Williams, Jenny; De Jong, Michael; Harris, Jim; Downing, Bob; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The Interactive Analysis and Display System (IADS) provides the structures flight test engineer with enhanced test-data processing, management, and display capabilities necessary to perform safety critical aircraft analysis in near real time during a flight test mission. Germane to hazardous, fast-paced flight test programs is a need for enhanced situational awareness in the Mission Control Room (MCR). The IADS provides an enhanced situational awareness by providing an analysis and display capability designed to enhance the confidence of the engineer in making clearance decisions within the MCR environment. The IADS will allow the engineer to achieve this confidence level by providing a real-time display capability along with a simultaneous near real-time processing capability consisting of both time domain and frequency domain analyses. The system provides for displaying real-time data while performing interactive and automated near real-time analyses. The system also alerts the engineer when displayed and non-displayed parameters exceed predefined threshold limits. Both real-time data and results created in near real-time may be compared to predicted data on workstations to enhance the user’s confidence in making point-to-point clearance decisions. The IADS also provides a post-flight capability at the engineers project area desktop. Having a user interface that is common with the real-time system, the post-flight IADS provides all of the capabilities of the real-time IADS plus additional data storage and data organization to allow the engineer to perform structural analysis with test data from the complete test program. This paper discusses the system overview and capabilities of the IADS.

      Lam, Barbara; Jet Propulsion Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      This paper presents a new architecture of the end-to-end ground system to reduce overall mission support costs. The present ground system of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is costly to operate, maintain, deploy, reproduce, and document. In the present climate of shrinking NASA budgets, this proposed architecture takes on added importance as it will dramatically reduce all of the above costs. Currently, the ground support functions (i.e., receiver, tracking, ranging, telemetry, command, monitor and control) are distributed among several subsystems that are housed in individual rack-mounted chassis. These subsystems can be integrated into one portable laptop system using established MultiChip Module (MCM) packaging technology. The large scale integration of subsystems into a small portable system will greatly reduce operations, maintenance and reproduction costs. Several of the subsystems can be implemented using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) products further decreasing non-recurring engineering costs. The inherent portability of the system will open up new ways for using the ground system at the “point-of-use” site as opposed to maintaining several large centralized stations. This eliminates the propagation delay of the data to the Principal Investigator (PI), enabling the capture of data in real-time and performing multiple tasks concurrently from any location in the world. Sample applications are to use the portable ground system in remote areas or mobile vessels for real-time correlation of satellite data with earth-bound instruments; thus, allowing near real-time feedback and control of scientific instruments. This end-to-end portable ground system will undoubtedly create opportunities for better scientific observation and data acquisition.

      Bocchino, Chris; Hamilton, William (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The future of range operations in the area of expendable launch vehicle (ELV) support is unquestionably headed in the direction of space-based rather than land- or air-based assets for such functions as metric tracking or telemetry data collection. To this end, an effort was recently completed by the Air Force’s Eastern Range (ER) to certify NASA’s Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) as a viable and operational asset to be used for telemetry coverage during future Titan IV/Centaur launches. The test plan developed to demonstrate this capability consisted of three parts: 1) a bit error rate test; 2) a bit-by-bit compare of data recorded via conventional means vice the TDRSS network while the vehicle was radiating in a fixed position from the pad; and 3) an in-flight demonstration to ensure positive radio frequency (RF) link and usable data during critical periods of telemetry collection. The subsequent approval by the Air Force of this approach allows future launch vehicle contractors a relatively inexpensive and reliable means of telemetry data collection even when launch trajectories are out of sight of land-based assets or when land- or aircraft-based assets are not available for support.

