• Communication System Applications for Shipboard Data Collection and Networking

      Peterson, Dwight M.; Instrumentation Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The assessment of weapons and combat system performance requires the collection and networking of data from shipboard and land based locations. New programs being introduced and tested, such as the Cooperative Engagement Capability, Theater Ballistic Missile Defense, and All Service Combat Identification Evaluation Team, generate gigabytes of data which must be reduced, transferred, and analyzed. Test conductors, headquarters personnel, and military commanders require analysis results in near real time to evaluate system performance during a test or exercise. This paper will discuss communication system applications for shipboard data collection and networking to collect, reduce, and transfer the large amounts of data generated during current and planned Navy and Joint exercises. Examples of using 56 Kbit/Second International Maritime Satellite, range based line-of-sight networking, and integrated workstation applications will be addressed and lessons learned shared from actual installation and use.
    • The Family of Interoperable Range System Transceivers (First)

      Cameron, Alan; Cirineo, Tony; Eggertsen, Karl (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The objective of the FIRST project is to define a modern DoD Standard Datalink capability. This defined capability or standard is to provide a solution to wide variety of test and training range digital data radio communications problems with a common set of components, flexible to fit a broad range of applications, yet be affordable in all of them. This capability is to be specially designed to meet the expanding range distances and data transmissions rates needed to test modern weapon systems. Presently, the primary focus of the project is more on software, protocols, design techniques and standards, than on hardware development. Existing capabilities, on going developments and emerging technologies are being investigated and will be utilized as appropriate. Modern processingintensive communications technology can perform many complex range data communications tasks effectively, but a large-scale development effort is usually necessary to exploit it to its full potential. Yet, range communications problems are generally of limited scope, so different from one another that a communication system applicable to all of them is not likely to solve any of them well. FIRST will resolve that dilemma by capitalizing on another feature of modern communications technology: its high degree of programmability. This can enable custom-tailoring of datalink operation to particular applications, just as a PC can be tailored to perform a multitude of diverse tasks, through appropriate selection of software and hardware components.
    • Digital Video Telemetry System

      Thom, Gary A.; Snyder, Edwin; Delta Information Systems; Aydin Vector (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The ability to acquire real-time video from flight test platforms is becoming an important requirement in many test programs. Video is often required to give the flight test engineers a view of critical events during a test such as instrumentation performance or weapons separation. Digital video systems are required because they allow encryption of the video information during transmission. This paper describes a Digital Video Telemetry System that uses improved video compression techniques which typically offer at least a 10:1 improvement in image quality over currently used techniques. This improvement is the result of inter-frame coding and motion compensation which other systems do not use. Better quality video at the same bit rate, or the same quality video at a lower bit rate is achieved. The Digital Video Telemetry System also provides for multiplexing the video information with other telemetered data prior to encryption.
    • SPIRIT III Data Verification Processing

      Garlick, Dean; Wada, Glen; Krull, Pete (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      This paper will discuss the functions performed by the Spatial Infrared Imaging Telescope (SPIRIT) III Data Processing Center (DPC) at Utah State University (USU). The SPIRIT III sensor is the primary instrument on the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite; and as builder of this sensor system, USU is responsible for developing and operating the associated DPC. The SPIRIT III sensor consists of a six-color long-wave infrared (LWIR) radiometer system, an LWIR spectrographic interferometer, contamination sensors, and housekeeping monitoring systems. The MSX spacecraft recorders can capture up to 8+ gigabytes of data a day from this sensor. The DPC is subsequently required to provide a 24-hour turnaround to verify and qualify these data by implementing a complex set of sensor and data verification and quality checks. This paper addresses the computing architecture, distributed processing software, and automated data verification processes implemented to meet these requirements.

      Bocchino, Chris; Hamilton, William (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The future of range operations in the area of expendable launch vehicle (ELV) support is unquestionably headed in the direction of space-based rather than land- or air-based assets for such functions as metric tracking or telemetry data collection. To this end, an effort was recently completed by the Air Force’s Eastern Range (ER) to certify NASA’s Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) as a viable and operational asset to be used for telemetry coverage during future Titan IV/Centaur launches. The test plan developed to demonstrate this capability consisted of three parts: 1) a bit error rate test; 2) a bit-by-bit compare of data recorded via conventional means vice the TDRSS network while the vehicle was radiating in a fixed position from the pad; and 3) an in-flight demonstration to ensure positive radio frequency (RF) link and usable data during critical periods of telemetry collection. The subsequent approval by the Air Force of this approach allows future launch vehicle contractors a relatively inexpensive and reliable means of telemetry data collection even when launch trajectories are out of sight of land-based assets or when land- or aircraft-based assets are not available for support.
    • National Guard Data Relay and the LAV Sensor System

