ABOUT THE COLLECTION

The International Telemetering Conference/USA (ITC/USA) is dedicated to the promotion and stimulation of technical growth in telemetering and its allied arts and sciences. It is the premier annual forum and technical exhibition providing telemetry specific short courses, technical papers from professionals and students, and exhibits of the industry’s leading companies. ITC/USA is sponsored by the International Foundation for Telemetering (IFT), a non-profit corporation dedicated to serving the technical and professional interests of the telemetering community.

This collection contains the proceedings of the thirty-first International Telemetering Conference, October 30-November 02, 1995. The conference, sponsored by the International Foundation for Telemetering, was held at the Riviera Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada.

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Recent Submissions

  • Survey of Internet Telemetry Applications

    Schooley, Larry C.; Caudle, Scott E.; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
    The Internet, as the online worldwide connection of computers has come to be known, has now grown to the point of emergence as a major tool in many applications. It will soon become, if it has not already become, an indispensable source of information and interaction for scientists and business people alike. The use of the Internet's various protocol's, including mail, newsreader, and file transfer, produces a global interconnectedness that is impossible to achieve in any other fashion. It is also important to realize that the Internet is currently doubling in size every year and will continue to grow at an extremely accelerated rate for at least the next five years. It is therefore important to be aware of the various applications made possible by use of the Internet, and of the potential for telemetry related uses.
  • Integrated Satellite Control Center

    Nötzel, Klaus R.; Deutsche Telekom AG, Forschungs-und Technologiezentrum (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
    Deutsche Telekom has been operating different flight models for several years. A Satellite Control Center (SCC) was designed and installed to support the operation of the satellite systems DFS Kopernikus and TV-Sat. The DFS Kopernikus system is composed of three flight models and the satellite system TV-Sat has one flight model. The aim was to design an SCC and ground stations in a way, enabling the operation of satellites and groundstations by only two operators at the main control room. The operators are well trained but not scientifically educated. The high integrated SCC supports the operators with a state of the art man-machine-interface. Software executes all necessary tasks for spacecraft- and ground station control. Interaction in front of communication equipment is not necessary. The operation of satellites is a business with a high risk potential. This paper presents the design of a Satellite Control Center with high system availability.
  • Pulse Code Modulated Flight Termination Receiver

    Dicken, L. W.; Jenkins, K.; GEC-Marconi Defence Systems; MOD (PE) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
    Flight Termination is a control action that takes place when missiles or targets violate estabished safety criteria. The flight termination receiver, part of a ground to air control loop, is characterised by high system integrity and dedication to recovering and decoding the command signals. The paper describes the factors that have influenced the design and build of a robust Pulse Code Modulation Flight Termination Receiver for use on UK Trial Ranges. This work has been carried out with the support of UK MoD(PE), A ARM 51, on contract number A ARM 13b/224.
  • The Omni-Directional Differential Sun Sensor

    Swartwout, Michael; Olsen, Tanya; Kitts, Christopher; Stanford University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
    The Stanford University Satellite Systems Development Laboratory will flight test a telemetry reengineering experiment on its student-built SAPPHIRE spacecraft. This experiment utilizes solar panel current information and knowledge of panel geometry in order to create a virtual sun sensor that can roughly determine the satellite's sun angle. The Omni-Directional Differential Sun Sensor (ODDSS) algorithm normalizes solar panel currents and differences them to create a quasi-linear signal over a particular sensing region. The specific configuration of the SAPPHIRE spacecraft permits the construction of 24 such regions. The algorithm will account for variations in panel outputs due to battery charging, seasonal fluctuations, solar cell degradation, and albedo affects. Operationally, ODDSS telemetry data will be verified through ground processing and comparison with data derived from SAPPHIRE's infrared sensors and digital camera. The expected sensing accuracy is seven degrees. This paper reviews current progress in the design and integration of the ODDSS algorithm through a discussion of the algorithm's strategy and a presentation of results from hardware testing and software simulation.
  • Incorporation of Micro-Machined Sensor Technology for Increased Accuracy at Reduced Cost

    Cook, F. Paul; Aydin Vector Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
    Benefiting from the Automotive world, Micro-Machined Sensor Technology moves into the Military arena with greater accuracy at a reduced price tag. Advances in Micro-Machining have produced silicone cantilever beam Sensors which meet or exceed some Military environmental specifications while providing a higher overall accuracy, compared to traditional cantilever beam designs. There are several companies such as Motorola, Analog Devices, Sensym, Silicone Designs, and NovaSensor to name a few who have established product lines in Accelerometers and Pressure Transducers. This paper describes an experience utilizing micro-technology Accelerometers which were designed to replace older technology sensors.
  • A Vehicle Tracking System Based on GPS

