• SYSCON 2000 and the DESA Data Relay System

      Anderson, Norman; Kirtland Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The Defense Evaluation Support Activity (DESA) is an independent Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) activity that provides tailored evaluation support to government organizations. DESA provides quick-response support capabilities and performs activities ranging from studies to large-scale field activities that include deployment, instrumentation, site setup, event execution, analysis and report writing. As the applications of computer systems has dramatically increased in recent year a corresponding increased has ocurred in the data processing needs of test orgznization. One client in particular wanted the realtime ability to track the performance of a country-wide communications system. Commercially developed networking software and hardware were employed to facilitate this requirement. To enhance DESA's off range test support capability a DESA system named SYSCON 2000 has been under steady development for the last five years. In particular the ability to use multiple voice grade telephone lines to create a wideband data channel from almost anywhere has been developed and refined. Link flexibility has been enhanced by the use of dedicated, COTS RF spread-spectrum links, cellular telephones, and other transmission media. The current version of SYSCON 2000 supports test director virtual presence via live data displays and video teleconferencing capability.
    • Open Systems Architecture in a COTS environment

      Stottlemyer, Alan R.; Hassett, Kevin M. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      A distributed architecture framework has been developed for NASA at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) as the basis for developing an extended series of space mission support data systems. The architecture is designed to include both mission development and operations. It specifically addresses the problems of standardizing a framework for which commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) applications and infrastructure are expected to provide most of the components of the systems. The resulting distributed architecture is developed based on a combination of a layered architecture, and carefully selected open standards. The layering provides the needed flexibility in mission design to support the wide variability of mission requirements. The standards are selected to address the most important interfaces, while not over constraining the implementation options.

      Richard, Gaetan C.; Donlin, Brian; Malibu Research Associates, Inc.; Science Applications Intl. Corp. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      This paper describes a new mobile self contained telemetry station designed for field testing of air-to-ground weapons. The telemetry station makes creative use of existing equipment and incorporates a unique dual axis tracking system to provide complete coverage of most missions.

      Kumar, Y. Ashok; Aprem, T. J.; Nadar, M.; ISRO (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      Generally, to meet the Telemetry and Tracking functions in space probes, RF packages are realised using dedicated circuit configurations and different building blocks. While this approach is warranted for certain Space missions, for some Space programmes, which are basically Technology demonstrators and where the main emphasis is on higher flexibility with minimal complexity - usage of multifunction RF modules (MFRM), would be highly avantageous. The MFRM, which can be considered as a RF package, has a flexible configuration and is built around Common basic building blocks like broadband MMIC, wide band amplifiers, switches, Dielectric Resonant Oscillators (DRO), Numerically Controlled Oscillators (NCO), etc. It also has a Microcontroller, whose function is to select the required configuration and make necessary interconnections between the building blocks, so as to achieve a specific end function, based on the pre set commands from system designer. The commands can either be preprogrammed or they can be through uplink Telecommand signals from the ground stations. A brief outline of the results of the proto unit of a MFRM which can be configured for different end RF functions, through a microcontroller is presented in the paper. It is expected that in Space missions like LEO programmes, Microsats, Reentry, Microgravity experiments etc, the MFRM approach would offer greater flexibility to the system designer at reduced-cost, complexity and production turn around time.
    • Document Retrieval Triggered by Spacecraft Anomaly: Using the Kolodner Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) Paradigm to Design a Fault-Induced Response System

      Kronberg, F.; Weiner, A.; Morgan, T.; Stroozas, B.; Girouard, E.; Hopkins, A.; Wong, L.; James, M.; Kneubuhl, J.; Malina, R. F.; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      We report on the initial design and development of a prototype computer-mediated response system, the Fault Induced Document Officer (FIDO), at the UC Berkeley Center for EUV Astrophysics (CEA) Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer project (EUVE). Typical 24x7 staffed spacecraft operations use highly skilled expert teams to monitor current ground systems and spacecraft state for responding to anomalous ground system and spacecraft conditions. Response to ground system error messages and spacecraft anomalies is based on knowledge of nominal component behavior and the evaluation of relevant telemetry by the team. This type of human-mediated operation is being replaced by an intelligent software system to reduce costs and to increase performance and reliability. FIDO is a prototype software application that will provide automated retrieval and display of documentation for operations staff. Initially, FIDO will be applied for ground systems. Later implementations of FIDO will target spacecraft systems. FIDO is intended to provide system state summary, links to relevant documentation, and suggestions for operator responses to error messages. FIDO will provide the operator with near realtime expert assistance and access to necessary information. This configuration should allow the resolution of many anomalies without the need for on-site intervention by a skilled controller or expert.