      Defibaugh, June; Anderson, Norman; Kirtland Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The Defense Evaluation Support Activity (DESA) is an independent Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) activity that provides tailored evaluation support to government organizations. DESA provides quick-response support capabilities and performs activities ranging from studies to large-scale field activities that include deployment, instrumentation, site setup, event execution, analysis and report writing. The National Guard Bureau requested DESA's assistance in the development and field testing of the Light Armored Vehicle (LAV) Sensor Suite (LSS). LSS was integrated by DESA to provide a multi-sensor suite that detects and identifies ground targets on foot or in vehicles with minimal operator workload. The LSS was designed primarily for deployment in high density drug trafficking areas along the northern and southern borders using primarily commercial-off-the-shelf and government-off-the-shelf equipment. Field testing of the system prototype in summer of 1995 indicates that the LSS will provide a significant new data collection and transfer capability to the National Guard in control of illegal drug transfer across the U.S. borders.
    • Range Error in Transmission Channel of TT&C

      Jiaxing, Liu; The Southwest Institute of Electronics Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      This paper summarize range error caused by instability of transmission characteristics and change of signal frequency and amplitude. On the basis of transmission system's modulation-demodulation combined characteristic, amplitude-frequency characteristics even symmetry, phase-frequency characteristics odd symmetry, phase orthogonality of demodulator, author analyses influence of factors on range accuracy. And formulas of phase of ranging tone are derived. Using these formulas, the many factors having influence on drift range error may be calculated, and range accuracy can be improved. Above conclusion has been testfied and applied in TT&C system for years.
    • Use of XRunner for Automation

      Lin, D. C.; Klein, J. R.; Pendley, R. D.; Hoge, S. L.; CSC; NASA GSFC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      XRunner, a UNIX, client-server based, automated record-replay test tool developed by Mercury Interactive Corporation, was used by a project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center to automate intensive GUI/window-driven satellite operations functions. This work was part of the Integrated Monitoring, Analysis and Control COTS System (IMACCS), a COTS integration prototype development effort. XRunner, running in its object-oriented context sensitive mode, recorded the window/push-button images of significant events in spacecraft operations with sequential steps and generated test script language (TSL) for subsequent replay or test verification. The recorded TSL was optimized such that scenario replay timing, sequencing, grouping, and UNIX interactions became simple, easily-automated tasks instead of manually intensive, error-prone operations. This feature of the XRunner tool is expected to greatly enhance operations and testing.
    • The Principle and Performance Analysis of Spread Spectrum Microwave Unified TT&C System

      Jian, Zhang; Futang, Zhang; Xinan Electronic Engineering Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      Several different kinds of signal are transmitted through only one carrier in microwave unified telemetry tracking & control system(MUTTCS), which has replaced separate system to accomplish all TT&C functions, and has been widely used now. This paper analyses the advantages and disadvantages of general subcarrier frequency-division MUTTCS, then the principle and performances of advanced spread spectrum MUTTCS(SS-MUTTCS) are discussed in detail. The inherent ranging ability of PN code and the speciality of spread spectrum modulation realize the complete unification including measurement of range, velocity and angle as well as telemetry, telecontrol and communication functions. At the same time, the contradiction between range and velocity measurement in precision, resolution and measuring range can be solved. With CDMA technology, the signal and equipment of multi-target or multi-station TT&C can be unified easily. SS-MUTTCS operates under low S/N, low threshold, low power spectrum density and wide spectrum range, so it meet the requirements of electronic warfare and ECM, with high performance of safety, security, anti-intercept and anti-interference. Therefore, SSMUTTCS is becoming an important trend of modern vehicle TT&C system.
    • Development of an EUVE Virtual Environment (EVE) System for Satellite Anomaly Resolution and Science Planning in Operations

      Wong, L.; Lewis, M.; Sabbaghi, N.; Kronberg, F.; Meriwether, D.; Chu, K.; Olson, E.; Morgan, T.; Malina, R. F.; University of California, Berkeley (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      This paper discusses the design and development of the EUVE Virtual Environment (EVE) system. The EVE system is being developed as an interactive virtual reality (VR) viewing tool for NASA's Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite. EVE will serve as a predictive tool for forecasting spacecraft constraint violations and will provide a capability for spacecraft problem analysis and resolution in realtime through visualization of the problem components in the spacecraft. EVE will animate, in three-dimensional realtime, the spacecraft dynamics and thermal characteristics of the EUVE spacecraft. EVE will also display the field of view for the science instrument detectors, star trackers, sun sensors, and both the omni and high-gain antennas for NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and for possible ground station contact. EVE will display other vital spacecraft information to support the routine operations of the EUVE spacecraft. The EVE system will provide three quick-look visualization functions: (1) to model in-orbit data for realtime spacecraft problem analysis and resolution, (2) to playback data for post-pass data analysis, and training exercises, and (3) to simulate data in the science planning process for optimum attitude determination and to predict spacecraft and thermal constraint violations. We present our preliminary design for a telemetry server, providing both realtime and post pass data, that uses standard Unix utilities. We also present possibilities for future integration of the EVE system with other software to automate the science planning and command generation functions of the satellite operations.
    • SYSCON 2000 and the DESA Data Relay System