    Yongqian, Wang; Xianliang, Li; Qishan, Zhang (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
    Vehicle tracking system based on GPS has been paid more and more attention. The system consists of GIS (Geological Information System), master station, movable station and communication network. Movable stations installed on automobiles transmit their position and status messages to the master station. All vehicles' tracks are drawn on the electrical map displayed by the master station's computer screen in real time. Vehicles' alarming signals can also be transmitted to the master station simultaneously. This paper presents a whole designing scheme of the vehicle tracking system, then it makes a thorough introduction to the system's performance and working procedure. The key technologies employed by the system and the relations between them are also discussed in details in the paper.
  • The Application of GPS Technology to the Future Spacelift Range System (SLRS)

    Spellman, Marc; Harris Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
    The Spacelift Range infrastructure of the United States Air Force will, over the next decade, experience a major modernization and upgrade. The goal of the Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) Program is to meet the requirements of range users and range safety in a more cost effective manner than is currently possible. One approach that will be considered in best achieving these goals is the further application of GPS technology to both the Eastern and Western Spacelift Ranges. Such an application can have a profound impact on the instrumentation segment of each range. Included within the instrumentation segment and clearly impacted, are both the metric tracking and telemetry subsystems. This paper considers the SLRS requirements that can be supported with GPS technology; the advantages and shortcomings of both GPS technology and alternative techniques; and provides suggestions as to an appropriate application of GPS technology to the SLRS.
  • Transmed, a Scientific Mission Based on Stratospheric Balloons Using S-Band Telemetry Telecommand

    Spoto, D.; Cosentino, O.; Fiorica, F.; Agenzia Spaziale Italiana; Alenia Marconi Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
    After briefly presenting the TRANSMED mission, the configuration of the Telemetry and Telecommand links is illustrated and the their dimensioning is analyzed. Both links operate at S-band with satellite grade standards. The system composition, the main equipment and the system growth potential are thereafter presented.
  • High Data Rate X-Band Communications Subsystem

    Dapore, Mark; Cincinnati Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
    A Communication Subsystem has been developed capable of 25 Megasymbol per Second (MSPS) data rates. The unit operates in the 8300 to 8400 MHz band and uses shaped QPSK for excellent spectral containment properties. The Communication Subsystem (CSS) has a number of features which make it attractive for many applications: (1) Data is convolutionally encoded inside the transmitter resulting in excellent link performance without using external hardware. (2) Data is encrypted inside the transmitter. The DES standard is currently implemented, however, military encryption is an option which requires minimal changes in the CSS design. (3) Frame Synchronization Sequences and Block Identification Numbers are inserted into the data by the CSS. (4) Cyclic Redundancy Checked Codes for each data block are generated within the CSS. (5) Health and Status of the CSS is formatted into digital words. (6) Mode Control, Key Maintenance, and Health and Status Reporting is easily handled through an RS-422 interface. (7) The CSS is ruggedized for launch environments and is highly reliable for space applications.
  • Strapdown Inertial Navigation Theory Application in Attitude Measurement

    Zhi, Dang Ke; Xian Institute of Electromechanical Information Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
    With the development of microcomputer technology, the application of strap-down inertial navigation on aircraft is used more frequently. The attitude measurement for miniature spacecraft is most important. Installing three-axis acceleration sensors and three-axis rate gyros on the spacecraft, the accelerations and attitudes can be obtained through the PCM/FM telemetry system. Then, the initial attitude of spacecraft is given through outside measurement and telemetry. Finally, in the ground station, the parameters of spacecraft attitude are given by using strapdown inertial navigation theory and quanternion differential equation for solving the attitude.
  • BYU SAR: A Low Cost Compact Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Long, David G.; Jarrett, Bryan; Arnold, David V.; Cano, Jorge (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems are typically very complex and expensive. They generate enormous quantities of data, requiring very high capacity data storage, transmission, and processing systems. We have developed an experimental SAR system with a very simple design which includes near-real-time onboard processing. This system is based on recent developments in low-cost, high-rate analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) data conversion systems. Most of the system is based on off-the-shelf components. A very simple RF subsystem is used. The system has been successfully operated from a moving surface vehicle and exhibits a range resolution of 2.5 m though this could be improved to 1.5 m at the expense of higher sidelobes. The four look azimuth resolution is 0.4 m. This paper describes the system as well as our plans for upgrading the system for aircraft operation and improved resolution.
  • Application of GPS to Hybrid Integrated Ranges and Simulations

