Biroscak, D.; Losik, L.; Malina, R. F. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) Science Operations Center at UC Berkeley was recently successful in implementing an automated monitoring system that allowed reduced operations staffing from 24 hours per day to 9 hours per day. The payload safety is monitored exclusively by artificial intelligence (AI) telemetry-processing systems for 16 hours per day. At launch, the EUVE Science Operations Center was staffed and operated as a typical satellite control center, receiving real-time and tape recorder data 24 hours per day. From September 1993 through February 1995, EUVE science operations were redesigned in a phased, low-cost approach. A key factor in the implementation was to utilize existing personnel in new roles through additional training and reorganization. Through- out this period, EUVE guest observers and science data collection were unaffected by the transition in science operations. This paper describes the original and actual implementation plan, staffing phases, and cost savings for this project. We present the lessons learned in the successful transition from three-shift to one-shift operations.

      Sullivan, Arthur; Turner, William C.; Airship International, Ltd.; Electro-Magnetic Processes, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      The first airship was invented and designed in 1852 by Henri Giffard, a French engineer. Airships were used by both the Allied and German military for surveillance and bomb dropping in WWI. There was a steady increase in airship use up until the Hindenburg exploded while docking in 1937 at Lakehurst, New Jersey. This tragedy almost ended the use of airships. Significant use of airships next occurred during WWII for submarine surveillance and depth charging. Airships for advertising, surveillance, and command control came of age in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Airships can be fitted with several telemetry options or instrumented with sensor systems for surveillance purposes. The telemetry or sensor data can be relayed, real-time, to a remote station as much as 150 km from the airship either encrypted or plain when cruising at 3000 feet altitude. Small vehicles (3 meters long) can be detected at 50 km using radar; 12 km using FLIRs; and, depending on weather conditions and real-time imaging processing, up to 20 km using video cameras. Cooperating airborne targets can be tracked out to 150 km. The major advantages of the airship over conventional aircraft are: • ENDURANCE Up to 20 hours without refueling. • LOW OPERATING COST Less than the cost of a helicopter. • SHOCK-FREE ENVIRONMENT Allows commercial electric equipment usage. • VIBRATION-FREE ENVIRONMENT Yields personnel comfort and endurance. • SAFETY Safer than any aircraft, automobile, or bicycle.

      Stone, Christopher E.; Flint, Keith D.; Mathis, Gregory P.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      Phillips Laboratory's Space Experiments Directorate (PL/SX) is operating and upgrading the laboratory's premier transportable satellite tracking station, the Mobile Ground Tracking Station (MGTS) program. MGTS supports orbital, suborbital, and aircraft missions as a range system capable of processing and recording multiple data streams. MGTS receives, processes, displays, and records satellite state-of-health data, infrared images in a variety of wavelengths, video data, and state vector solutions based on IR returns from the Miniature Sensor Technology Integration (MSTI) satellite program. The program has began in 1990 under BMDO sponsorship, with the intent to supplement existing test ranges with more flexibility in range operations. Wyle Laboratories and Systems Engineering and Management Company (SEMCO) provided the technical expertise necessary to create the first MGTS system. Autonomy and off-road capability were critical design factors, since some of the operations envisioned require deployment to remote or hostile field locations. Since inception, MGTS has supported the Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP) sub-orbital missions, the MSTI satellite program, and Air Force wargame demonstrations. In pursuit of these missions, MGTS has deployed to White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), NM; Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards AFB, CA; Vandenberg AFB, CA; Falcon AFB, CO; and NASA's Wallops Island Flight Facility, VA, to receive critical mission telemetry data conforming to both IRIG and SGLS standards. This paper will describe the evolution of the MGTS program, current hardware configurations and past and future mission scenarios for the MGTS team.
    • The Omni-Directional Differential Sun Sensor