      Faulstich, Raymond J.; Burke, Lawrence W. Jr; D’Amico, William P. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The Army development and test community must demonstrate the functionality and reliability of gun-launched projectiles and munitions systems, especially newer smart munitions. The best method to satisfy this requirement is to combine existing optical and tracking systems data with internal data measured with on-board instrumentation (i.e. spin, pitch, and yaw measurements for standard items and terminal sensor, signal processor, and guidance/navigation system monitoring for smart munitions). Acquisition of internal data is usually limited by available space, harsh launch environments, and high associated costs. A technology development and demonstration effort is underway to provide a new generation of products for use in this high-g arena. This paper describes the goals, objectives, and progress of the Hardened Subminiature Telemetry and Sensor System (HSTSS) program.
    • Development of an EUVE Virtual Environment (EVE) System for Satellite Anomaly Resolution and Science Planning in Operations

      Wong, L.; Lewis, M.; Sabbaghi, N.; Kronberg, F.; Meriwether, D.; Chu, K.; Olson, E.; Morgan, T.; Malina, R. F.; University of California, Berkeley (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      This paper discusses the design and development of the EUVE Virtual Environment (EVE) system. The EVE system is being developed as an interactive virtual reality (VR) viewing tool for NASA's Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite. EVE will serve as a predictive tool for forecasting spacecraft constraint violations and will provide a capability for spacecraft problem analysis and resolution in realtime through visualization of the problem components in the spacecraft. EVE will animate, in three-dimensional realtime, the spacecraft dynamics and thermal characteristics of the EUVE spacecraft. EVE will also display the field of view for the science instrument detectors, star trackers, sun sensors, and both the omni and high-gain antennas for NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and for possible ground station contact. EVE will display other vital spacecraft information to support the routine operations of the EUVE spacecraft. The EVE system will provide three quick-look visualization functions: (1) to model in-orbit data for realtime spacecraft problem analysis and resolution, (2) to playback data for post-pass data analysis, and training exercises, and (3) to simulate data in the science planning process for optimum attitude determination and to predict spacecraft and thermal constraint violations. We present our preliminary design for a telemetry server, providing both realtime and post pass data, that uses standard Unix utilities. We also present possibilities for future integration of the EVE system with other software to automate the science planning and command generation functions of the satellite operations.

      Gladney, Ed; Lockheed Martin Telemetry & Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      NASA and Lockheed Martin Telemetry & Instrumentation have jointly developed a new data acquisition system for the Space Shuttle program. The system incorporates new technologies which will greatly reduce manpower requirements by automating many of the functions necessary to prepare the data acquisition system for each shuttle launch. This new system, the Automated Data Acquisition System (ADAS), is capable of configuring itself for each measurement without operator intervention. The key components of the ADAS are the Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA), the Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS), and the Data Acquisition System (DAS 450). The ADAS is currently being delivered and installed at Kennedy Space Center. NASA and Telemetry & Instrumentation are actively pursuing commercialization of the ADAS and its associated products which will be available during 1996.
    • The Principle and Performance Analysis of Spread Spectrum Microwave Unified TT&C System

      Jian, Zhang; Futang, Zhang; Xinan Electronic Engineering Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      Several different kinds of signal are transmitted through only one carrier in microwave unified telemetry tracking & control system(MUTTCS), which has replaced separate system to accomplish all TT&C functions, and has been widely used now. This paper analyses the advantages and disadvantages of general subcarrier frequency-division MUTTCS, then the principle and performances of advanced spread spectrum MUTTCS(SS-MUTTCS) are discussed in detail. The inherent ranging ability of PN code and the speciality of spread spectrum modulation realize the complete unification including measurement of range, velocity and angle as well as telemetry, telecontrol and communication functions. At the same time, the contradiction between range and velocity measurement in precision, resolution and measuring range can be solved. With CDMA technology, the signal and equipment of multi-target or multi-station TT&C can be unified easily. SS-MUTTCS operates under low S/N, low threshold, low power spectrum density and wide spectrum range, so it meet the requirements of electronic warfare and ECM, with high performance of safety, security, anti-intercept and anti-interference. Therefore, SSMUTTCS is becoming an important trend of modern vehicle TT&C system.

