• International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 31 (1995)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11

      Richard, Gaetan C.; Gonzales, Daniel G.; Malibu Research, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      This paper presents a new variable beamwidth antenna designed for use in telemetry tracking systems when a high gain/low gain antenna configuration is required. This antenna can be commanded to continuously vary its beamwidth between a high gain/narrow beamwidth mode of operation and a low gain/ wide beamwidth mode of operation. A design goal of a 4:1 increase in beamwidth has been set and a 3.0:1 increase has been achieved without causing any significant degradation in the shape of the antenna patterns and without generating exceedingly high sidelobes in the low gain setting. The beamwidth variation occurs continuously without any loss of data, boresight shift or jitter such as experienced with the operation of conventional implementations of the high gain/low gain antenna technique.
    • A PC-Based Data Acquisition and Compact Disc Recording System

      Bretthauer, Joy W.; Davis, Rodney A.; NASA/GSFC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      The Telemetry Data Distribution System (TDDS) solves the need to record, archive, and distribute sounding rocket and satellite data on a compact, user-friendly medium, such as CD-Recordable discs. The TDDS also archives telemetry data on floppy disks, nine-track tapes, and magneto-optical disc cartridges. The PC-based, semi-automated, TDDS digitizes, time stamps, formats, and archives frequency modulated (FM) or pulse code modulated (PCM) telemetry data. An analog tape or a real-time signal may provide the telemetry data source. The TDDS accepts IRIG A, B, G, H, and NASA 36 analog code sources for time stamp data. The output time tag includes time, frame, and subframe status information. Telemetry data may be time stamped based upon a user-specified number of frames, subframes, or words. Once recorded, the TDDS performs data quality testing, formatting, and validation and logs the results automatically. Telemetry data is quality checked to ensure a good analog source track was selected. Raw telemetry data is formatted by dividing the data into records and appending header information. The formatted telemetry data is validated by checking consecutive time tags and subframe identification counter values (if applicable) to identify data drop-outs. After validation, the TDDS archives the formatted data to any of the following media types: CD-Recordable (CD-R) Disc (650 megabytes capacity); nine track tape (180 megabytes capacity); and erasable optical disc (499 megabytes capacity). Additionally, previously archived science data may be re-formatted and archived to a different output media.
    • BYU SAR: A Low Cost Compact Synthetic Aperture Radar

      Long, David G.; Jarrett, Bryan; Arnold, David V.; Cano, Jorge (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems are typically very complex and expensive. They generate enormous quantities of data, requiring very high capacity data storage, transmission, and processing systems. We have developed an experimental SAR system with a very simple design which includes near-real-time onboard processing. This system is based on recent developments in low-cost, high-rate analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) data conversion systems. Most of the system is based on off-the-shelf components. A very simple RF subsystem is used. The system has been successfully operated from a moving surface vehicle and exhibits a range resolution of 2.5 m though this could be improved to 1.5 m at the expense of higher sidelobes. The four look azimuth resolution is 0.4 m. This paper describes the system as well as our plans for upgrading the system for aircraft operation and improved resolution.
    • Digitally Recorded Data Reduction on a PC Using CAPS

      Rarick, Michael J.; Lawrence, Ben-z (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      The Common Airborne Processing System (CAPS) provides a general purpose data reduction capability for digitally recorded telemetry data on a cost-efficient platform. Telemetry data can be imported from a variety of formats into the CAPS standard file format. Parameter dictionaries describing raw data structures and output product descriptions describing the desired outputs can be created and edited from within CAPS. All of this functionality is performed on an IBM compatible personal computer within the framework of the graphical user interface provided by Microsoft Windows.
    • Airborne and Ground Data Processing Systems for the RAH-66 Comanche

