Schumacher, Gary A.; Terametrix Systems International, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      PC based instrumentation and telemetry processing systems are attractive because of their ease of use, familiarity, and affordability. The evolution of PC computing power has resulted in a telemetry processing system easily up to most tasks, even for control of and processing of data from a very complex system such as the Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS) used on the new Lockheed-Martin F-22. A complete system including decommutators, bit synchronizers, IRIG time code readers, simulators, DACs, live video, and tape units for logging can be installed in a rackmount, desktop, or even portable enclosure. The PC/104 standard represents another step forward in the PC industry evolution towards the goals of lower power consumption, smaller size, and greater capacity. The advent of this standard and the availability of processors and peripherals in this form factor has made possible the development of a new generation of portable low cost test equipment. This paper will outline the advantages and applications offered by a full-function, standalone, rugged, and portable instrumentation controller. Applications of this small (5.25"H x 8.0"W x 9.5"L) unit could include: flight line instrumentation check-out, onboard aircraft data monitoring, automotive testing, small craft testing, helicopter testing, and just about any other application where small-size, affordability, and capability are required.

      Mahon, John P. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      This paper contains a description of a new technology tracking feed and a discussion of the features which make this feed unique and allow it to perform better than any other comparable feed. Also included in this report are measured primary antenna patterns, measured and estimated phase tracking performance and estimated aperture efficiency. The latter two items were calculated by integrating the measured primary patterns.
    • Overcoming the Constraints on Modeling Telemetry in VR Systems

      Sabbaghi, Navid; University of California, Berkeley (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      Virtual reality (VR) provides science operators with a time-saving tool for interpreting telemetry data. Therefore, the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite operations team decided to develop an inexpensive VR system to best address human operators' needs. The EVE (EUVE Virtual Environment) Project developed a solution to the issue of attaining maximum quality representation for minimal cost via a series of weighted trade-offs that maximize return with minimal development costs. Quantification of realism, methods of graphic representation, and hardware and software limitations are discussed.
    • GPS and a Modern Data Link Supporting the Synthetic Battlefield

      Lettiere, Chris; Raimondo, Nat; Macdonald, Tom; US Air Force; TASC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      This paper describes the use of GPS, a data communication network, and modern simulation techniques to create a synthetic battlefield for testing and training applications. It will discuss recent experiments conducted by the DoD to evaluate this approach.

      Lam, Barbara; Jet Propulsion Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      This paper presents a new architecture of the end-to-end ground system to reduce overall mission support costs. The present ground system of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is costly to operate, maintain, deploy, reproduce, and document. In the present climate of shrinking NASA budgets, this proposed architecture takes on added importance as it will dramatically reduce all of the above costs. Currently, the ground support functions (i.e., receiver, tracking, ranging, telemetry, command, monitor and control) are distributed among several subsystems that are housed in individual rack-mounted chassis. These subsystems can be integrated into one portable laptop system using established MultiChip Module (MCM) packaging technology. The large scale integration of subsystems into a small portable system will greatly reduce operations, maintenance and reproduction costs. Several of the subsystems can be implemented using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) products further decreasing non-recurring engineering costs. The inherent portability of the system will open up new ways for using the ground system at the “point-of-use” site as opposed to maintaining several large centralized stations. This eliminates the propagation delay of the data to the Principal Investigator (PI), enabling the capture of data in real-time and performing multiple tasks concurrently from any location in the world. Sample applications are to use the portable ground system in remote areas or mobile vessels for real-time correlation of satellite data with earth-bound instruments; thus, allowing near real-time feedback and control of scientific instruments. This end-to-end portable ground system will undoubtedly create opportunities for better scientific observation and data acquisition.
    • Group Telemetry Analysis Using the World Wide Web

      Kalibjian, Jeffrey R.; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      Today it is not uncommon to have large contractor teams involved in the design and deployment of even small satellite systems. The larger (and more geographically remote) the team members, the more difficult it becomes to efficiently manage the disbursement of telemetry data for evaluation and analysis. Further complications are introduced if some of the telemetry data is sensitive. An application is described which can facilitate telemetry data sharing utilizing the National Information Infrastructure (Internet).