      Tolleth, Grant H.; Boeing Commercial Airplane Group (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      This paper describes the Production Monitor (PM), a result of integrating very diverse hardware architectures into a compact, portable, real time airborne data monitor, and data analysis station. Flight testing of aircraft is typically conducted with personnel aboard during flight. These personnel monitor real time data, play back recorded data, and adjust test suites to certify or analyze systems as quickly as possible. In the past, Boeing has used a variety of dissimilar equipment and software to meet our testing needs. During the process of standardizing and streamlining testing processes, the PM was developed. PM combines Data Flow, VME, Ethernet, and PC architectures into a single integrated system. This approach allows PM to run applications, provide indistinguishable operator interfaces, and use data bases and peripherals common to our other systems.

      Richard, Gaetan C.; Kiss, Laszlo; Malibu Research Associates, Inc.; Delta Prime, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      Lower operating budgets and reduced personnel are causing the operators of test ranges to consolidate their assets and seek ways to maximize their utilization. This paper presents the versatile approach used by the NASA Dryden Flight Test Facility located at Edwards Air Force Base to monitor, control and operate five of its diversely located telemetry systems from a central control room. It describes a new generation of multi-purpose antenna controllers which are currently being installed as part of this NASA upgrade program.

      Harwood, Peter; Wilson, Christopher; Sullivan, Arthur; Augustin, Eugene; Bradley Electronics Ltd; Technical Systems Associates, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The tracking system is part of a telemetry ground station being developed for the UK Ministry of Defence. The design objective is a self-contained transportable system for field use in a vehicle or workshop environment, so that the system components are required to be man portable. Comprehensive facilities are required for the reception, display and analysis of telemetry data from a remote 1430-1450MHz airborne source at ranges of up to 205km. Since tracking over water is a prime requirement the system must accommodate severe multipath fading. A detailed analysis of the link budget indicates that there is a major conflict between cost, portability, antenna size and the receiver complexity required to achieve a satisfactory performance margin. A baseline system is analysed using a four foot antenna. Methods for improving the performance are then considered including polarisation, frequency and space diversity coupled with alternative antenna types and configurations. The optimum solution utilises two six foot diameter shaped beam single axis antennas of unique design in conjunction with a receiving system which economically combines the elements of polarisation, frequency and space diversity.

      Berdugo, Albert; Small, Martin; Aydin Vector Division; Calculex, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      Modern High Density Digital Recorders (HDDR) are ideal devices for the storage of large amounts of digital and/or wideband analog data. Ruggedized versions of these recorders are currently available and are supporting many military and commercial flight test applications. However, in certain cases, the storage format becomes very critical, e.g., when a large number of data types are involved, or when channel-to-channel correlation is critical, or when the original data source must be accurately recreated during post mission analysis. A properly designed storage format will not only preserve data quality, but will yield the maximum storage capacity and record time for any given recorder family or data type. This paper describes a multiplex/demultiplex technique that formats multiple high speed data sources into a single, common format for recording. The method is compatible with many popular commercial recorder standards such as DCRsi, VLDS, and DLT. Types of input data typically include PCM, wideband analog data, video, aircraft data buses, avionics, voice, time code, and many others. The described method preserves tight data correlation with minimal data overhead. The described technique supports full reconstruction of the original input signals during data playback. Output data correlation across channels is preserved for all types of data inputs. Simultaneous real-time data recording and reconstruction are also supported.

      Homan, Rodney M.; Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The Department of Defense (DoD), through a Tri-Service Program Office, is developing the Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS) to promote standardization, commonality, and interoperability among aircraft test instrumentation systems. The advent of CAIS will change how the DoD test community conducts business. The CAIS program will allow aircraft test and evaluation facilities to utilize common airborne systems, ground support equipment, and technical knowledge for airborne instrumentation systems. The CAIS Toolset Software (CTS) provides the capability to generate formats and load/verify airborne memories. The CTS is primarily a software applications program hosted on an IBM compatible portable personal computer with several interface cards. The software will perform most functions without the presence of the interface cards to allow the user to develop test configurations and format loads on a desktop computer.