      Cox, John R.; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      The RAH-66 Comanche flight test program requires a state of the art air vehicle and avionics data system consisting of: 1) An airborne, all digital multiplexing and recording system capable of combining digital streams at very high data rates; 2) The ability to record high speed avionics busses from the MEP (Mission Equipment Package) such as MIL-STD-1553B, HSDB (High Speed Data Bus,) PI (Processor Interconnect) Bus, DFN (Data Flow Network,) and TM (Test and Measurement Bus;) 3) A miniaturized, programmable, modular/distributed high speed PCM measurement system for 550 air vehicle measurements recorded on the Comanche Flight Test Aircraft and Propulsion System Test Bed; 4) an airborne digital multiplexing and recording system for recording a composite stream on an Ampex DCRsi tape recorder; 5) A high capacity ground data processing system using parallel processing computers for real time data compression; and 6) distributed analysis system using workstations for data processing with centralized disk storage.
    • Pulse Code Modulated Flight Termination Receiver

      Dicken, L. W.; Jenkins, K.; GEC-Marconi Defence Systems; MOD (PE) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      Flight Termination is a control action that takes place when missiles or targets violate estabished safety criteria. The flight termination receiver, part of a ground to air control loop, is characterised by high system integrity and dedication to recovering and decoding the command signals. The paper describes the factors that have influenced the design and build of a robust Pulse Code Modulation Flight Termination Receiver for use on UK Trial Ranges. This work has been carried out with the support of UK MoD(PE), A ARM 51, on contract number A ARM 13b/224.
    • Integrated Satellite Control Center

      Nötzel, Klaus R.; Deutsche Telekom AG, Forschungs-und Technologiezentrum (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      Deutsche Telekom has been operating different flight models for several years. A Satellite Control Center (SCC) was designed and installed to support the operation of the satellite systems DFS Kopernikus and TV-Sat. The DFS Kopernikus system is composed of three flight models and the satellite system TV-Sat has one flight model. The aim was to design an SCC and ground stations in a way, enabling the operation of satellites and groundstations by only two operators at the main control room. The operators are well trained but not scientifically educated. The high integrated SCC supports the operators with a state of the art man-machine-interface. Software executes all necessary tasks for spacecraft- and ground station control. Interaction in front of communication equipment is not necessary. The operation of satellites is a business with a high risk potential. This paper presents the design of a Satellite Control Center with high system availability.
    • High Data Rate X-Band Communications Subsystem

      Dapore, Mark; Cincinnati Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      A Communication Subsystem has been developed capable of 25 Megasymbol per Second (MSPS) data rates. The unit operates in the 8300 to 8400 MHz band and uses shaped QPSK for excellent spectral containment properties. The Communication Subsystem (CSS) has a number of features which make it attractive for many applications: (1) Data is convolutionally encoded inside the transmitter resulting in excellent link performance without using external hardware. (2) Data is encrypted inside the transmitter. The DES standard is currently implemented, however, military encryption is an option which requires minimal changes in the CSS design. (3) Frame Synchronization Sequences and Block Identification Numbers are inserted into the data by the CSS. (4) Cyclic Redundancy Checked Codes for each data block are generated within the CSS. (5) Health and Status of the CSS is formatted into digital words. (6) Mode Control, Key Maintenance, and Health and Status Reporting is easily handled through an RS-422 interface. (7) The CSS is ruggedized for launch environments and is highly reliable for space applications.
    • A CCSDS Compatible High-Rate Telemetry Formatter for Space Application

      Barringer, Bruce O.; Orbital Science Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      OSC is presently developing a high-rate telemetry collection and formatting component for NASA's EOS-AM1 spacecraft. This device, called the Science Formatting Equipment, is capable of collecting data at aggregate rates exceeding 130 Mbps. The collected data is formatted into CCSDS compatible data structures, error coded, and then routed either to a downlink output or to a recording device at data rates up to 150 Mbps. This paper serves as a brief introduction to this component.
    • PC Plug-In Telemetry Decommutator Using FPGAS