    Van Wechel, R. J.; Jarrell, R. P.; Interstate Electronics Corp. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
    GPS user equipment has matured and is now available to support the use of live players in integrated ranges and simulations. P-code GPS provides true WGS-84 based coordinate information anywhere in the world at any time and to accuracies at the 5 ft (1s) level (demonstrated in high dynamic aircraft using differential P-code GPS). C/A code GPS shows lower accuracy and is especially vulnerable to multipath degradation over water. In supporting networked ranges with simulations, GPS is directly applicable to the dead reckoning requirements of the Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) community. DIS dead reckoning provides the capability of much reduced data rates in recovering TSPI information from platforms. The on-board state vector for an integrated GPS/Inertial Reference Unit provides accurate position, velocity and acceleration as well as attitude and attitude rate information so that dead reckoning thresholds can be both position and attitude driven. A simplified analysis is presented in the paper to derive dead reckoning update rates from the G loading levels of various player dynamics. Also, information is provided which results in word length requirements for GPS-based state vector information for transmission over minimum word length DIS Field Instrumentation Protocol Data Units (PDUs, which are the data block formats). The coordinate frame problem in use of GPS-based state vector information from fixed ranges is also addressed, showing that the use of a local geodetic frame is preferable to the use of an earth centered earth fixed frame, in that it is more efficient of network PDU word length.
  • Talking GPS Locating System

    Buchwitz, Guy R. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
    The Talking GPS Locating System (TGLS) was developed to facilitate recovery of airborne targets by vocalizing and transmitting their Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates to surface recovery teams following target splashdown. The airborne portion of the TGLS includes an off-the-shelf five-channel GPS receiver board, a GPS antenna, a microcontroller board with voice sample/playback circuitry, and a transmitter with antenna. Also part of the TGLS is a Record/Test Unit (RTU) which is used for pre-launch voice recording and ground tests. Upon splashdown, the TGLS is energized, the GPS receiver is initialized, and an optional homing tone burst -- periodically interrupted by a voice message relaying target and GPS receiver status -- is transmitted. Once the receiver has output valid longitude and latitude information to the microcontroller, this position is vocalized as the GPS status portion of the broadcast message. Just one intelligible reception of this message by any inexpensive, properly-tuned voice receiver will allow recovery teams to vector to within 25 to 100 meters of the target regardless of weather conditions or the time of day.
  • Lessons Learned from Operating C/A-Code COTS GPS Receivers on Low-Earth Orbiting Satellites for Navigation

    Wiest, Terry; Nowitzky, Thomas E.; Grippando, Steven A.; Space & Missile Systems Center; Loral Space & Range Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
    Since June of 1993, an experimental GPS receiver system has been orbiting the earth aboard a small, low-altitude, polar-orbiting satellite called RADCAL. The purpose of the experiment was to prove the concept of using GPS for satellite navigation. If successful, the system would also provide a backup to the satellite's primary navigation beacon. The goal: provide position and velocity data to an accuracy of three to five meters, and provide attitude data to within a degree. The configuration of the RADCAL GPS experiment precluded realtime feedback loops for navigation; the data was stored and downloaded after a designated collection period. On the ground, a lengthy process was used to yield the position and attitude data days after the collection event. The GPS receivers and ground equipment were configured in several modes; they ultimately yielded a position accuracy of five meters, and attitude of two degrees. This was the original goal, and the experiment was considered successful. However, one of the receivers failed in November 1993, and the other failed in January 1995. The GPS receivers were commercially available and not spaceflight proven; they were suspected of being vulnerable to single-event upsets and latchups. This turned out to be the cause of the failure of both receivers. The interface between the GPS receivers and RADCAL's other subsystems proved to be the area which could not tolerate corrupt data. The single-event latchups problems would ultimately lead to the failure of the receivers. These difficulties, as well as other lesser obstacles, provide a host of lessons learned for future satellite navigation systems.
  • A GPS-Based Autonomous Onboard Destruct System

    Alves, Daniel F., Jr.; Keith, Edward L.; Alpha Instrumentation and Information Management; Microcosm Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
    This paper examines the issues involved in replacing the current Range safety infrastructure with an autonomous range safety system based on GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) integrated navigation system solutions. Range safety is required in the first place because current launch vehicle navigation systems cannot meet a level of trust needed to determine if the mission is really under control and on course. Existing launch vehicle navigation is generally based on attitude and acceleration sensing instrumentation that are subject to drift, initialization errors and failures. Thus, a launch vehicle can easily be under the control of a seemingly operating navigation system, yet be steering the launch vehicle along an incorrect and dangerous flight path. Inertial-based navigation systems are good, but they cannot be trusted. The function of Range safety is to assure that untrustworthy navigation is backed up with a trusted system that has positive knowledge of the launch vehicle location, and the intelligence to decide when and where a launch vehicle must be destroyed. Combining inertial navigation, GPS derived position information and knowledge-based computer control has the potential to provide trusted and autonomous Range safety functions. The issues of autonomous Range safety are addressed in this paper.
  • A PC-Based Data Acquisition and Compact Disc Recording System

