• International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 33 (1997)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10

      Kirk, William S.; Kirkpatrick, Shawn; Mussemann, Evan; Inter-Coastal Electronics Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      Advancing technology continually generates larger quantities of data at increasingly high transfer rates which fuels the need for instrumentation to take up the challenge of efficiently managing the collection of data. This defines the driving force behind the desire for increased channel capacity of PCM data formatters. By incorporating state-of-the-art Digital Signal Processing (DSP) technology coupled with high-performance Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), Inter-Coastal Electronics has designed the IF-810, a PCM data formatter. The IF-810 allows eight channels of PCM data, one voice channel and an InterRange Instrumentation Group (IRIG)-B channel to be combined and formatted for recording onto the TEAC RX-800 series recorders using a Hi8 8mm video cassette as the recording media. During playback, the IF-810 clocks the PCM data out using a reconstructed version of the input clock. With this unique design, the PCM data and clock outputs are input directly to a decommutator which eliminates the need for costly bit-synchronizers. This paper discusses the integration of the DSP, FPGA and buffering techniques into a low-cost and efficient multi-channel PCM data formatter that accommodates high data rate inputs, all without the need of a bit-synchronizer for decommutation.
    • Automating Signal Conditioning Setup Through Integration with Sensor Information

      Tate, Jeffrey J.; Caterpillar Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      Caterpillar Inc. has been testing construction and mining equipment using Computerized Analysis Vans for two decades. During our latest van upgrade, we chose to move to PCM/FM from FM/FM mainly to increase the channel count. We also replaced our old signal conditioning that used span and balance potentiometers with computer programmable signal conditioning. This new signal conditioning requires that the gain and balance point be calculated for every channel on each test. The formulas for these calculations depend on the sensor, the signal conditioning card used, and the test requirements. Due to the number and variety of machines tested at the Caterpillar Proving Grounds, these calculations needed to be automated. Using a few initial parameters and the information from our sensor calibration database, each channel’s balance point, gain, and expected slope are calculated. This system has increased productivity, accuracy, and consistency over manually calculating these parameters. This paper covers the sensor database, the calculated parameters and an overview of the way the system works.
    • An Overview of the Joint Advanced Missile Instrumentation (JAMI) Program An OSD Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) Initiative

      Scofield, Don; Powell, Dave; Macdonald, Thomas J.; NAWC-WD; TASC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      JAMI, a 1997 new-start multi-year CTEIP program, will develop an integrated instrumentation package for tri-service small missile test and training applications. JAMI will provide telemetry, time-space-position information(TSPI), flight termination and end-game vector scoring in a low-cost, modular package that will allow world-wide test and training -- eliminating, in most cases, the need for range-specific (or multi-system) facilities. JAMI will incorporate GPS-based technology as the TSPI and vector scoring engine, state-of-the art telemetry, and an off-the-shelf UHF Flight Termination Receiver (FTR), and address the feasibility of a solid state programmable Safe-and-Arm. The effort will include a Test Technology Development and Demonstration (TTD&D) risk reduction effort which will: validate tri-service requirements, provide a technology demonstration, assess the applicability of advanced antenna technology, and determine the achievable performance and complexity of alternative kinematic GPS vector scoring techniques. To effect the vector scoring function, a cooperative arrangement with the target will address the mechanization of the target portion of the scoring function.

      James, Calvin L.; AlliedSignal Aerospace Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The basic building blocks for implementing complex waveform generators using a look-up table approach are random access memory (RAM) and read only memory (ROM) devices. Due to technological advancements in field programmable gate array (FPGA) development, these devices have the ability to allocate large amounts of memory elements within the same structure. The self containment property makes the FPGA a suitable topology for complex waveform generation applications. In addition, this self containment property significantly reduces implementation costs by reducing the number of external components required to support many applications. This paper examines the use of FPGA’s in various complex waveform generation applications. In particular, a discussion will ensue examining possible mappings of the time domain response of the complex waveform into memory elements of the FPGA. The analyses and examples contained in the sequel are from existing waveform generation applications, developed for Gauissian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) and Unbalanced Quadriphase Shift Keying (UQPSK) modulation formats.