      Homan, Rodney M.; Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The Department of Defense (DoD), through a Tri-Service Program Office, is developing the Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS) to promote standardization, commonality, and interoperability among aircraft test instrumentation systems. The advent of CAIS will change how the DoD test community conducts business. The CAIS program will allow aircraft test and evaluation facilities to utilize common airborne systems, ground support equipment, and technical knowledge for airborne instrumentation systems. The CAIS Toolset Software (CTS) provides the capability to generate formats and load/verify airborne memories. The CTS is primarily a software applications program hosted on an IBM compatible portable personal computer with several interface cards. The software will perform most functions without the presence of the interface cards to allow the user to develop test configurations and format loads on a desktop computer.
    • Mission Analysis and Reporting System (MARS) - EW Analysis and Reporting On A Personal Computer

      Burton, Ken; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      In response to the need to analyze and report upon Electronic Warfare (EW) test data results in a comprehensive and uniform manner, the Mission Analysis and Reporting System (MARS) has been developed. MARS is a government owned PC based Windows application designed for rapid analysis and reporting upon EW test mission data. MARS currently performs Jammer Effectiveness ( Reduction In Lethality, Increase In Survivability, Reduction In Shot, and Reduction In Hit), Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) System performance (Threat ID, Response Time/Ageout, and Direction Finding (DF) Accuracy), and Tracking Error Statistics. Additionally, MARS produces several graphical outputs including polar plotting, dynamic strip charting, Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDF), and RWR Simulated Scope. Continual development and maintenance of MARS at the Air Force Development Test Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, has provided a proven product used by numerous DT&E and OT&E test projects over the last four years.

      Ferguson, Eugene M.; Hepner, David J. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The yawsonde is a device used at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) to investigate the in-flight behavior of spinning projectiles. The standard yawsonde consists of a pair of solar cells and slits that respond to solar rays. The sun is used as an inertial reference to measure the pitching and yawing motions of the projectile. An FM telemetry package transmits the sensor data to a ground receiving station for analysis. The standard yawsonde package is housed in an M577-type artillery fuse body. The spinning motion of the projectile serves as the sampling rate for the measurements. When the spin rate is not significantly higher than the yaw rate, multiple sets of sensors must be used to effectively increase the sampling rate. The pinhole yawsonde sensor was developed for projectiles that require multiple sets of sensors in a very limited space. This pinhole yawsonde consists of a number of sensors located behind pinholes placed around the projectile's circumference. Since each pinhole makes a yaw measurement, many measurements, or samples, are taken with each projectile spin revolution. More pinhole sensors may be added to increase the measurement sampling rate. One application of this yawsonde is to aid in evaluating the performance of tactical devices and inertial systems onboard projectiles with limited space for instrumentation.
    • Measurement of Telemetry Signal Delays Caused by the Use of Asynchronous Multiplexers/Demultiplexers

      Law, Eugene L.; NAWCWPNS (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      This paper will describe a test technique developed to measure the delays caused by the use of asynchronous multiplexers/demultiplexers. These devices are used for both signal transmission (microwave and fiber optic) and signal recording (especially helical scan digital recorders). The test technique involves the generation and decoding of asynchronous telemetry signals. The bit rates of the telemetry signals are variable. Relative time is embedded in the telemetry signal as a 32-bit data word. The paper will also present measured delays for two multiplexers/demultiplexers for different combinations of bit rates.
    • State Modeling and Pass Automation in Spacecraft Control