      Ferguson, Eugene M.; Hepner, David J. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The yawsonde is a device used at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) to investigate the in-flight behavior of spinning projectiles. The standard yawsonde consists of a pair of solar cells and slits that respond to solar rays. The sun is used as an inertial reference to measure the pitching and yawing motions of the projectile. An FM telemetry package transmits the sensor data to a ground receiving station for analysis. The standard yawsonde package is housed in an M577-type artillery fuse body. The spinning motion of the projectile serves as the sampling rate for the measurements. When the spin rate is not significantly higher than the yaw rate, multiple sets of sensors must be used to effectively increase the sampling rate. The pinhole yawsonde sensor was developed for projectiles that require multiple sets of sensors in a very limited space. This pinhole yawsonde consists of a number of sensors located behind pinholes placed around the projectile's circumference. Since each pinhole makes a yaw measurement, many measurements, or samples, are taken with each projectile spin revolution. More pinhole sensors may be added to increase the measurement sampling rate. One application of this yawsonde is to aid in evaluating the performance of tactical devices and inertial systems onboard projectiles with limited space for instrumentation.
    • Mission Analysis and Reporting System (MARS) - EW Analysis and Reporting On A Personal Computer

      Burton, Ken; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      In response to the need to analyze and report upon Electronic Warfare (EW) test data results in a comprehensive and uniform manner, the Mission Analysis and Reporting System (MARS) has been developed. MARS is a government owned PC based Windows application designed for rapid analysis and reporting upon EW test mission data. MARS currently performs Jammer Effectiveness ( Reduction In Lethality, Increase In Survivability, Reduction In Shot, and Reduction In Hit), Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) System performance (Threat ID, Response Time/Ageout, and Direction Finding (DF) Accuracy), and Tracking Error Statistics. Additionally, MARS produces several graphical outputs including polar plotting, dynamic strip charting, Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDF), and RWR Simulated Scope. Continual development and maintenance of MARS at the Air Force Development Test Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, has provided a proven product used by numerous DT&E and OT&E test projects over the last four years.
    • Applications of a Telemetry Signal Simulator

      O’Cull, Douglas; Microdyne Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      This paper will discuss the use of a specialized telemetry signal simulator for pre-mission verification of a telemetry receiving system. This will include how to configure tests that will determine system performance under “real time” conditions such as multipath fading and Doppler shifting. The paper will analyze a telemetry receiving system and define tests for each part of the system. This will include tests for verification of the antenna system. Also included, will be tests for verification of the receiver/combiner system. The paper will further discuss how adding PCM simulation capabilities to the signal simulator will allow testing of frame synchronizers and decomutation equipment.
    • FX+ Storage and Exchange Structure of Multiplexed Data for Off-line Operations

      Becue, Alain; DASSAULT AVIATION (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      With the technological evolution of flying equipment, computing and store capacity we need to have a new view of the methods of acquisition, storage and archiving data.
    • Predicting Failures and Estimating Duration of Remaining Service Life from Satellite Telemetry

      Losik, Len; Wahl, Sheila; Owen, Lewis; Lockheed Martin Telemetry & Instrumentation; Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      This paper addresses research completed for predicting hardware failures and estimating remaining service life for satellite components using a Failure Prediction Process (FPP). It is a joint paper, presenting initial research completed at the University of California, Berkeley, Center for Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Astrophysics using telemetry from the EUV EXPLORER (EUVE) satellite and statistical computation analysis completed by Lockheed Martin. This work was used in identifying suspect "failure precursors." Lockheed Martin completed an exploration into the application of statistical pattern recognition methods to identify FPP events observed visually by the human expert. Both visual and statistical methods were successful in detecting suspect failure precursors. An estimate for remaining service life for each unit was made from the time the suspect failure precursor was identified. It was compared with the actual time the equipment remained operable. The long-term objective of this research is to develop a resident software module which can provide information on FPP events automatically, economically, and with high reliability for long-term management of spacecraft, aircraft, and ground equipment. Based on the detection of a Failure Prediction Process event, an estimate of remaining service life for the unit can be calculated and used as a basis to manage the failure.
    • IMACCS: A Progress Report on NASA/GSFC's COTS-Based Ground Data Systems, and Their Extension into New Domains

      Scheidker, E. J.; Pendley, R. D.; Rashkin, R. M.; Weking, R. D.; Cruse, B. G.; Bracken, M. A.; CSC; Altair Aerospace; NASA GSFC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The Integrated Monitoring, Analysis, and Control COTS System (IMACCS), a system providing real time satellite command and telemetry support, orbit and attitude determination, events prediction, and data trending, was implemented in 90 days at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in 1995. This paper describes upgrades made to the original commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS)-based prototype. These upgrades include automation capability and spacecraft Integration and Testing (I&T) capability. A further extension to the prototype is the establishment of a direct RF interface to a spacecraft. As with the original prototype, all of these enhancements required lower staffing levels and reduced schedules compared to custom system development approaches. The team's approach to system development, including taking advantage of COTS and legacy software, is also described.