      Winstead, Michael L.; Saenz, Karen J.; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      Flight Safety concerns increase proportionally with increasing missile performance. These concerns are greatest in the near launch arena where a missile has the greatest potential energy. Systems such as radar, GPS tracking systems, and optics are normally of limited use in this arena for a number of reasons. A system was required that would provide useful tracking data in the first few seconds of a missile launch. This system has met that requirement providing nominal path deviation data from the launcher out to as much as 120 seconds. The tracking system described herein uses the principle of radio interferometry to derive phase difference measurements between carefully spaced antennas. These measurements are transmitted to the Operational Display Facility and converted to a usable angular deviation plot for use by Flight Safety Personnel. This paper provides an elementary radio interferometer system background and discusses this particular system setup and use. Some detail is provided on the premission simulation and setup of the system as well as the real-time display setup and output of the final data product.
    • New Development of Chinese Onboard Data Acquisition System

      Ping, Wang Yan; Ming, Li Shu; Jie, Shi Chang; Beijing Research Institute Of Telemetry; China Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      This paper describes a new development of Chinese onboard telemetry data acquisition system--onboard telemetry fundamental system. This system is a new type of miniature, universal onboard measurement system and designs for satisfying future requirement. This is a standard, serial, miniature, modular TDM onboard data acquisition system. It has two buses, three levels’ structure and has a very flexible systematic configuration. According to the requirement you can select the configuration. This system is an open system structure and can add new modules or instrument equipment.

      Grebe, David L.; Apogee Labs, Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      A multiplexer / demultiplexer design suitable to a wide range of input data types and link formats is presented. Based on the Consultative Committee on Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommendations for Packet Telemetry, the design translates the prescribed layered architecture into a modular, layered hardware implementation. The design approach minimizes hardware yielding increased reliability and decreased product cost while retaining a high degree of flexibility. This implementation can be applied to flight data acquisition (direct transmission to the ground or recorded), ground data collection (including multi-stream record systems) and inter-range communications. The use of an internationally recognized standard promotes inter-service interoperability and facilitates data handling/routing throughout a wide community.
    • VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM A Test Technology Development and Demonstration Project

      Goulet, Dennis A.; McMorrow, Joseph; Roberts, G. Edward; Lynch, Robert (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The Vessel Traffic Management System is a cooperative effort of the Naval Undersea Warfare Center and the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, funded by the OSD's Test Technology Development and Demonstration Program. The project is establishing the capability to acquire ship tracking information from numerous sources (GPS and radar target extractors), and combine them into a comprehensive, integrated view of the range safety target area. The consolidated tracking information will be transmitted to range safety vessel personnel and presented on portable display systems to aid in clearing the surveillance area of unauthorized vessels. The communications module is media independent in that positional and image data can be routed via RF modem, cellular phone, Intranet or Internet, singly or in any combination. The software systems for data acquisition, display and control are also platform independent, with the system under development operating under WindowsNT and Windows95. Additionally, the use of Java and VRML tools permits a user to display data (including three dimensional presentations of the data) without requiring the applications software. This system has numerous applications including range safety, commercial vessel traffic management, port authority and services monitoring, and oceanographic data gathering.
    • Common Airborne Processing System (CAPS) 2.0: Data Reduction Software on a Personal Computer (PC)

      Hunt, Trent W.; TYBRIN Corporation; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      CAPS 2.0 provides a flexible, PC-based tool for meeting evolving data reduction and analysis requirements while supporting standardization of instrumentation data processing. CAPS 2.0 will accept a variety of data types including raw instrumentation, binary, ASCII, and Internet protocol message data and will output Engineering Unit data to files, static or dynamic plots, and Internet protocol message exchange. Additionally, CAPS 2.0 will input and output data in accordance with the Digital Data Standard. CAPS 2.0 will accept multiple input sources of PCM, MIL-STD-1553, or DDS data to create an output for every Output Product Description and Dictionary grouping specified for a particular Session. All of this functionality is performed on a PC within the framework of the Microsoft Windows 95/NT graphical user interface.
    • Payload Data Analyzer and Payload Data Generator System for Space Station Integration and Test

