Shubo, Jin; Yanshan, Zhao; Xinan Electronic Engineering Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      This paper describes a kind of Microwave Digital Frequency Synthesizer used for S-band telemetry receivers. As well known many modern electronic systems employ a Frequency Synthesizer whose spectral purity is critical. The characteristics of a PLL (Phase-Locked Loop) Frequency Synthesizer, such as frequency resolution, phase noise, spurious suppression and switch time, should be compromised in our design. A heterodyne Frequency Synthesis is often considered as a good approach to solve the problem. But it is complicated in structure and circuit. A variable-reference-driven PLL Frequency Synthesizer was introduced which can give an improved trade-off among frequency resolution, phase noise, spurious suppression. In this paper the phase noise and spurious suppression characteristic of variable-reference-driven PLL Frequency Synthesizer is analyzed theoretically and compared with that of the heterodyne Frequency Synthesizer. For engineering application, a practical Microwave Digital Frequency Synthesizer used for telemetry receiver has been designed, which is characterized by simply structure, low phase noise and low spurious output. The output spectrum of experimental measurements is given.

      Peart, David E.; Talbert, Jim; Lockheed Martin Vought Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      In recent years we have seen an increase in the use of MIL-STD-1553 buses and other asynchronous data sources used in new missile and launcher designs. The application of multiplexed asynchronous buses in missiles and launchers is very common today. With increasing application of asynchronous data sources into very complex systems the need to acquire, analyze, and present one hundred percent of the bus traffic in real time or near real time has become especially important during testing and diagnostic operations. This paper discusses ways of converting asynchronous data, including MIL-STD-1553, into a telemetry format that is suitable for encryption, telemetering, recording, and presenting with Inter Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) compatible off-the-shelf hardware. The importance of these designs is to provide the capability to conserve data bandwidth and to maximize the use of existing hardware. In addition, this paper will discuss a unique decode and time tagging design that conserves data storage when compared to the methods in IRIG Standard 106-96 and still maintains a very accurate time tag.

      Youssef, Ahmed H.; McNamee, Stuart A.; Bowman, Dalphana; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      This paper describes the status of the Edwards Digital Switch (EDS) [1] and the success of the Digital Switch Sustainment Program (DSSP); a multi-service program aimed at cost-effective means for providing maintenance and development of an advanced digital switching system. This digital communications switching system is deployed at the mission control centers of Edwards AFB, Eglin AFB, and China Lake Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC). Each system provides the test ranges with mission-critical voice communications and Time Space Position Information (TSPI) switching. Through user-friendly Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs), the switch provides exceptional resource management of radios, telephones, user positions, secure communications, radars, trackers, 4-wire Ear & Mouth (E&M) devices, subscriber services, and other equipment. Developed using commercial equipment, such as the Lucent Technologies Digital Access and Cross-Connect System (DACS) II, the digital switch can integrate and interface with the technologies of other test ranges and customers. The DSSP sustaining engineering contract, a $10M contract awarded in 1997, is a multi-service effort in supporting cost effective maintenance and enhancement for the systems’ software and hardware. Eglin and China Lake have agreed to participate in a Digital Switch Working Group (DSWG) to ensure that this configuration management is in place and that all players follow the same system migration path. These ranges and other interested ranges that agree to purchase systems off the contract and participate in the working group will continue to derive benefits by reducing overhead and eliminating the duplication of effort involved in separate endeavors.

      Winstead, Michael L.; Saenz, Karen J.; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      Flight Safety concerns increase proportionally with increasing missile performance. These concerns are greatest in the near launch arena where a missile has the greatest potential energy. Systems such as radar, GPS tracking systems, and optics are normally of limited use in this arena for a number of reasons. A system was required that would provide useful tracking data in the first few seconds of a missile launch. This system has met that requirement providing nominal path deviation data from the launcher out to as much as 120 seconds. The tracking system described herein uses the principle of radio interferometry to derive phase difference measurements between carefully spaced antennas. These measurements are transmitted to the Operational Display Facility and converted to a usable angular deviation plot for use by Flight Safety Personnel. This paper provides an elementary radio interferometer system background and discusses this particular system setup and use. Some detail is provided on the premission simulation and setup of the system as well as the real-time display setup and output of the final data product.