      Swartwout, Michael; Olsen, Tanya; Kitts, Christopher; Stanford University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      The Stanford University Satellite Systems Development Laboratory will flight test a telemetry reengineering experiment on its student-built SAPPHIRE spacecraft. This experiment utilizes solar panel current information and knowledge of panel geometry in order to create a virtual sun sensor that can roughly determine the satellite's sun angle. The Omni-Directional Differential Sun Sensor (ODDSS) algorithm normalizes solar panel currents and differences them to create a quasi-linear signal over a particular sensing region. The specific configuration of the SAPPHIRE spacecraft permits the construction of 24 such regions. The algorithm will account for variations in panel outputs due to battery charging, seasonal fluctuations, solar cell degradation, and albedo affects. Operationally, ODDSS telemetry data will be verified through ground processing and comparison with data derived from SAPPHIRE's infrared sensors and digital camera. The expected sensing accuracy is seven degrees. This paper reviews current progress in the design and integration of the ODDSS algorithm through a discussion of the algorithm's strategy and a presentation of results from hardware testing and software simulation.

      Kayes, Edwin (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      Magnetic tape is the primary medium used to capture and store unprocessed data from remote sensing satellites. Recent advances in digital cassette recording technology have resulted in the introduction of a range of data recorders which are equally at home working alongside conventional recorders or as part of more advanced data capture strategies. This paper shows how users are taking advantage of the convenience, economy and efficiency of this new generation of cassette-based equipment in a range of practical applications.
    • Application of GPS to Hybrid Integrated Ranges and Simulations

      Van Wechel, R. J.; Jarrell, R. P.; Interstate Electronics Corp. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      GPS user equipment has matured and is now available to support the use of live players in integrated ranges and simulations. P-code GPS provides true WGS-84 based coordinate information anywhere in the world at any time and to accuracies at the 5 ft (1s) level (demonstrated in high dynamic aircraft using differential P-code GPS). C/A code GPS shows lower accuracy and is especially vulnerable to multipath degradation over water. In supporting networked ranges with simulations, GPS is directly applicable to the dead reckoning requirements of the Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) community. DIS dead reckoning provides the capability of much reduced data rates in recovering TSPI information from platforms. The on-board state vector for an integrated GPS/Inertial Reference Unit provides accurate position, velocity and acceleration as well as attitude and attitude rate information so that dead reckoning thresholds can be both position and attitude driven. A simplified analysis is presented in the paper to derive dead reckoning update rates from the G loading levels of various player dynamics. Also, information is provided which results in word length requirements for GPS-based state vector information for transmission over minimum word length DIS Field Instrumentation Protocol Data Units (PDUs, which are the data block formats). The coordinate frame problem in use of GPS-based state vector information from fixed ranges is also addressed, showing that the use of a local geodetic frame is preferable to the use of an earth centered earth fixed frame, in that it is more efficient of network PDU word length.
    • The Merging of Multisource Telemetry Data to Support Over the Horizon Missile Testing

      Peterson, Dwight M.; Naval Warfare Assessment Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      The testing of instrumented missile systems with extended range capabilities present many challenges to existing T&E and training ranges. Providing over-the-horizon (OTH) telemetry data collection and displaying portions of this data in real time for range safety purposes are just a few of many factors required for successful instrumented range support. Techniques typically used for OTH telemetry data collection are to use fixed or portable antennas installed at strategic down-range locations, instrumented relay pods installed on chase aircraft, and instrumented high flying relay aircraft. Multiple data sources from these various locations typically arrive at a central site within a telemetry ground station and must be merged together to determine the best data source for real time and post processing purposes. Before multiple telemetered sources can be merged, the time skews caused by the relay of down-range land and airborne based sources must be taken into account. The time skews are fixed for land based sources, but vary with airborne sources. Various techniques have been used to remove the time skews associated with multiple telemetered sources. These techniques, which involve both hardware and software applications, have been effective, but are expensive and application and range dependent. This paper describes the use of a personal computer (PC) based workstation, configured with independent Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) decommutators/bit synchronizers, Inner-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) timing, and data merging resident software to perform the data merging task. Current technology now permits multiple PCM decommutators, each built as a separate virtual memory expansion (VME) card, to be installed within a PC based workstation. Each land based or airborne source is connected to a dedicated VME based PCM decommutator/bit synchronizer within the workstation. After the exercise has been completed, data merging software resident within the workstation is run which reads the digitized data from each of the disk files and aligns the data on a bit by bit basis to determine the optimum merged result. Both time based and event based alignment is performed when merging the multiple sources.This technique has application for current TOMAHAWK exercises performed at the Air Force Development Test Center, Eglin Air Force Base (AFB), Florida and the Naval Air Warfare Center/Weapons Division (NAWC/WD), Point Mugu, California and future TOMAHAWK Baseline Improvement Program (TBIP) testing.