    Bretthauer, Joy W.; Davis, Rodney A.; NASA/GSFC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
    The Telemetry Data Distribution System (TDDS) solves the need to record, archive, and distribute sounding rocket and satellite data on a compact, user-friendly medium, such as CD-Recordable discs. The TDDS also archives telemetry data on floppy disks, nine-track tapes, and magneto-optical disc cartridges. The PC-based, semi-automated, TDDS digitizes, time stamps, formats, and archives frequency modulated (FM) or pulse code modulated (PCM) telemetry data. An analog tape or a real-time signal may provide the telemetry data source. The TDDS accepts IRIG A, B, G, H, and NASA 36 analog code sources for time stamp data. The output time tag includes time, frame, and subframe status information. Telemetry data may be time stamped based upon a user-specified number of frames, subframes, or words. Once recorded, the TDDS performs data quality testing, formatting, and validation and logs the results automatically. Telemetry data is quality checked to ensure a good analog source track was selected. Raw telemetry data is formatted by dividing the data into records and appending header information. The formatted telemetry data is validated by checking consecutive time tags and subframe identification counter values (if applicable) to identify data drop-outs. After validation, the TDDS archives the formatted data to any of the following media types: CD-Recordable (CD-R) Disc (650 megabytes capacity); nine track tape (180 megabytes capacity); and erasable optical disc (499 megabytes capacity). Additionally, previously archived science data may be re-formatted and archived to a different output media.
  • PC Plug-In Telemetry Decommutator Using FPGAS

    Vishwanathan, A. N.; Biju, S.; Narayana, T. V.; Anguswamy, P.; Singh, U. S.; Indian Space Research Organisation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
    This paper describes the design of a PC plug-in card that incorporates all functions of the base band segment of a PCM decommutator which includes the bit synchroniser (BS), frame synchroniser (FS) and subframe synchroniser (SFS). FPGAs are used for the realization of the digital sections of the circuit. The card is capable of handling all standard IRIG codes. The bit synchroniser can handle data rates upto 1Mbps (NRZL), while the frame and subframe synchronisers have been designed to work upto 10 Mbps.
  • A Multi-Pulse PPK Telemetry System Based on PC

    Jian, Zhang; Ming-Sheng, Huang; Xinan Electronic Engineering Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
    A new kind of telemetry ground data system--Multi-Pulse PPK (Pulse Position Keying) Telemetry System Based on PC(MPPK-PCTS) is presented in this paper. Being Aimed at the lower bit rate which is the essential shortcoming of Single-Pulse PPK(SPPK), Multi-Pulse PPK(MPPK) signal is introduced to this system. Its signal forms, bit rate, energy efficiency and error probability have been analysed in detail. The symmetric Bi-Pulse PPK(BPPK) signal with fixed reference pulse can be practised in engineering. In this system, front-ends are intelligent and modular, all modules are integrated in a personal computer chassis through EISA/PCI bus. The system operates under multi-media WINDOWS environment, with intelligent user interface. Faults can be detected and located automatically. With flexible performance, good expandibility and small size, the system can be used in reentry telemetry and many other fields where higher rate and lower power are both required.
  • High-Speed Photography Using Television Techniques

    Glen, Gregory D.; Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
    There are many applications for High-speed photography, and most rely on film as the primary medium of data acquisition. One such application of interest to the military services is the study of stores separation from aircraft. This type of testing has traditionally used high-speed film to gather data, however, there are many disadvantages to using film, such as the high cost of raw film, as well as the high processing expense after it has been exposed. In addition, there is no way to review data from film until it has been processed, nor is there any way to preview in real-time other conditions such as lighting which may affect the outcome of a test event. This paper discusses the characteristics of television systems with respect to motion picture systems, the challenges of recording and transmitting pictures, as well as the nature of what the first and eventual desired systems might be.
  • Integrated CCSDS, SGLS and STDN Telemetry, Tracking and Command Processing System

    Nichols, Alex; Goodstein, F. Robert; VanCouvering, Ken; TRW Components International; TRW Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
    This paper describes the use of an open architecture, low-cost, turnkey Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TT&C) processor system. The workstation based system was developed to satisfy the requirement for ground station equipment to handle and process multiple vehicle platforms for telemetry, command and tracking (tone or PRN), including STDN, SGLS and CCSDS link formats. The open architecture of the system allows for easy interface with external equipment for control of antenna systems, encryption units and other related station equipment. Reconfiguration for the various data formats and for system verification is done through a graphical user interfaces using operationally proven commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software and hardware. The open architecture of the system will allow for modifications and upgrades to be cost effective.

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