• VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM A Test Technology Development and Demonstration Project

      Goulet, Dennis A.; McMorrow, Joseph; Roberts, G. Edward; Lynch, Robert (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The Vessel Traffic Management System is a cooperative effort of the Naval Undersea Warfare Center and the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, funded by the OSD's Test Technology Development and Demonstration Program. The project is establishing the capability to acquire ship tracking information from numerous sources (GPS and radar target extractors), and combine them into a comprehensive, integrated view of the range safety target area. The consolidated tracking information will be transmitted to range safety vessel personnel and presented on portable display systems to aid in clearing the surveillance area of unauthorized vessels. The communications module is media independent in that positional and image data can be routed via RF modem, cellular phone, Intranet or Internet, singly or in any combination. The software systems for data acquisition, display and control are also platform independent, with the system under development operating under WindowsNT and Windows95. Additionally, the use of Java and VRML tools permits a user to display data (including three dimensional presentations of the data) without requiring the applications software. This system has numerous applications including range safety, commercial vessel traffic management, port authority and services monitoring, and oceanographic data gathering.

      MacDougall, Christopher; Bombardier Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      During engine and airfield performance testing it is often necessary to acquire weather data at the airfield where the test is being conducted. The airborne data acquisition system (DAS) acquires data associated with flight parameters. A separate system records airport weather conditions. Many times the separate system is an Automated Terminal Information Service (ATIS) or the ground crew relaying wind speed, wind direction and temperature from a weather station. To improve this system, the weather station is designed to acquire and store the data in memory. Utilizing a second DAS that is remote to the airborne DAS poses several problems. First, it is undesirable to have many different data acquisition systems from which to process data. The problem then develops into one of integrating the ground weather DAS with the existing airborne DAS. Other problems of system integrity, compatibility and FCC licensing exist. Complete system integration while maintaining integrity and compatibility is overcome by controlling signal format, flow and timing and is discussed in detail. Further discussion of the issue of transmission is overcome by a technique called spread-spectrum and is used in accordance with FCC rules and regulations.

      Eslinger, Brian; McCombe, Joleen; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The growing need to transmit larger telemetry streams from the receiving site to the processor location over greater distances is requiring newer and more creative techniques. This paper reports efforts to use Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology and inverse multiplexing to provide an economical system to interface telemetry streams into the public network for reliable transmission. Cost savings are available immediately for programs that are willing to meet the synchronization criteria today. Lab testing has shown the feasibility of using cost efficient techniques for data transmission. This document describes the investigation that is currently underway that could provide a significant change to the way telemetry data is transmitted from receiver sites to data processing sites. Instead of using dedicated lines with dedicated bandwidth regardless of the program being supported, the approach that has been tested in a lab environment would allow the dynamic allocation of bandwidth using ATM over a variety of carrier services. The combination of ATM and inverse multiplexing allows telemetry data rates above 1.5 Megabits per second (Mbps) to be transmitted over multiple T1 (1.544 Mbps) lines. Previously, the only choice when data rates exceeded 1.5 Mbps was to use an entire DS-3 (45 Mbps). Now it is possible to transmit intermediate sized data rates (1.5 to 8 Mbps) by bonding multiple T1s to provide the desired data throughput.

      Gross, Jeffrey; Keller, G. E.; ViaSat Inc.; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      In this paper, the Miniature Data Acquisition Transceiver System (Mini-DAT), a Type II PC-Card based data acquisition and transceiver system is described. The Mini-DAT was developed by ViaSat and is currently in use at the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) at Eglin AFB. AFRL is investigating the use of this Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band system for data collection with advanced munitions. The Mini-DAT combines the advantages of PC-Card technology with an off the shelf interfacing and packaging approach to provide a large array of capabilities in a very small package. The system provides everything needed to collect analog, discrete and digital data, process the data and transfer the data in a wireless fashion using the latest license free spread spectrum modulation technology. The advanced design of the Mini-DAT allows for operation in harsh remote environments, collecting data unattended and accessed remotely. A graphical user interface (GUI) is provided via a Windows 3.x and 95 software package that can be easily customized for specific applications. The Mini-DAT provides fast and reliable error-free data transfer over the 2.4GHz ISM communication band. It operates over a shared 80MHz bandwidth, allowing multiple access of a number of portable units operating simultaneously in the same band.