      Dowling, Jason; Welling, John; Aerosys, Loral; Nanzetta, Kathy; Bennett, Toby; Shi, Jeff; NASA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      NASA’s use of high bandwidth packetized Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) telemetry in future missions presents a great challenge to ground data system developers. These missions, including the Earth Observing System (EOS), call for high data rate interfaces and small packet sizes. Because each packet requires a similar amount of protocol processing, high data rates and small packet sizes dramatically increase the real-time workload on ground packet processing systems. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center has been developing packet processing subsystems for more than twelve years. Implementations of these subsystems have ranged from mini-computers to single-card VLSI multiprocessor subsystems. The latter subsystem, known as the VLSI Packet Processor, was first deployed in 1991 for use in support of the Solar Anomalous & Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) mission. An upgraded version of this VMEBus card, first deployed for Space Station flight hardware verification, has demonstrated sustained throughput of up to 50 Megabits per second and 15,000 packets per second. Future space missions including EOS will require significantly higher data and packet rate performance. A new approach to packet processing is under development that will not only increase performance levels by at least a factor of six but also reduce subsystem replication costs by a factor of five. This paper will discuss the development of a next generation packet processing subsystem and the architectural changes necessary to achieve a thirty-fold improvement in the performance/price of real-time packet processing.

      Farmer, Mike; Culver, Randy; Loral Federal Services Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      Satellite operations have been inherently manpower intensive since they began over thirty years ago. Since manpower intensive equates to costs, this mode of operations cannot survive in light of government budget cuts and commercial profitability. Two factors are now key for both government and commercial satellite control centers: 1) systems must be highly automated to minimize the operations staff, and 2) these automated systems must be deployed and enhanced at a low cost. This paper describes the three principle challenges which arise in migrating from high-cost, manpower intensive satellite operations to low-cost, automated satellite operations and makes recommendations for solving them.
    • Compression Methods for Instrumentation Video

      Whiteman, Don; Glen, Greg; Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      Video compression is typically required to solve the bandwidth problems related to the transmission of instrumentation video. The use of color systems typically results in bandwidth requirements beyond the capabilities of current receiving and recording equipment. The HORACE specification, IRIG-210, was introduced as an attempt to provide standardization between government test ranges. The specification provides for video compression in order to alleviate the bandwidth problems associated with instrumentation video and is intended to assure compatibility, data quality, and performance of instrumentation video systems. This paper provides an overview of compression methods available for instrumentation video and summarizes the benefits of each method and the problems associated with different compression methods when utilized for instrumentation video. The affects of increased data link bit error rates are also discussed for each compression method. This paper also includes a synopsis of the current HORACE specification, a proposed Vector HORACE specification for color images and hardware being developed to meet both specifications.
    • Airborne and Ground Data Processing Systems for the RAH-66 Comanche

      Cox, John R.; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      The RAH-66 Comanche flight test program requires a state of the art air vehicle and avionics data system consisting of: 1) An airborne, all digital multiplexing and recording system capable of combining digital streams at very high data rates; 2) The ability to record high speed avionics busses from the MEP (Mission Equipment Package) such as MIL-STD-1553B, HSDB (High Speed Data Bus,) PI (Processor Interconnect) Bus, DFN (Data Flow Network,) and TM (Test and Measurement Bus;) 3) A miniaturized, programmable, modular/distributed high speed PCM measurement system for 550 air vehicle measurements recorded on the Comanche Flight Test Aircraft and Propulsion System Test Bed; 4) an airborne digital multiplexing and recording system for recording a composite stream on an Ampex DCRsi tape recorder; 5) A high capacity ground data processing system using parallel processing computers for real time data compression; and 6) distributed analysis system using workstations for data processing with centralized disk storage.

