airborne telemetry collection instrumentation that has been developed at PMTC to overcome these problems and will discuss some of the operational problems encountered in its use.
    • COMPARISON OF GPS PSEUDORANGE AND BIASED DOPPLER RANGE MEASUREMENTS TO DEMONSTRATE SIGNAL MULTIPATH EFFECTS

      Evans, Alan G.; Naval Surface Weapons Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1986-10)
      The TI 4100 Geodetic Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver has been field tested in several environments. These include collocation rooftop tests near reflective equipment, isolated desert positioning tests, and shipboard survey tests. The receiver data consisted of pseudorange (code) and biased Doppler range (phase) measurements on both L1 and L2 frequency channels. This paper compares differences between ionospherically corrected pseudorange and biased Doppler range measurements to demonstrate the significant effects of signal multipath on the pseudorange measurements. That is, pseudorange signal multipath effects can be isolated, detected, and statistically modeled using only the above measurements. Examples are given for various receiver antenna locations. Day-to-day comparisons are made to demonstrate the repeated multipath effects due to repeated satellite-to-antenna geometries. The results can be used to analyze and statistically model pseudorange multipath effects for possible improved positioning and GPS satellite orbit determination accuracy.
    • HIGH SPEED DOUBLE DENSITY RECORDING

      Schoeck, Kenneth O.; Western Space and Missile Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1986-10)
      The Western Space and Missile Center has requirements to record high bit rate PCM telemetry data in both predetection and post-detection formats. Recording time is inadequate using standard wideband instrumentation magnetic tape recorder/reproducers. Using double density recording technology, recording time can be doubled, but results in some degradation in recorder performance. This paper discusses the effects of double density recording on recorder performance and on the quality of high bit rate telemetry data.
    • AIRBORNE TELEMETRY AND THE ADVANCED MEDIUM RANGE AIR-TO-AIR MISSILE

      Plecity, Mark S.; ARIA Programs Division, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1986-10)
      The Advanced Range Instrumentation Aircraft (ARIA) is an airborne platform to receive, record, process and retransmit telemetry data. This paper presents a summary of ARIA’s capabilities with emphasis on airborne testing of the Advanced Medium Range Air to Air Missile (AMRAAM) program. The unique test scenarios, as well as current and future telemetry requirements of the AMRAAM test program are discussed.
    • SELECTING THE OPTIMUM TELEMETRY TRACKING ANTENNA FOR RECEIVING TRANSLATED GPS SIGNALS

      Turner, William C.; Electro-Magnetic Processes, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1986-10)
      Performance data taken on three candidate telemetry tracking antennas which employ significantly different beam scanning principles are presented. Measurements of antenna feed-induced phase noise were made at S-Band and compared.
    • THE EFFECTS OF INCREASED SATELLITE POWER FLUX DENSITY ON NWC TELEMETRY OPERATIONS

      Rieger, James L.; Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, CA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1986-10)
      This paper presents an analysis of the proposed increase in satellite power flux density as it would affect present, currently proposed, and possible future telemetry operations at NWC and other ranges and multi-range operations. Also included are proposed methods for mitigation of interference if flux density is raised anyway.
    • UC-880 TELEMETRY RELAY AIRBORNE COMMAND SYSTEM

      Anderson, William D.; Naval Air Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1986-10)
      The Naval Air Test Center, Range Directorate, has developed a Telemetry Relay Airborne Command System (TRACS) utilizing a Convair UC-880 aircraft. In its present configuration, the UC-880 can receive, record, and display telemetry data in real time; reshape and retransmit the telemetry data; act as a command center for TOMAHAWK cruise missile operations; provide radar range surveillance; remotely control instruments, cameras, emitters, and electronic countermeasures equipment on target hulks; provide inflight refueling of aircraft; process and display on CRT’s the maps of the area of operations and the missile profiles and tracks on the maps; and provide over-the-horizon target displays using a satellite communication system. This paper will present the development of the UC-880 TRACTS and the results of operations that utilized this system. The system characteristics, design constraints, and future plans will be discussed.
    • PREDETECTION RECORDING TECHNIQUES FOR GPS SIGNALS

      Sargeant, H.; Interstate Electronics Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1986-10)
      Predetection recording of spread-spectrum (SS) signals such as GPS transmissions is a desirable objective for both users and developers of equipment designed to receive such signals. (GPS user-equipment development is a lengthy process during which signal simulators are only partially useful.) Upon playback, GPS signals are used by the same or modified receivers so that acquisition, processing, detection and tracking loops can be altered to optimize the receiver parameters. Development of predetect SS signal recording systems is difficult to achieve in practice. Such systems not only must be of suitable phase linearity to preserve the signal content to be extracted but sometimes must also preserve the exact signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) characteristics of the recorded signals. Existing conventional test equipment is unsuitable for deriving value judgments of the quality of a predetect recording system’s output because the SS signal has a negative SNR. This paper reveals that it is possible to use, for this purpose, tape recorders now available on many test ranges in combination with auxiliary equipment similar to that designed for the U.S. Navy’s TRIDENT Program (recording C/A-code data from in-flight missile translators). The basic techniques are described in some detail to enable potential users to understand the necessary equipment concepts and evaluate the author’s approach in terms of their own applications.
    • CONFORMAL MICROSTRIP ANTENNAS

      Munson, Robert E.; Ball Aerospace Systems Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1986-10)
      Microstrip antennas are ideal for telemetry applications, especially when a low profile thin conformal antenna is desirable. This paper discusses omni wraparound, directional fixed beam, and conformal electrically scanned microstrip antennas.