      Anderson, Norman; Kirtland Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The Defense Evaluation Support Activity (DESA) is an independent Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) activity that provides tailored evaluation support to government organizations. DESA provides quick-response support capabilities and performs activities ranging from studies to large-scale field activities that include deployment, instrumentation, site setup, event execution, analysis and report writing. As the applications of computer systems has dramatically increased in recent year a corresponding increased has ocurred in the data processing needs of test orgznization. One client in particular wanted the realtime ability to track the performance of a country-wide communications system. Commercially developed networking software and hardware were employed to facilitate this requirement. To enhance DESA's off range test support capability a DESA system named SYSCON 2000 has been under steady development for the last five years. In particular the ability to use multiple voice grade telephone lines to create a wideband data channel from almost anywhere has been developed and refined. Link flexibility has been enhanced by the use of dedicated, COTS RF spread-spectrum links, cellular telephones, and other transmission media. The current version of SYSCON 2000 supports test director virtual presence via live data displays and video teleconferencing capability.
    • Inexpensive Rate-1/6 Convolutional Decoder for Integration and Test Purposes

      Mengel, Edwin E.; Simpson, Mark E. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) satellite will travel to the asteroid 433 Eros, arriving there early in 1999, and orbit the asteroid for 1 year taking measurements that will map the surface features and determine its elemental composition. NEAR is the first satellite to use the rate-1/6 convolutional encoding on its telemetry downlink. Due to the scarcity and complexity of full decoders, APL designed and built a less capable but inexpensive version of the decoder for use in the integration, test, and prelaunch checkout of the rate-1/6 encoder. This paper describes the rationale for the design, how it works, and the features that are included.
    • A World Wide Web Interface for Automated Spacecraft Operation

      Kitts, Christopher; Tillier, Clemens; Stanford University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      A ground based intelligent agent and operations network is being created to handle all aspects of spacecraft command and control. This system will have the dual purpose of enabling cost efficient operation of a number of small satellites and serving as a flexible testbed for the validation of space system autonomy strategies. The system is currently being targeted to include over a dozen globally distributed amateur radio ground stations and access to nearly ten spacecraft. The use of distributed computing systems and virtual interaction schemes are significantly contributing to the creation of this system. The Internet is used to link the network's control centers and ground stations. In addition, a World Wide Web (WWW) based user and operator interface is being developed to permit high level goal specification of spacecraft experiments and actions. This paper will describe the operating network being developed, the use of the Internet as an integral part of the system's architecture, the design of the WWW interface, and the future development of the system.
    • Remote Control Multiple Mobile Target System with CDMA

      Zhao, Honglin; Zhao, Xianming; Zhou, Tingxian (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      At present, multiple mobile targets will be remote controlled in many remote control and telemetry system, in which multiple access technology will be applied. This paper proposes a communication scheme to remote control multiple mobile targets using Coded-Division Multiple Access(CDMA) technique. It's feasibility, advantage and shortcoming are analyzed. Moreover, the key techniques of Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum(DS/SS) system, i.e. the correlation detection and delay lock-on techniques, are studied and stimulated on the experimental model. The results of theoretical analysis show that the CDMA system has the peculiar advantage over the conventional multiple access system, such as FDMA and TDMA.
    • EUVE Telemetry Processing and Filtering for Autonomous Satellite Instrument Monitoring

      Eckert, M.; Smith, C.; Kronberg, F.; Girouard, F.; Hopkins, A.; Wong, L.; Ringrose, P.; Stroozas, B.; Malina, R. F.; University of California, Berkeley (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      A strategy for addressing the complexity of problem identification and notification by autonomous telemetry monitoring software is discussed. The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite's science operations center (ESOC) is completing a transition to autonomous operations. Originally staffed by two people, twenty-four hours every day, the ESOC is nearing the end of a phased transition to unstaffed monitoring of the science payload health. To develop criteria for the implementation of autonomous operations we first identified and analyzed potential risk areas. These risk areas were then considered in light of a fully staffed operations model, and in several reduced staffing models. By understanding the accepted risk in the nominal, fully staffed model, we could define what criteria to use in comparing the effectiveness of reduced staff models. The state of the scientific instrument package for EUVE is evaluated by a rule-based telemetry processing software package. In the fully automated implementation, anomalous states are characterized in three tiers: critical to immediate instrument health and safety, non-critical to immediate instrument health and safety, and affecting science data only. Each state requires specific action on the part of the engineering staff, and the response time is determined by the tier. The strategy for implementing this prioritized, autonomous instrument monitoring and paging system is presented. We have experienced a variety of problems in our implementation of this strategy, many of which we have overcome. Problems addressed include: dealing with data dropouts, determining if instrument knowledge is current, reducing the number of times personnel are paged for a single problem, prohibiting redundant notification of known problems, delaying notification of problems for instrument states that do not jeopardize the immediate health of the instrument, assuring a response to problems in a timely manner by engineering staff, and communicating problems and response status among responsible personnel.
    • The Challenge of Programmed Tracking Low Orbit Satellites from Mobile Ground Stations