      Lange, Werner R.; Ravensbergen, Martin; LANGE-ELECTRONIC GMBH; EUROPEAN SOUTHERN OBSERVATORY (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      The necessity of supplying precise time information in large telemetry ground stations and astronomical observatories is very similar. Therefore the way of solving this problem as it is done in the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory can be easily adopted to telemetry stations and ranges, especially when fiber optics are used. The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is building a new observatory in Chile for the Very Large Telescope (VLT). This VLT consists of 4 telescopes, each of them has a primary mirror diameter of 8 meters. the control architecture is based on workstations and VMEbus computers. The VMEbus computers are distributed over the whole building and are using real time operating system. Since the availability of the Global Positioning System (GPS) the generation of highly accurate timing signals on remote locations without the use of expensive Cesium standards does not create problems any more. However, distribution of a timing signal to many computer with high accuracy is an issue. The accuracy of the commonly used IRIG B-code is not adequate if the requirements are in the 10 microseconds range. This paper presents the design of a timing system that is adopted to the VLT. An overview of the requirements of the Time Reference System (TRS) is given. These requirements have been defined on the basis of experiences with the timing system of the ESO NTT telescope. The hardware units are described. These are a Central Time Standard, a Time Distribution System and a VME Time Interface Module. The distribution is based on fiber optic transmission, using a simple digital modulation that outperforms the analog IRIG B modulation. The Time Interface Module in the computer does not only perform the timing signal decoding but contains also user-programmable timers that are synchronously clocked from the time source. Presently all units of the TRS have been tested and the series production of the distribution and the Time Interface Modules are in progress.
    • Integrated Satellite Control Center

      Nötzel, Klaus R.; Deutsche Telekom AG, Forschungs-und Technologiezentrum (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      Deutsche Telekom has been operating different flight models for several years. A Satellite Control Center (SCC) was designed and installed to support the operation of the satellite systems DFS Kopernikus and TV-Sat. The DFS Kopernikus system is composed of three flight models and the satellite system TV-Sat has one flight model. The aim was to design an SCC and ground stations in a way, enabling the operation of satellites and groundstations by only two operators at the main control room. The operators are well trained but not scientifically educated. The high integrated SCC supports the operators with a state of the art man-machine-interface. Software executes all necessary tasks for spacecraft- and ground station control. Interaction in front of communication equipment is not necessary. The operation of satellites is a business with a high risk potential. This paper presents the design of a Satellite Control Center with high system availability.

      Hart, Dennis L.; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      The MARS-II digital recorder is one of the new technologies that will eventually replace the labor intensive and hardware dependent methods associated with traditional analog-based telemetry ground systems. The Standardized MARS-II Analysis and Reduction Tool (SMART) is one of the first software systems developed to take advantage of this new digital recording capability. It processes pulse code modulated (PCM) encoded data and MIL-STD-1553B message traffic, outputting time-tagged PCM frames or 1553 messages to file. The goal of this software is to provide a portable application that utilizes state-ofhe-art, general purpose hardware for rapid telemetry data processing to meet the needs of operational users, telemetry engineers, and data analysts. To satisfy these goals, the software was developed using the C language with VMS and OSF operating systems as the initially targeted platforms. In addition, an X Window System/Motif graphical user interface supporting three tiers of user interaction (operator, telemetry engineer, and telemetry analyst) was layered onto the decommutator functions.
    • Field Programmable Gate Array Based Miniaturised Central Controller for a Decentralised Base-Band Telemetry System for Satellite Launch Vehicles

      Krishnakumar, M.; Sreelal, S.; Narayana, T. V.; Anguswamy, P.; Singh, U. S.; Indian Space Research Organisation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      The Central Control Unit (CCU) for a decentralised on-board base-band telemetry system is designed for use in launch vehicle missions of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). This new design is a highly improved and miniaturised version of an earlier design. The major design highlights are as follows: usage of CMOS Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices in place of LS TTL devices, high level user programmability of TM format using EEPROMs, usage of high density memory for on-board data storage and delayed data transmission, HMC based pre-modulation filter and final output driver etc. The entire system is realised on a single 6 layer MLB and is packaged on a stackable modular frame. This design has resulted in a 1:4 reduction in weight, 1:4 reduction in volume, 1:5 reduction in power consumption and 1:3 reduction in height in addition to drastic reduction of part diversity and solder joints and thus greatly increased reliability. This paper discusses the design approach, implementation details, tools used, simulations carried out and the results of detailed qualification tests done on the realised qualification model.