      Werner, Jeffrey M.; NASA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      To support the processing of International Space Station (ISS) Payloads, the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) had the need to develop specialized test and validation equipment to quickly identify interface problems between the payload or experiment under test and the communication and telemetry downlink systems. To meet this need, the Payload Data Analyzer (PDA) System was developed by the Data Systems Technology Division (DSTD) of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to provide a suite of troubleshooting tools and data snapshot features allowing for diagnosis and validation of payload interfaces. The PDA System, in conjunction with the Payload Data Generator (PDG) System, allow for a full set of programmable payload validation tools which can quickly be deployed to solve crucial interface problems. This paper describes the architecture and tools built in the PDA which help facilitate Space Station Payload Processing.

      Tidball, John E.; ECHOTEK CORPORATION (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a very high-speed instrumentation and digital data recording system. The system converts multiple asynchronous analog signals to digital data, forms the data into packets, transmits the packets across fiber-optic lines and routes the data packets to destinations such as high speed recorders, hard disks, Ethernet, and data processing. This system is capable of collecting approximately one hundred megabytes per second of filtered packetized data. The significant system features are its design methodology, system configuration, decoupled interfaces, data as packets, the use of RACEway data and VME control buses, distributed processing on mixedvendor PowerPCs, real-time resource management objects, and an extendible and flexible configuration.

      Vigil, Jeannine S.; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      This paper details the interaction of a small satellite with a space network and estimates the number of contacts and duration of contacts between the small, spin-stabilized satellite and a TDRS satellite. The simulations were performed using Satellite Tool Kit (STK) version 3.0, an orbital analysis software program. STK was configured for the four vehicles representing the spin-stabilized satellite and three TDRS satellites, TDRS East, West, and TDRS Zone of Exclusion. A set of simulations were run in which the spinstabilized satellite was given orbital elements corresponding to an orbital altitude between 600 km and 1200 km. The orbital inclination angle for the set of simulations was also varied from 20° through 100° along with the antenna cone angle of 10° through 40° to account for the effective beamwidths. In each of the simulations, the access to each TDRS satellite in the SN constellation was examined as a function of orbital altitude, orbital inclination angle, and antenna cone angle.

      Swartwout, Michael A.; Kitts, Christopher A.; Stanford Space Systems Development Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      Stanford’s Space Systems Development Laboratory is developing methods for automated spacecraft health operations. Such operations greatly reduce the need for ground-space communication links and full-time operators. However, new questions emerge about how to supply operators with the spacecraft information that is no longer available. One solution is to introduce a low-bandwidth health beacon and to develop new approaches in on-board summarization of health data for telemetering. This paper reviews the development of beacon operations and data summary, describes the implementation of beacon-based health management on board SAPPHIRE, and explains the mission operations response to health emergencies. Additional information is provided on the role of SSDL’s academic partners in developing a worldwide network of beacon receiving stations.

      Gao, Wei; Feher, Kamilo; University of California at Davis; Digcom, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      A simple, low cost radio frequency (RF) power and spectrally efficient integrated transceiver/modem architecture employing Feher’s patented Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (FQPSK) is described. The FQPSK signals presented in this paper are obtained by using additional post low-pass filters in the FQPSK architecture. This implementation significantly improves the spectral efficiency of the worldwide commercially standardized Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) systems. The Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of FQPSK in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel has been investigated by means of computer simulation and hardware prototype measurements. The results of the hardware and software simulations are compared to GMSK and QPSK/OQPSK performance. These results show that the filtered FQPSK modulated signal passing through a non-linear amplifier (NLA) can achieve a spectral efficiency improvement of about 60% over NLA filtered OQPSK and an integrated spectral efficiency improvement of 50% over GMSK and a better BER performance. In particular, 100 kb/s to 34 Mb/s hardware experimental results over 2.4 GHz NLA (saturated) 1 Watt system confirmed that FQPSK hardware systems attain a BER=f(Eb/N0) performance within 1 dB to 2 dB of predicted theoretical results.