      Harris, Carol; Mascari, Michele; Rice, Kevin; Smith, Jeff; Steedman, John (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Conversion Device (ACD) System is based on state-of-the-art ATM technology. The system interfaces between high-rate ECL/RS-422 raw data bitstreams and Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) OC-3 fiber. The SONET OC-3 interface uses ATM Adaptation Layer Type Five (AAL5) format. The system exceeds its 50 Mbps raw data, single stream requirement and provides single stream raw data throughput at rates up to 75 Mbps. With ATM and SONET packaging overhead, this translates into 90 Mbps on the OC-3 fiber. In addition to high-rate throughput, the system provides multiplexing and demultiplexing of multiple stream throughput based on the ATM cell header Virtual Path and Virtual Channel Identifier (VPI/VCI) values. The system is designed with the flexibility to provide between three and six throughput channels. All of which are multiplexed/demultiplexed to and from the same OC-3 interface. Multiple stream cumulative raw data throughput rates of up to 80 Mbps, or 96 Mbps on the fiber, have successfully run.

      Wigfall, Glenn D.; Bahia, Alberto A.; U.S. Army Armament, Research, Development and Engineering Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The Army’s continuing effort to develop self-guided, anti-tank weapon systems has been fueled by successful development of an earlier generation of smart weapons. These self-guided systems, also labeled “brilliant weapons,” will present a natural progression to “smart” weapons development and testing. What has been critical to the success of these smart weapons development programs has been an end-to-end testability provided by on-board telemetry methods. The end-to-end test procedures can be efficiently performed in a static laboratory environment where space is available. On board the smart weapon, end-to-end testability is less feasible due to space and bandwidth limitations. The STAFF XM943 projectile development program makes use of a dual telemetry link to transmit an array of measurements which characterize the performance of the projectile in and end-to-end fashion. The dual telemetry systems provide analog measurement capability to evaluate system component-level functions and digital measurement capability to evaluate a system processor which lends itself to computer processing. The digital data is intrinsic to smart weapon systems since they typically employ embedded microprocessors for projectile system control. The STAFF XM943 electronic system is controlled by a TMS320C30 microprocessor. The dual telemetry system employs a traditional FM/FM technique for monitoring a number of analog functions and a “quasi-traditional” PCM/FM scheme for digital transmission. This paper discusses the implementation of this dual telemetry approach for the XM943 Projectile System.
    • Smart Sensor Network System

      Gen-Kuong, Fernando; Karolys, Alex; Endevco (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      This paper describes a Smart Sensor Network System for applications requiring sensors connected in a multidrop configuration in order to minimize interconnecting cables. The communication protocol was optimized for high speed data collection. The Smart Sensor Network System was developed with the following goals in mind: cost reduction, reliability and performance increase.
    • Automating Signal Conditioning Setup Through Integration with Sensor Information

      Tate, Jeffrey J.; Caterpillar Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      Caterpillar Inc. has been testing construction and mining equipment using Computerized Analysis Vans for two decades. During our latest van upgrade, we chose to move to PCM/FM from FM/FM mainly to increase the channel count. We also replaced our old signal conditioning that used span and balance potentiometers with computer programmable signal conditioning. This new signal conditioning requires that the gain and balance point be calculated for every channel on each test. The formulas for these calculations depend on the sensor, the signal conditioning card used, and the test requirements. Due to the number and variety of machines tested at the Caterpillar Proving Grounds, these calculations needed to be automated. Using a few initial parameters and the information from our sensor calibration database, each channel’s balance point, gain, and expected slope are calculated. This system has increased productivity, accuracy, and consistency over manually calculating these parameters. This paper covers the sensor database, the calculated parameters and an overview of the way the system works.
    • An Overview of the Joint Advanced Missile Instrumentation (JAMI) Program An OSD Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) Initiative

      Scofield, Don; Powell, Dave; Macdonald, Thomas J.; NAWC-WD; TASC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      JAMI, a 1997 new-start multi-year CTEIP program, will develop an integrated instrumentation package for tri-service small missile test and training applications. JAMI will provide telemetry, time-space-position information(TSPI), flight termination and end-game vector scoring in a low-cost, modular package that will allow world-wide test and training -- eliminating, in most cases, the need for range-specific (or multi-system) facilities. JAMI will incorporate GPS-based technology as the TSPI and vector scoring engine, state-of-the art telemetry, and an off-the-shelf UHF Flight Termination Receiver (FTR), and address the feasibility of a solid state programmable Safe-and-Arm. The effort will include a Test Technology Development and Demonstration (TTD&D) risk reduction effort which will: validate tri-service requirements, provide a technology demonstration, assess the applicability of advanced antenna technology, and determine the achievable performance and complexity of alternative kinematic GPS vector scoring techniques. To effect the vector scoring function, a cooperative arrangement with the target will address the mechanization of the target portion of the scoring function.