      Klein, Jim; Kulp, Dan; Rashkin, Bob (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The Integrated Monitoring and Control COTS System (IMACCS) was developed as a proof-of-concept to show that commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products could be integrated to provide spacecraft ground support faster and cheaper than current practices. A key component of IMACCS is the Altair Mission Control System (AMCS), one of several commercial packages available for satellite command and control. It is distinguished from otherwise similar tools by its implementation of Finite State Modeling as part of its expert system capability. Using the Finite State Modeling and State Transition capabilities of the ALTAIR Mission Control System (AMCS), IMACCS was enhanced to provide automated monitoring, routine pass support, anomaly resolution, and emergency "lights on again" response. Orbit determination and production of typical flight dynamics products, such as acquisition times and vectors, have also been automated.
    • Desktop GPS Analyst Standardized GPS Data Processing and Analysis on a Personal Computer

      Hart, Dennis L.; Pappas, Johnny J.; Lindegren, John E.; TYBRIN Corporation; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      In the last few years there has been a proliferation of GPS receivers and receiver manufacturers. Couple this with a growing number of DoD test programs requiring high accuracy Time-Space-Position-Information (TSPI) with diminishing test support funds and/or needing a wide area, low altitude or surface tracking capability. The Air Force Development Test Center (AFDTC) recognized the growing requirements for using GPS in test programs and the need for a low cost, portable TSPI processing capability which sparked the development of the Desktop GPS Analyst. The Desktop GPS Analyst is a personal computer (PC) based software application for the generation of GPS-based TSPI.
    • Doppler Video Signal Conditioning, Theory of Operation

      Cirineo, Tony; NAWC-WD (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      This paper describes some of the signal conditioning and processing circuits that were developed to reconstruct the doppler video signal from a radar receiver under test. The reconstructed doppler video signal is then digitized and put into a telemetry frame for transmission to a ground receiving station.
    • Point to Multipoint Communication with DS/SSMA and MPSK

      Zhao, Xianming; Zhao, Honglin; Zhou, Tingxian (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      It is always desirable to transmit several data signals simultaneously. This paper discusses how one transmitter can transmit several data signals to several receivers at the same time in a Point to Multipoint communication system. Two novel schemes are proposed. One is communication with Multiple Phase Shift Keying(MPSK,e.g.8PSK),another is communication with Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Multiple-Access(DS/SSMA). Their models are presented and their operations are illustrated. It is proved theoretically that the communication properties of DS/SSMA are better than those of another.

      Kumar, Y. Ashok; Aprem, T. J.; Nadar, M.; ISRO (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      Generally, to meet the Telemetry and Tracking functions in space probes, RF packages are realised using dedicated circuit configurations and different building blocks. While this approach is warranted for certain Space missions, for some Space programmes, which are basically Technology demonstrators and where the main emphasis is on higher flexibility with minimal complexity - usage of multifunction RF modules (MFRM), would be highly avantageous. The MFRM, which can be considered as a RF package, has a flexible configuration and is built around Common basic building blocks like broadband MMIC, wide band amplifiers, switches, Dielectric Resonant Oscillators (DRO), Numerically Controlled Oscillators (NCO), etc. It also has a Microcontroller, whose function is to select the required configuration and make necessary interconnections between the building blocks, so as to achieve a specific end function, based on the pre set commands from system designer. The commands can either be preprogrammed or they can be through uplink Telecommand signals from the ground stations. A brief outline of the results of the proto unit of a MFRM which can be configured for different end RF functions, through a microcontroller is presented in the paper. It is expected that in Space missions like LEO programmes, Microsats, Reentry, Microgravity experiments etc, the MFRM approach would offer greater flexibility to the system designer at reduced-cost, complexity and production turn around time.

      Richard, Gaetan C.; Donlin, Brian; Malibu Research Associates, Inc.; Science Applications Intl. Corp. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      This paper describes a new mobile self contained telemetry station designed for field testing of air-to-ground weapons. The telemetry station makes creative use of existing equipment and incorporates a unique dual axis tracking system to provide complete coverage of most missions.