      Faulstich, Raymond J.; Burke, Lawrence W. Jr; D’Amico, William P. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The Army development and test community must demonstrate the functionality and reliability of gun-launched projectiles and munitions systems, especially newer smart munitions. The best method to satisfy this requirement is to combine existing optical and tracking systems data with internal data measured with on-board instrumentation (i.e. spin, pitch, and yaw measurements for standard items and terminal sensor, signal processor, and guidance/navigation system monitoring for smart munitions). Acquisition of internal data is usually limited by available space, harsh launch environments, and high associated costs. A technology development and demonstration effort is underway to provide a new generation of products for use in this high-g arena. This paper describes the goals, objectives, and progress of the Hardened Subminiature Telemetry and Sensor System (HSTSS) program.
    • Applications of a Telemetry Signal Simulator

      O’Cull, Douglas; Microdyne Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      This paper will discuss the use of a specialized telemetry signal simulator for pre-mission verification of a telemetry receiving system. This will include how to configure tests that will determine system performance under “real time” conditions such as multipath fading and Doppler shifting. The paper will analyze a telemetry receiving system and define tests for each part of the system. This will include tests for verification of the antenna system. Also included, will be tests for verification of the receiver/combiner system. The paper will further discuss how adding PCM simulation capabilities to the signal simulator will allow testing of frame synchronizers and decomutation equipment.

      Clemons, Robert R. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The next-generation commercial imaging satellites will generate data at several times the rate of current systems. To be commercially successful, these systems must have earth stations as sophisticated as the satellites themselves. Space Imaging has worked with E-Systems to exploit technologies developed over four generations of image processing, analysis and application systems to create a modular, standards-based, earth station for commercial use. A Space Imaging Operations Center can be configured in a variety of ways to provide complete, end-to-end, capabilities, from task generation to receipt of downlink, image processing, and product generation. While it is intended primarily for use with imagery from Space Imaging and other commercial satellites, an Operations Center can also accept, process and manage data from land-based, airborne or seaborne collectors. A sophisticated data management product, Mission Server™, handles and routes all data from signal receipt through final product generation. A unique family of data processing applications permit simultaneous manipulation and analysis of integrated map, image, graphic and text data. Online data storage and archiving are provided by the EMASS® family of products. An Operations Center of any size can accept, process and manage data streams of several hundred megabits per second in real time.

      Orsino, Mary Ellen; Williams, Michael; Avtec Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      Satellite Control Systems require a front-end component which performs real-time telemetry acquisition and command output. This paper will describe a fully networked, PC-based telemetry and command front-end which supports multiple streams and is based on Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) technology. The front-end system is a gateway that accepts multiple telemetry streams and outputs time-tagged frame or packet data over a network to workstations in a distributed satellite control and analysis system. The system also includes a command gateway that accepts input from a command processor and outputs serial commands to the uplink. The front-end can be controlled locally or remotely via the network using Simple Network Management Protocol. Key elements of the front-end system are the Avtec MONARCH-E™ PCI-based CCSDS/TDM Telemetry Processor/Simulator board, a network-based, distributed computing architecture, and the Windows NT operating system. The PC-based telemetry and command gateway is useful throughout the lifecycle of a satellite system. During development, integration, and test, the front-end system can be used as a test tool in a distributed test environment. During operations, the system is installed at remote ground stations, with network links back to operations center(s) for telemetry and command processing and analysis.

      Knoebel, Robert; Berdugo, Albert; Aydin Vector Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS) was developed under the auspices of the Department of Defense to promote standardization, commonality, and interoperability among flight test instrumentation. The central characteristic of CAIS is a common suite of equipment used across service boundaries and in many airframe and weapon systems. The CAIS system has many advanced capabilities which must be tested during ground support and system test. There is a need for a common set of low cost, highly capable ground support hardware and software tools to facilitate these tasks. The ground support system should combine commonly available PC-based telemetry tools with unique devices needed for CAIS applications (such as CAIS Bus Emulator, CAIS Hardware Simulator, etc.). An integrated software suite is imperative to support this equipment. A CAIS Ground Support Unit (GSU) has been developed to promote these CAIS goals. This paper presents the capabilities and features of a PC-based CAIS GSU, emphasizing those features that are unique to CAIS. Hardware tools developed to provide CAIS Bus Emulation and CAIS Hardware Simulation are also described.
    • Group Telemetry Analysis Using the World Wide Web

      Kalibjian, Jeffrey R.; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      Today it is not uncommon to have large contractor teams involved in the design and deployment of even small satellite systems. The larger (and more geographically remote) the team members, the more difficult it becomes to efficiently manage the disbursement of telemetry data for evaluation and analysis. Further complications are introduced if some of the telemetry data is sensitive. An application is described which can facilitate telemetry data sharing utilizing the National Information Infrastructure (Internet).