      Vishwanathan, A. N.; Biju, S.; Narayana, T. V.; Anguswamy, P.; Singh, U. S.; Indian Space Research Organisation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      This paper describes the design of a PC plug-in card that incorporates all functions of the base band segment of a PCM decommutator which includes the bit synchroniser (BS), frame synchroniser (FS) and subframe synchroniser (SFS). FPGAs are used for the realization of the digital sections of the circuit. The card is capable of handling all standard IRIG codes. The bit synchroniser can handle data rates upto 1Mbps (NRZL), while the frame and subframe synchronisers have been designed to work upto 10 Mbps.
    • Object-Oriented Design of a Windows™ Based Automated Telemetry System

      Self, Lance P. L.; NAWC-Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      This paper illustrates a Windows computer application program which uses the object-oriented paradigm as a basis. The objective of the application program is to control the setup of equipment involved in routing a telemetry signal. This design uses abstract classes as high level building blocks from which site specific classes are derived. It is the next generation to the software portion of a system described by Eugene L. Law. The object-oriented design method, as presented by Grady Booch in his book Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications, is the design tool.
    • Real-Time Telemetry Data Interface to Graphics Workstation

      Sidorovich, Amy; NAWCAD (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      The demand for additional computing power and more sophisticated graphics displays to strengthen real-time flight testing prompted the Real-time Systems Team to turn to graphics workstations. In order to drive graphics displays with real-time data, the questions became, "What interface to use?" and "How to integrate workstations into our existing telemetry processing system?". This paper discusses the interface and integration of graphics workstations to the Real-time Telemetry Processing System III (RTPS III).
    • Embedded Parallel Processing for Ground System Process Control

      Troendly, Gregory M.; Chen, Sheng S.; Nickum, William G.; Forman, Michael L. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      Embedded parallel processing provides unique advantages over sequential and symmetrical processing architectures. During the past decade, the architecture of ground control systems has evolved from utilizing sequential embedded processors to modular parallel, distributed, and/or symmetrical processing. The concept of utilizing embedded parallel processing exhibits key features such as modularity, flexibility, scalability, host independence, non-contention of host resources, and no requirement for an operating system. These key features provide the performance, reliability and efficiency while at the same time lowering costs. Proper utilization of embedded parallel processing on a host computer can provide fault tolerance and can greatly reduce the costs and the requirement of utilizing high-end workstations to perform the same level of real-time processing and computationally intensive tasks.

      Hart, Dennis L.; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      The MARS-II digital recorder is one of the new technologies that will eventually replace the labor intensive and hardware dependent methods associated with traditional analog-based telemetry ground systems. The Standardized MARS-II Analysis and Reduction Tool (SMART) is one of the first software systems developed to take advantage of this new digital recording capability. It processes pulse code modulated (PCM) encoded data and MIL-STD-1553B message traffic, outputting time-tagged PCM frames or 1553 messages to file. The goal of this software is to provide a portable application that utilizes state-ofhe-art, general purpose hardware for rapid telemetry data processing to meet the needs of operational users, telemetry engineers, and data analysts. To satisfy these goals, the software was developed using the C language with VMS and OSF operating systems as the initially targeted platforms. In addition, an X Window System/Motif graphical user interface supporting three tiers of user interaction (operator, telemetry engineer, and telemetry analyst) was layered onto the decommutator functions.
    • High Efficiency 5 Watt S-Band Telemetry Transmitter Using Gallium Arsenide Field Effect Transistors

      Bambridge, Tim; Herley Vega Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      A 5-Watt S-Band telemetry transmitter is often the biggest power drain on an airborne telemetry system's power supply. Furthermore, operation is typically limited to supply voltages of 24 Volts or higher. This is because the traditional telemetry transmitter uses a series regulator power supply and silicon bipolar amplifiers. In this paper we describe the design philosophy of a high efficiency telemetry transmitter that uses Gallium Arsenide Field Effect Transistors (GaAs FETs) as the power output stages. The GaAs FETs provide efficiency levels not achievable with silicon bipolar technology. In addition, the power supply uses a switching regulator which provides for constant power drain as a function of input voltage and allows operation down to an input voltage of 18 Volts. Overall, the transmitter can reduce the system's power drain by 30%.
    • Telemetry in The Classroom: An Excellent Teaching Tool