      Kibalo, Tom; Miles, Ben (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      Alliant Techsystems’ Advanced Technology Applications organization incorporates the latest IRIG standards for range equipment and operation. Over the past five years, our objective has been to assure interoperability among diverse data recording users while achieving technical excellence for our ADARIO(Analog Digital Adaptable Input Output) family of products. In this paper, we summarize 25 years of ADARIO development; technical challenges, risks and processes; as well as our five-year effort to modify and develop our recording system products to meet the evolutionary standards of technical excellence.
    • Mission Integrated Decommutation and Analysis System (MIDAS): Extracting Data from Digital Tape Recordings on a PC

      Thornberry, Lewis; Lake, Phyllis; Lawrence, Ben-z; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      This paper presents the Mission Integrated Decommutation and Analysis System (MIDAS), a multi-threaded, multi-processing application developed in Microsoft Visual C++ for Windows NT by the Air Force Development Test Center (AFDTC) Eglin AFB, Florida. The primary function of MIDAS is to support post-test processing of instrumentation data by decommutating, logging, and reporting MIL-STD-1553B or pulse code modulated (PCM) encoded data extracted from MARS-II digital tape recordings. MIDAS processes multiple data streams from a single recording, and can process multiple recordings in parallel. MIDAS also serves as a diagnostics tool for investigating data processing anomalies reported during normal production runs. MIDAS is part of an integrated suite of applications developed to provide AFDTC development test and operational test customers with quickly delivered, high-quality data products. Software development is underway to support the processing of Digital Data Acquisition and On-Board Recording Standard (DDAS) packetized telemetry data. DDAS is derived from the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standard. [MARS-II is the digital acquisition and recording system supported by MIDAS. MARS-II was developed by DATATAPE, Incorporated, Pasadena, California. It records up to 20 gigabytes of mission data across as many as eight channels of MIL-STD-1553B or PCM encoded data. Digital recording technology provides an alternative to traditional analogbased telemetry ground systems.]

      Jian, Zhang; Junxin, Ge; Futang, Zhang; Xinan Electronic Engineering Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      In this paper, the basic ideas of advanced Spread Spectrum Unified Tracking Telemetry & Command System are introduced, the approaches and strategies to reject narrowband interference, multiple access interference and multipath interference are discussed. With effective interference-rejection, the safety and robustness of SS-UTTCS will be improved enormously.

      Pedroza, Albert; Bombardier Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The accurate determination of test aircraft position and velocity is a very strong requirement in several certification and development flight test applications. This requirement often requires availability of test ranges properly instrumented with optical or radar tracking systems, precision time for data reduction and dependency on environmental and meteorological conditions. The capabilities of GPS (Global Positioning System) technology, in terms of data accuracy, speed of data availability and reduction of test operating cost, moved Bombardier Flight Test Center to make an investment and integrate a system utilizing GPS for extensive use in flight and ground test activity. Through the use of differential GPS (DGPS) procedures, Bombardier Flight Test Center was able to implement a complete system which could provide real-time data results to a very acceptable output rate and accuracy. Furthermore, the system was capable of providing post-processed data results which greatly exceeded required output rate and accuracy. Regardless of the type of aircraft testing conducted, the real-time or post-processed data could be generated for the same test. After conducting various types of testing, Bombardier Flight Test Center has accepted the DGPS as an acceptable and proper flight and ground test measurement tool for its various aircraft test platforms.
    • Space-Based Flight Termination System Incorporating GPS Telecommand Link

      Alves, Daniel F., Jr.; Alpha Instrumentation and Information Management (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      This paper will investigate the areas which must be addressed to implement a truly integrated Range instrumentation system on a GPS-based Range, using a patented L-Band commanding scheme. Hardware issues will be highlighted as well the issues to be addressed in changing from an audio tone-frequency modulated command system to a digital system incorporating encryption and spread spectrum. Some thoughts addressing costs and schedule to incorporate this approach into the architecture of the U. S. Air Force Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) architecture, as a candidate GPS-based Range are also presented, as well as a discussion of the benefits to be accrued over the existing system, if this approach were adopted.