      Eccles, Lee H.; Boeing Commercial Airplane Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      This paper discusses a “Smart Sensor” interface being developed for use in the Boeing Company. Several laboratory groups and Flight Test have joined in a study to define such an interface. It will allow a data acquisition system to record data from a large number of “Smart Sensors”. A single pair of wires will form a bus to interface the sensors to the data system. Most systems will need more than one bus. Some needs exist for "Smart Actuators" as well to allow for closed loop control within the laboratories. The process control industry has developed several candidate busses. The groups are now in the process of evaluating the capabilities of the available busses to see which ones, if any, will do our job. To see if anyone else has similar needs, these requirements and the candidate busses are being shared. The goal is to see if some form of cooperation is possible.
    • Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM): Preparing for a New Generation of Telemetry

      Chalfant, Timothy A.; Straehley, Erwin H.; Switzer, Earl R. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      At open air test and training ranges, telemetry is beset by two opposing forces. One is the inexorable demand to deliver more information to users who must make decisions in ever shorter time frames. The other is the reduced availability of radio frequency spectrum, driven by its increased economic value to society as a whole. ARTM is planned to assure that test and training programs of the next several decades can meet their data quantity and quality objectives in the faces of these challenges. ARTM expects to improve the efficiency of spectrum usage by changing historical methods of acquiring telemetry data and transmitting it from systems under test to range customers. The program is initiating advances in coding, compression, data channel assignment, and modulation. Due to the strong interactions of these four dimensions, the effort is integrated in a single focused program. In that these are problems which are common throughout the test and training community, ARTM is a tri-service program embodying the DoD's Common Test and Training Range Architecture and Reliance principles in its management and organization. This paper will discuss the driving forces, the initial study areas, the organizational structure, and the program goals.
    • FX+ Storage and Exchange Structure of Multiplexed Data for Off-line Operations

      Becue, Alain; DASSAULT AVIATION (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      With the technological evolution of flying equipment, computing and store capacity we need to have a new view of the methods of acquisition, storage and archiving data.

      Harvey, Raymond J.; Baer, Glen E. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The Mission Operations Center (MOC) at APL is the first processing link in the MSX data system. Two key components of the MOC that play a role in the telemetry acquisition and processing functions are the Mission Control Center (MCC) and the Mission Processing Center (MPC). This paper will present a summary of the telemetry acquisition and data processing structure built to handle the high volume of MSX data and the unique hardware and software systems to perform these functions. The primary responsibility of the MCC is to maintain the health and safety of the MSX spacecraft. This is accomplished by communicating with the spacecraft through the APL stations and the AFSCN. The MCC receives the spacecraft housekeeping 16 Kb telemetry stream and commands the spacecraft via the 2K command link. Due to the complexity of the spacecraft various analysis tools exist to evaluate the spacecraft health and to generate commands for controlling the spacecraft. The primary responsibility of the MPC is the initial processing of the 1Mb and 25Mb spacecraft science telemetry streams. The science data is recorded in a raw format, both analog and digital, and a digital 8 mm tape format, Level 1A tape, which serves the MSX program as the transport media and format for science data dissemination. The MPC also collects downlink data from the MCC and planning products from the Operations Planning Center for inclusion on the Level 1A tape to enable the MSX data community to analysis the data. This data is sent electronically to the MPC via a LAN. One of the key products provided on the Level 1A tape from the MCC is a measure of the spacecraft clock against time standards. The MPC consists of a hardware front end for the capture and formatting of the science data and a computer system for the processing of the formatted science data to produce Level 1A tapes. The hardware front end includes wideband analog recorders, decryption devices, data selectors, bit sync, and frame syncs. One of the unique features of the 25 Mb telemetry stream is that is transmitted to the ground in the reverse direction. The MPC must then reverse the data again which is accomplished via analog recorders in order to perform further processing. The computer system consists of three model VAX 4000 computers with 107 Gb of disk space and 12 8 mm tape drives. One VAX is task with reading the 25 Mb telemetry onto the disk. The second VAX reads to the 1Mb telemetry onto the disk and produces a digital 8 mm tape of the raw data. The third VAX is tasks with processing the data and writing the Level 1A tapes. The systems architecture is such that while today's data is being downlinked yesterday's data is being processed and written to Level 1A tapes. Custom software was developed to perform the processing and data management within the MPC.