      Reagan, J. A.; Schooley, L. C.; Dean, A.; Goisman, S.; King, B.; Ohnstad, M.; Raby, S.; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      This student paper was produced as part of the team design competition in the University of Arizona course ECE 485, Radiowaves, and Telemetry. It describes the design of a telemetry support package for interplanetary exploration. Control and processing of telemetric signals between an earth based control station, an exploratory orbiter and probe pods are the focus of this design. Using this design data retrieval is achieved at a highly reliable rate of 1 error in 10^-10 bits. The exploratory orbiter, carrying a payload of probes, is launched and proceeds along its predetermined trajectory. Commands from the earth-based control station is used to send the orbiter to planetary destinations. The craft then establishes a stable non-geosynchronous orbit. Several probe pods are launched towards the planet at predetermined locations. These probe pods collect and send data, as well as system monitoring information to the orbiting craft. The orbiting craft then retrieves the signals generated by all pods and relays that information to an earth-based control station.

      Reid, Robert J.; Naval Undersea Warfare Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      A "Warfighter's Internet" recognizes that next-generation warfare will take place in an information-rich environment, with highly mobile forces who are dependent on beyond line-of-sight (BLOS) communications. Connectivity is required to provide them information, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) products, command and control (C2) messages, logistics support, and fire support. This technology also has direct application to the Test and Evaluation (T&E) community by providing the geographical extension of the range boundary via mobile BLOS communications.
    • International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 33 (1997)

      Unknown author (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)

      Grebe, David L.; Apogee Labs, Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      A multiplexer / demultiplexer design suitable to a wide range of input data types and link formats is presented. Based on the Consultative Committee on Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommendations for Packet Telemetry, the design translates the prescribed layered architecture into a modular, layered hardware implementation. The design approach minimizes hardware yielding increased reliability and decreased product cost while retaining a high degree of flexibility. This implementation can be applied to flight data acquisition (direct transmission to the ground or recorded), ground data collection (including multi-stream record systems) and inter-range communications. The use of an internationally recognized standard promotes inter-service interoperability and facilitates data handling/routing throughout a wide community.
    • Smart Sensor Network System

      Gen-Kuong, Fernando; Karolys, Alex; Endevco (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      This paper describes a Smart Sensor Network System for applications requiring sensors connected in a multidrop configuration in order to minimize interconnecting cables. The communication protocol was optimized for high speed data collection. The Smart Sensor Network System was developed with the following goals in mind: cost reduction, reliability and performance increase.

      Harris, Carol; Mascari, Michele; Rice, Kevin; Smith, Jeff; Steedman, John (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Conversion Device (ACD) System is based on state-of-the-art ATM technology. The system interfaces between high-rate ECL/RS-422 raw data bitstreams and Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) OC-3 fiber. The SONET OC-3 interface uses ATM Adaptation Layer Type Five (AAL5) format. The system exceeds its 50 Mbps raw data, single stream requirement and provides single stream raw data throughput at rates up to 75 Mbps. With ATM and SONET packaging overhead, this translates into 90 Mbps on the OC-3 fiber. In addition to high-rate throughput, the system provides multiplexing and demultiplexing of multiple stream throughput based on the ATM cell header Virtual Path and Virtual Channel Identifier (VPI/VCI) values. The system is designed with the flexibility to provide between three and six throughput channels. All of which are multiplexed/demultiplexed to and from the same OC-3 interface. Multiple stream cumulative raw data throughput rates of up to 80 Mbps, or 96 Mbps on the fiber, have successfully run.

      Pereira, Carlos M.; U.S. Army Armament Research; New Jersey Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      This paper presents the development of a very high shock telemetry system designed to operate when subjected to acceleration forces of 50,000 g’s in a 120mm gun environment. This system consists of an RF transmitter, a ten channel FM/FM multiplexer, a very rugged power supply, a microstrip patch antenna, and a sensor module. The sensor module contains a tri-axial accelerometer designed to measure the projectile’s low in-flight radial and drag forces and two additional accelerometers to measure the projectile’s high in-bore setback and balloting forces. The sensor suite is located at the center of gravity of the projectile. The patch antenna is incorporated into a radiating structure consisting of a cylindrical metal tube and a plastic cover. To accommodate the antenna in the space available, a microstrip antenna is built on a substrate material that has a dielectric constant of e = 10. Though the cylindrical metal tube, in which the antenna is housed, acts as a cylindrical waveguide operating below its cut-off frequency, its relatively short length allows for adequate power to be radiated for proper system operation. The telemetry system uses standard off-the-shelf telemetry components that were modified and repackaged to withstand the 50,000 "g" environment. All components performed very well in preliminary high "g" (50,000 g’s) tests in a laboratory gun at the Army Research Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC).