      Norman, Michael; Defence Test and Evaluation Organisation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      This paper covers the development to date of the Telemetry Facilities at the Defence Test & Evaluation Organisation located at Boscombe Down. The practices adopted to meet the many varied requirements of trials customers and some experiences gained in achieving successful implementation will be addressed. DTEO Boscombe Down, formerly known as the Aeroplane & Armament Evaluation Establishment, is the official United Kingdom Government Test Centre for military aircraft and their systems. It is part of the Defence Evaluation & Research Agency (DERA) an Agency of the Ministry of Defence. A wide range of trials are carried out by DTEO (BD) and customised telemetry installations are routinely undertaken.

      Mahon, John P. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      This paper contains a description of a new technology tracking feed and a discussion of the features which make this feed unique and allow it to perform better than any other comparable feed. Also included in this report are measured primary antenna patterns, measured and estimated phase tracking performance and estimated aperture efficiency. The latter two items were calculated by integrating the measured primary patterns.

      Schumacher, Gary A.; Terametrix Systems International, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      PC based instrumentation and telemetry processing systems are attractive because of their ease of use, familiarity, and affordability. The evolution of PC computing power has resulted in a telemetry processing system easily up to most tasks, even for control of and processing of data from a very complex system such as the Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS) used on the new Lockheed-Martin F-22. A complete system including decommutators, bit synchronizers, IRIG time code readers, simulators, DACs, live video, and tape units for logging can be installed in a rackmount, desktop, or even portable enclosure. The PC/104 standard represents another step forward in the PC industry evolution towards the goals of lower power consumption, smaller size, and greater capacity. The advent of this standard and the availability of processors and peripherals in this form factor has made possible the development of a new generation of portable low cost test equipment. This paper will outline the advantages and applications offered by a full-function, standalone, rugged, and portable instrumentation controller. Applications of this small (5.25"H x 8.0"W x 9.5"L) unit could include: flight line instrumentation check-out, onboard aircraft data monitoring, automotive testing, small craft testing, helicopter testing, and just about any other application where small-size, affordability, and capability are required.

      Gladney, Ed; Lockheed Martin Telemetry & Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      NASA and Lockheed Martin Telemetry & Instrumentation have jointly developed a new data acquisition system for the Space Shuttle program. The system incorporates new technologies which will greatly reduce manpower requirements by automating many of the functions necessary to prepare the data acquisition system for each shuttle launch. This new system, the Automated Data Acquisition System (ADAS), is capable of configuring itself for each measurement without operator intervention. The key components of the ADAS are the Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA), the Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS), and the Data Acquisition System (DAS 450). The ADAS is currently being delivered and installed at Kennedy Space Center. NASA and Telemetry & Instrumentation are actively pursuing commercialization of the ADAS and its associated products which will be available during 1996.

      Anderson, Christopher; Cincinnati Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      With every new spacecraft that is designed comes a greater density of information that will be stored once it is in operation. This, coupled with the desire to reduce the number of ground stations needed to download this information from the spacecraft, places new requirements on telemetry transmitters. These new transmitters must be capable of data rates of 320 Mbps and beyond. Although the necessary bandwidth is available for some non-bandwidth-limited transmissions in Ka-Band and above, many systems will continue to rely on more narrow allocations down to X-Band. These systems will require filtering of the modulation to meet spectral limits. The usual requirements of this filtering also include that it not introduce high levels of inter-symbol interference (ISI) to the transmission. These constraints have been addressed at CE by implementing a DSP technique that pre-filters a QPSK symbol set to achieve bandwidth-limited 320 Mbps operation. This implementation operates within the speed range of the radiation-hardened digital technologies that are currently available and consumes less power than the traditional high-speed FIR techniques.

      Rupp, Greg; Cincinnati Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      An S-band telemetry transmitter has been developed for Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV's) that can downlink data through NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The transmitter operates in the 2200 to 2300 MHz range and provides a number of unique features to achieve optimum performance in the launch vehicle environment: · Commandable QPSK or BPSK modulation format. · Data rates up to 10 Mbps. · Commandable concatenated coding provides superior link performance. · Premodulation filtering produces excellent spectral containment characteristics. · Phase noise of less than 3 degrees rms is maintained through launch and ascent vibration profiles. · A 30 watt nominal RF output power provides a robust RF link. · Two RF antenna output ports with commandable selection of all power out to either port or power split evenly between ports. · Operating modes and conditions of the unit can be monitored through a number of bilevel and analog outputs. · A ruggedized mechanical design provides a reliable communications link for launch vehicle environments.