      Hoecht, Dietrich; Scientific Atlanta Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      Orbiting satellites can be tracked by following preprogrammed ephemeris data in the ground station controller. This tracking method is advantageous, because of the reduced acquisition cost of non-autotracking receiver and antenna feed components. Further, widely separated frequency bands can readily be tracked, without the complexity of a frequency specific auto-track system. Two types of mobile tracking systems are described. They are composed of elevation-over-azimuth-over-tilt and of an X-Y axis pedestal configuration. The calibration methods for establishing time and geographical references are discussed, as well as the challenges of minimizing the effects of system and environment induced error contributors.
    • Lossless Compression of Telemetry Data

      Açikel, Ömer Fatih; Ryan, William E.; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      Sandia National Laboratories is faced with the problem of losslessly compressing digitized data produced by various measurement transducers. Their interest is in compressing the data as it is created, i.e., in real time. In this work we examine a number of lossless compression schemes with an eye toward their compression efficiencies and compression speeds. The various algorithms are applied to data files supplied by Sandia containing actual vibration data.

      Gladney, Ed; Lockheed Martin Telemetry & Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      NASA and Lockheed Martin Telemetry & Instrumentation have jointly developed a new data acquisition system for the Space Shuttle program. The system incorporates new technologies which will greatly reduce manpower requirements by automating many of the functions necessary to prepare the data acquisition system for each shuttle launch. This new system, the Automated Data Acquisition System (ADAS), is capable of configuring itself for each measurement without operator intervention. The key components of the ADAS are the Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA), the Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS), and the Data Acquisition System (DAS 450). The ADAS is currently being delivered and installed at Kennedy Space Center. NASA and Telemetry & Instrumentation are actively pursuing commercialization of the ADAS and its associated products which will be available during 1996.

      Markwardt, Jack; LaPoint, Steve (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) is developing new Theater Missile Defense (TMD) and National Missile Defense (NMD) weapon systems to defend against the expanding ballistic missile threat. In the arms control arena, theater ballistic missile threats have been defined to include systems with reentry velocities up to five kilometers per second and strategic ballistic missile threats have reentry velocities that exceed five kilometers per second. The development and testing of TMD systems such as the Army Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) and the Navy Area Theater Ballistic Missile Defense (TBMD) Lower Tier, and NMD systems such as the Army Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle and the Army Ground-Based Radar, pose exceptional challenges that stem from extreme acquisition range and high telemetry data transfer rates. Potential Central Pacific range locations include U.S. Army Kwajalien Atoll/Kwajalein Missile Range (USAKA/KMR) and the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) with target launches from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Wake Island, Aur Atoll, Johnston Island, and, possibly, an airborne platform. Safety considerations for remote target launches dictate utilization of high-data-rate, on-board instrumentation; technical performance measurement dictates transmission of focal plane array data; and operational requirements dictate intercepts at exoatmospheric altitudes and long slant ranges. The high gain, high data rate, telemetry acquisition requirements, coupled with loss of the upper S-band spectrum, may require innovative approaches to minimize electronic noise, maximize telemetry system gain, and fully utilize the limited S-band telemetry spectrum. The paper will address the emerging requirements and will explore the telemetry design trade space.
    • PC- Based S-Band Down Converter / FM Telemetry Receivers

      Girija, Satyanarayana; Girija, J.; ELMD, Avionics, VSSC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1996-10)
      In this paper design and development of a PC- Based S- Band Down Converter/ FM Telemetry Receiver are discussed. With the advent of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) & Phase Locked Loop (PLL) technology, availability of GaAs & Silicon MMICs, Coaxial Resonator Oscillator (CRO), SAW Oscillator, SAW Filters and Ceramic Filters, realisation of single card PC- Based Down Converter and Telemetry Receiver has become a reality. With the availability of Direct Digital Synthesis and Phase Locked Loop devices having microprocessor bus compatibility, opens up many application in Telemetry and Telecommunications. In this paper design of local oscillator based on hybrid DDS & PLL technique, Coaxial Resonator Oscillator and Front-end are discussed in detail.