      Reagan, J. A.; Schooley, L. C.; Ameri, K. Al; Hanson, P.; Newell, N.; Welker, J.; Yu, K; Zain, A.; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      This student paper was produced as part of the team design competition in the University of Arizona course ECE 485, Radiowaves and Telemetry. It describes the design of a telemetering system for race cars. Auto Racing is an exciting sport where the winners are the ones able to optimize the balance between the driver’s skill and the racing teams technology. One of the main reasons for this excitement is that the main component, the race car, is traveling at extremely high speeds and constantly making quick maneuvers. To be able to do this continually, the car itself must be constantly monitored and possibly adjusted to insure proper maintenance and prevent damage. To allow for better monitoring of the car’s performance by the pit crew and other team members, a telemetering system has been designed, which facilitates the constant monitoring and evaluation of various aspects of the car. This telemetering system will provide a way for the speed, engine RPM, engine and engine compartment temperature, oil pressure, tire pressure, fuel level, and tire wear of the car to be measured, transmitted back to the pit, and presented in a way which it can be evaluated and utilized to increase the car’s performance and better its chances of winning the race. Furthermore, this system allows for the storing of the data for later reference and analysis.
    • A modular Network Architecture for Lower Cost, High Performance Telemetry Processing

      Schumacher, Gary A.; Terametrix Systems International, Inc (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      There is a continuing need in the aerospace industry for lower cost and more maintainable telemetry data processing systems that can deliver a high level of performance. While systems based on the Intel family of x86 processors and Microsoft operating systems have seen increasing use in lower performance and portable applications, UNIX/VME based systems have been necessary to achieve required performance in higher end, multi-stream applications. Recent developments in the computer industry now promise lower cost alternative to these systems. With currently available technology, it is now possible to provide a powerful distributed processor architecture based entirely on commercial products. The system takes advantage of the latest of Intel Pentium processors, the PCI bus, 100BaseT Fast Ethernet, Microsoft Windows NT, ActiveX technology and NT servers. The architecture offers both current and future cost advantages for test facilities which must support a diverse set of requirements and which must maintain and support systems for many years.

      Winstead, Michael L.; Saenz, Karen J.; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      Flight Safety concerns increase proportionally with increasing missile performance. These concerns are greatest in the near launch arena where a missile has the greatest potential energy. Systems such as radar, GPS tracking systems, and optics are normally of limited use in this arena for a number of reasons. A system was required that would provide useful tracking data in the first few seconds of a missile launch. This system has met that requirement providing nominal path deviation data from the launcher out to as much as 120 seconds. The tracking system described herein uses the principle of radio interferometry to derive phase difference measurements between carefully spaced antennas. These measurements are transmitted to the Operational Display Facility and converted to a usable angular deviation plot for use by Flight Safety Personnel. This paper provides an elementary radio interferometer system background and discusses this particular system setup and use. Some detail is provided on the premission simulation and setup of the system as well as the real-time display setup and output of the final data product.

      Kirk, William S.; Kirkpatrick, Shawn; Mussemann, Evan; Inter-Coastal Electronics Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      Advancing technology continually generates larger quantities of data at increasingly high transfer rates which fuels the need for instrumentation to take up the challenge of efficiently managing the collection of data. This defines the driving force behind the desire for increased channel capacity of PCM data formatters. By incorporating state-of-the-art Digital Signal Processing (DSP) technology coupled with high-performance Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), Inter-Coastal Electronics has designed the IF-810, a PCM data formatter. The IF-810 allows eight channels of PCM data, one voice channel and an InterRange Instrumentation Group (IRIG)-B channel to be combined and formatted for recording onto the TEAC RX-800 series recorders using a Hi8 8mm video cassette as the recording media. During playback, the IF-810 clocks the PCM data out using a reconstructed version of the input clock. With this unique design, the PCM data and clock outputs are input directly to a decommutator which eliminates the need for costly bit-synchronizers. This paper discusses the integration of the DSP, FPGA and buffering techniques into a low-cost and efficient multi-channel PCM data formatter that accommodates high data rate inputs, all without the need of a bit-synchronizer for decommutation.
    • Payload Data Analyzer and Payload Data Generator System for Space Station Integration and Test

      Werner, Jeffrey M.; NASA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      To support the processing of International Space Station (ISS) Payloads, the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) had the need to develop specialized test and validation equipment to quickly identify interface problems between the payload or experiment under test and the communication and telemetry downlink systems. To meet this need, the Payload Data Analyzer (PDA) System was developed by the Data Systems Technology Division (DSTD) of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to provide a suite of troubleshooting tools and data snapshot features allowing for diagnosis and validation of payload interfaces. The PDA System, in conjunction with the Payload Data Generator (PDG) System, allow for a full set of programmable payload validation tools which can quickly be deployed to solve crucial interface problems. This paper describes the architecture and tools built in the PDA which help facilitate Space Station Payload Processing.