      Lennox, William M.; Microdyne Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      This paper will discuss the design and use of Optimal Ratio Combiners in modern telemetry applications. This will include basic design theory, operational setups, and various types of combiner configurations. The paper will discuss the advantages of pre-detection vs. post-detection combining. Finally, the paper will discuss modern design techniques.

      Turner, W. C.; Electro-Magnetic Processes, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      This paper takes one through the processes followed by a designer when responding to a specification for an earth terminal. The orbital parameters of Low-Earth Orbiting and Medium-Earth Orbiting (LEO and MEO) satellites that affect autotracking and pointing of an antenna are presented. The do’s and don’ts of specifying (or over specifying) the antenna feed and pedestal size are discussed. The axis velocity and acceleration rates required of a Y over X and El over AZ type pedestal are developed as a function of satellite altitude, radio frequency of operation, and ground antenna terminal diameter. Decision criteria are presented leading to requiring a tilt mechanism or a third axis to cover direct and near overhead passes using an El over Az pedestal. Finally, the expressions transforming Y over X configuration position angles to azimuth and elevation axis position angles are presented.

      Pedroza, Moises; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The use of high bit rates in the missile testing environment requires that the receiving telemetry system(s) have the correct signal margin for no PCM bit errors. This requirement plus the fact that the use of “redundant systems” are no longer considered optimum support scenarios has made it necessary to select the minimum number of tracking sites that will gather the data with the required signal margin. A very basic link analysis can be made by using the maximum and minimum gain values from the transmitting antenna pattern. Another way of evaluating the transmitting antenna gain is to base the gain on the highest percentile appearance of the highest gain value. This paper discusses the mathematical analysis the WSMR Telemetry Branch uses to determine the signal margin resulting from a radiating source along a nominal trajectory. The mathematical analysis calculates the missile aspect angles (Theta, Phi, and Alpha) to the telemetry tracking system that yields the transmitting antenna gain. The gain is obtained from the Antenna Radiation Distribution Table (ARDT) that is stored in a computer file. An entire trajectory can be evaluated for signal margin before an actual flight. The expected signal strength level can be compared to the actual signal strength level from the flight. This information can be used to evaluate any plume effects.

      Pedroza, Moises; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The selection of the Intermediate Frequency (IF) bandwidth filter for a data receiver for processing PCM data is based on using a peak deviation of 0.35 times the bit rate. The optimum IF bandwidth filter is equal to the bit rate. An IF bandwidth filter of 1.5 times the bit rate degrades the data by approximately 0.7 dB. The selection of the IF bandwidth filter for tracking receivers is based on the narrowest “noise bandwidth” that will yield the best system sensitivity. In some cases the noise bandwidth of the tracking receiver is the same as the IF bandwidth of the data receiver because it is the same receiver. If this is the case, the PCM bit rate determines the IF bandwidth and establishes the system sensitivity. With increasing bit rates and increased transmitter stability characteristics, the IF bandwidth filter selection criteria for a tracking receiver must include system sensitivity considerations. The tracking receiver IF bandwidth filter selection criteria should also be based on the narrowest IF bandwidth that will not cause the tracking errors to be masked by high bit rates and alter the pedestal dynamic response. This paper describes a selection criteria for a tracking receiver IF bandwidth filter based on measurements of the tracking error signals versus antenna pedestal dynamic response. Different IF bandwidth filters for low and high bit rates were used.
    • Design and Performance of Card Level Telemetry Receivers and Combiners

      O’Cull, Douglas; Microdyne Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      This paper will discuss the design and performance of card level telemetry receivers and combiners. This will include products that have been designed to operate in compact computer controlled environments such as VME chassis, VXI chassis and personal computers using ISA buses. The paper will discuss design considerations required to overcome limitation of this environment such as noise and space. The paper will also discuss the performance of a telemetry receiver and combiner in this environment. This will include performance test results such as bit error rate test, phase noise measurements and combiner improvement measurements. Finally, the paper will discuss typical applications of card level telemetry receivers and combiners.