      Rice, Michael; Long, David; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      University communications courses typically use broadcast AM and FM as practical examples of fundamental concepts. We propose telemetering based applications which illustrate these fundamental concepts in a more complete manner. This paper presents two simple laboratory experiments which construct simple one-way telemetry links using standard components available in most RF laboratories. The first system is an RS-232 data link and the second system is an analog video system. The performance limitations of these systems illustrate the complexity-performance trade-offs inherent in all communications systems.
    • The Future of Telemetry as a Cooperative Measure in Arms Control

      Havrilak, George T. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      This paper suggests possible applications of telemetry as a cooperative measure in potential, future arms control agreements related to missiles and space launch vehicles (i.e., an agreement leading to clarification of the ABM Treaty for theater missile defense, and a notional regional or global ban on ground-launched, theater-range missiles). The opportunities for telemetry as a cooperative measure in future international arms control agreements should certainly grow, as confidence and appreciation in its utility are realized from the on-going ballistic missile telemetry exchanges between the US and Russia in START implementation.
    • RTPS Telemetry - Simulator Link at Naval Air Warfare Center

      McNamara, William G.; Stanley, Page; Nichols, Jay (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      Over the last 3 years the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (NAWCAD), Patuxent River, MD, has been in the process of developing a link between its secure Manned Flight Simulator (MFS) and Real Time Processing System (RTPS) facilities. The MFS hosts a wide variety of high fidelity fixed and rotary wing aircraft simulation models. The RTPS is used as a telemetry ground station for conduct of Navy flight testing at Patuxent River MD. The ability to integrate simulation with flight testing in a real time environment provides new potential for increased flight safety, enhanced engineering training, optimized flight test planning, real time simulation fidelity assessments, improved engineering analysis and other applications for enhanced flight testing, data analysis and data processing. A prototype system has been successfully designed and operated at NAWCAD in support of an F/A-18C flight test project which required simultaneous merging and display of real time and simulation data to reduce the risk of departure from controlled flight. As currently designed the link (encryption and decryption gear in the loop) can be operated in three modes: (1) Simulation sending data to RTPS (e.g. pilot-engineer pre-first flight preparation/training scenario, (2) simulation is driven by real aircraft control surface inputs and response is compared with that of the real aircraft for simulation fidelity assessments and (3) simulation "rides along" with the real aircraft and data are extracted from the simulation which are otherwise unavailable from the aircraft (e.g. flight control law interconnect signals, control law feedback signals, aerodynamic data, propulsion model data, avionics model data, other model data etc.). This paper discusses, design and implementation aspects of the RTPS-Simulator link, and includes a description of how the link was used to support a real time flight test program by providing critical safety of flight data. Other potential uses for the link will also be highlighted.
    • Implementing an Open Setup Environment Across Multiple Vendor Products Using TMATS

      Comperini, Robert G.; Scardello, Michael A.; Perimeter Computer Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      The Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) introduced the Telemetry Attributes Transfer Standard (TMATS) in IRIG 106-93. This long needed standardization was designed to provide a common thread through which test programs could move from one test range to another without significant re-work in the setup environment. TMATS provides the definition of telemetry attributes and specifies the media and data format necessary to permit the ready transfer of the information required to setup telemetry receiving/processing functions at a test range. These attributes are defined as those parameters required by the receiving/processing system to acquire, process and display telemetry data received from a test item or source. As the telemetry vendor community develops more and more board level products designed to be integrated into various platforms such as Personal Computer (PC), VME, and VXI, the necessity of providing a setup environment, which is independent of a specific vendor product, becomes essential. An significant advantage of TMATS lies in its ability to provide a mechanism for setup of "multiple vendor systems" without the necessity of restructuring telemetry attribute information for each unique vendor's product. This paper describes the use of TMATS for the setup of a VXI based telemetry acquisition system containing board level products (including Antenna Control Units, RF Receivers, Combiners, Bit Synchronizers, PCM Decommutators, and PCM Simulators) from multiple vendors.