      Harrison, Keith; Blevins, William; AlliedSignal Technical Services Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The Low Earth Orbit Terminal (LEO-T) developed by AlliedSignal for NASA Wallops is a fully autonomous satellite tracking system which provides a reliable, high quality, satellite data collection and dissemination service. The procurement was initiated by NASA, in an effort to provide more tracking capacity with a decreasing budget. A large mission set of NASA satellites in the next decade will not require the performance of existing large aperture systems. NASA is planning to use the larger aperture antennas to only support those missions needing the higher performance. The remainder of the missions will be supported with the smaller LEO-Ts, which are smaller, significantly less expensive, and fully automated. The procurement is also an attempt at a first step towards fostering commercialization and privatization of small station acquisition and services. The system design features a modular architecture to simplify integration and to support affordable future expansion. This paper begins with a brief summary of the LEO-T program, then provides the design details and capabilities of the LEO-T system.

      Gonzalez, Daniel G.; Richard, Gaetan C.; Malibu Research Associates (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The requirement for a lightweight, quick deployment C-Band satellite communication antenna system for Aegis Class Destroyers has been addressed and this paper describes a novel solution currently being implemented. The new antenna system takes advantage of the low windload properties of the FLAPS™ (Flat Parabolic Surface) reflector and features a broadband FLAPS™ reflector mounted on a lightweight, high performance X-Y positioner. The system is designed in a modular fashion and operates in a shipboard environment without the protection of a radome. The system is stabilized to counteract the ship's motion, operates without counterweights, weighs less than 250 kg and provide communication links in the 3900 to 4100 MHz and 6000 to 6200 MHz frequency bands.

      Brown, Barbie; Ghuman, Parminder; Medina, Johnny; Wilke, Randy; NASA; Century Computing Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The international space community, including National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), European Space Agency (ESA), Japanese National Space Agency (NASDA) and others, are committed to using the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommendations for low earth orbiting satellites. With the advent of the CCSDS standards and the availability of direct broadcast data from a number of current and future spacecraft, a large number of users could have access to earth science data. However, to allow for the largest possible user base, the cost of processing this data must be as low as possible. By utilizing Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC), pipelined data processing, and advanced software development technology and tools, highly integrated CCSDS data processing can be attained in a single desktop system. This paper describes a prototype desktop system based on the Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus that performs CCSDS standard frame synchronization, bit transition density decoding, Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC) error checking, Reed-Solomon decoding, data unit sorting, packet extraction, annotation and other CCSDS service processing. Also discussed is software technology used to increase the flexibility and usability of the desktop system. The reproduction cost for the system described is less than 1/8th the current cost of commercially available CCSDS data processing systems.

      Mirchandani, Chandru; Daniel, Kenneth Jr; Nguyen, Diem; Hilinski, Stan; NASA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      NASA’s use of high bandwidth packetized Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) telemetry in the Earth Observing System (EOS) mission presents a great challenge to ground data system developers. The EOS mission calls for high data rate interfaces and small packet sizes which would dramatically increase the real-time workload on ground packet processing systems. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been developing packet processing subsystems for over a decade. This paper will discuss the design of a high-rate telemetry test system and a simulation software package. The system will support CCSDS telemetry formats and perform frame synchronization, error detection and correction, packet reassembly and sorting, error checking, and data set creation. In addition, a highly automated operation environment is designed to minimize human intervention in control and monitoring, and data distribution. The design is based on a Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Level Zero Processing (LZP) System technologies, VLSI telemetry data simulation and processing functional components, Object-Oriented Design methodologies, C++ programming environment, shareware and Open Software Foundation (OSF)/Motif-based Graphical User Interfaces (GUI).

      Heminger, Larry J.; SBS Technologies, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      There is a wave of change coming. It started in the industrial automation community and it is slowly and surely working its way into aerospace, satellite and telemetry applications. It’s called the PC, and its not just for simple quick-look data anymore. Using state-of-the-art commercial hardware and software technologies, PC-based architectures can now be used to perform self contained, reliable and high performance telemetry data acquisition and processing functions – previously the domain of expensive, dedicated front end systems. This paper will discuss many of the key enabling technologies and will provide examples of their use in a truly next generation system architecture based on the Microsoft® Windows NT Operating System and related features.

      Peng, HongLi; Huang, Zheng; Han, WenBin (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      An edge-based hybrid finite element boundary integral (FE-BI) method using cylindrical shell elements is described for analyzing conformal quarter-wave patches embedded in a circular cylinder. Special care is also taken to deal with weight functions, dyadic Green’s function, and feed model. Some types of the patch arrays embedded in different circular radius have been developed. The tests of their VSWRs and radiation characteristics are in good agreement with the theoretical results.