      Cirineo, Tony; Troublefield, Bob; NAWCWPNS (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      This paper describes an Engineering Development Model (EDM) for the Standard Interoperable Datalink System (SIDS). This EDM represents an attempt to design and build a programmable system that can be used to test and evaluate various aspects of a modern digital datalink. First, an investigation was started of commercial wireless components and standards that could be used to construct the SIDS datalink. This investigation lead to the construction of an engineering developmental model. This model presently consists of wire wrap and prototype circuits that implement many aspects of a modern digital datalink.
    • The Application of GPS Technology to the Future Spacelift Range System (SLRS)

      Spellman, Marc; Harris Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      The Spacelift Range infrastructure of the United States Air Force will, over the next decade, experience a major modernization and upgrade. The goal of the Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) Program is to meet the requirements of range users and range safety in a more cost effective manner than is currently possible. One approach that will be considered in best achieving these goals is the further application of GPS technology to both the Eastern and Western Spacelift Ranges. Such an application can have a profound impact on the instrumentation segment of each range. Included within the instrumentation segment and clearly impacted, are both the metric tracking and telemetry subsystems. This paper considers the SLRS requirements that can be supported with GPS technology; the advantages and shortcomings of both GPS technology and alternative techniques; and provides suggestions as to an appropriate application of GPS technology to the SLRS.

      Osborne, William P.; Ara, Sharmin; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      The national telemetry ranges are being pushed to provide higher data rate telemetry services by users with increasingly complex test procedure for increasingly complex weapon systems. At the same time they are having trouble obtaining more spectrum in which to provide these higher rates because of the demand for spectrum in SHF range from various mobile/cellular Personal Communications Services (PCS) as well as congress’s desire to auction spectrum and to transfer as much spectrum as possible to commercial uses. In light of these pressures the industry is in need of a modulation standard that will out perform the existing PCM/FM standard. The motivation for the present review and analysis of the performance of various coded/uncoded modulation schemes arises from this issue. Comparison of the performance of these schemes will be utilized in the following work to find a suitable solution to the existing problem.

      M., Krishnakumar; G., Padma; S., Sreelal; V., Narayana T.; P., Anguswamy; S., Singh U.; Indian Space Research Organisation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      The Remote Unit (RU) for a decentralised on-board base-band telemetry system is designed for use in launch vehicle missions of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). This new design is a highly improved and miniaturised version of an earlier design. The major design highlights are as follows. Usage of CMOS Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology in place of LS TTL devices, the ability to acquire various types of data like high level single ended or differential analog, bi-level events and two channels of high speed asynchronous serial data from On-Board Computers (OBCs), usage of HMC technology for the reduction of discrete parts etc. The entire system is realised on a single 6 layer MLB and is packaged on a stackable modular frame. This paper discusses the design approach, tools used, simulations carried out, implementation details and the results of detailed qualification tests done on the realised qualification model.

      Olyniec, Lee; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1995-11)
      This paper describes the design and characteristics of a digital voice encoding circuit that uses the continuously variable slope delta (CVSD) modulation/demodulation method. With digital voice encoding, the audio signal can be placed into the pulse code modulation (PCM) data stream. Some methods of digitizing voice can require a large amount of bandwidth. Using the CVSD method, an acceptable quality of audio signal is obtained with a minimum of bandwidth. Presently, there is a CVSD microchip commercially available; however, this paper will describe the design of a circuit based on individual components that apply the CVSD method. With the advances in data acquisition technology, increased bit rates, and introduction of a corresponding MIL-STD, CVSD modulated voice will become more utilized in the flight test programs and a good knowledge of CVSD will become increasingly important. This paper will present CVSD theory, supported by graphical investigations of a working circuit under different conditions. Finally, several subjects for further study into CVSD will be addressed.