      Gross, Jeffrey; Keller, G. E., Jr; ViaSat Inc.; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      In this paper, the Miniature Data Acquisition Transceiver System (Mini-DAT), a Type II PC-Card based data acquisition and transceiver system is described. The Mini-DAT was developed by ViaSat and is currently in use at the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) at Eglin AFB. AFRL is investigating the use of this Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band system for data collection with advanced munitions. The Mini-DAT combines the advantages of PC-Card technology with an off the shelf interfacing and packaging approach to provide a large array of capabilities in a very small package. The system provides everything needed to collect analog, discrete and digital data, process the data and transfer the data in a wireless fashion using the latest license free spread spectrum modulation technology. The advanced design of the Mini-DAT allows for operation in harsh remote environments, collecting data unattended and accessed remotely. A graphical user interface (GUI) is provided via a Windows 3.x and 95 software package that can be easily customized for specific applications. The Mini-DAT provides fast and reliable error-free data transfer over the 2.4GHz ISM communication band. It operates over a shared 80MHz bandwidth, allowing multiple access of a number of portable units operating simultaneously in the same band.

      Gonzalez, Daniel G.; Richard, Gaetan C.; Malibu Research Associates (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The requirement for a lightweight, quick deployment C-Band satellite communication antenna system for Aegis Class Destroyers has been addressed and this paper describes a novel solution currently being implemented. The new antenna system takes advantage of the low windload properties of the FLAPS™ (Flat Parabolic Surface) reflector and features a broadband FLAPS™ reflector mounted on a lightweight, high performance X-Y positioner. The system is designed in a modular fashion and operates in a shipboard environment without the protection of a radome. The system is stabilized to counteract the ship's motion, operates without counterweights, weighs less than 250 kg and provide communication links in the 3900 to 4100 MHz and 6000 to 6200 MHz frequency bands.
    • An Overview of the Joint Advanced Missile Instrumentation (JAMI) Program An OSD Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) Initiative

      Scofield, Don; Powell, Dave; Macdonald, Thomas J.; NAWC-WD; TASC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      JAMI, a 1997 new-start multi-year CTEIP program, will develop an integrated instrumentation package for tri-service small missile test and training applications. JAMI will provide telemetry, time-space-position information(TSPI), flight termination and end-game vector scoring in a low-cost, modular package that will allow world-wide test and training -- eliminating, in most cases, the need for range-specific (or multi-system) facilities. JAMI will incorporate GPS-based technology as the TSPI and vector scoring engine, state-of-the art telemetry, and an off-the-shelf UHF Flight Termination Receiver (FTR), and address the feasibility of a solid state programmable Safe-and-Arm. The effort will include a Test Technology Development and Demonstration (TTD&D) risk reduction effort which will: validate tri-service requirements, provide a technology demonstration, assess the applicability of advanced antenna technology, and determine the achievable performance and complexity of alternative kinematic GPS vector scoring techniques. To effect the vector scoring function, a cooperative arrangement with the target will address the mechanization of the target portion of the scoring function.

      Wigfall, Glenn D.; Bahia, Alberto A.; U.S. Army Armament, Research, Development and Engineering Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The Army’s continuing effort to develop self-guided, anti-tank weapon systems has been fueled by successful development of an earlier generation of smart weapons. These self-guided systems, also labeled “brilliant weapons,” will present a natural progression to “smart” weapons development and testing. What has been critical to the success of these smart weapons development programs has been an end-to-end testability provided by on-board telemetry methods. The end-to-end test procedures can be efficiently performed in a static laboratory environment where space is available. On board the smart weapon, end-to-end testability is less feasible due to space and bandwidth limitations. The STAFF XM943 projectile development program makes use of a dual telemetry link to transmit an array of measurements which characterize the performance of the projectile in and end-to-end fashion. The dual telemetry systems provide analog measurement capability to evaluate system component-level functions and digital measurement capability to evaluate a system processor which lends itself to computer processing. The digital data is intrinsic to smart weapon systems since they typically employ embedded microprocessors for projectile system control. The STAFF XM943 electronic system is controlled by a TMS320C30 microprocessor. The dual telemetry system employs a traditional FM/FM technique for monitoring a number of analog functions and a “quasi-traditional” PCM/FM scheme for digital transmission. This paper discusses the implementation of this dual telemetry approach for the XM943 Projectile System.

      Kibalo, Tom; Miles, Ben (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      Alliant Techsystems’ Advanced Technology Applications organization incorporates the latest IRIG standards for range equipment and operation. Over the past five years, our objective has been to assure interoperability among diverse data recording users while achieving technical excellence for our ADARIO(Analog Digital Adaptable Input Output) family of products. In this paper, we summarize 25 years of ADARIO development; technical challenges, risks and processes; as well as our five-year effort to modify and develop our recording system products to meet the evolutionary standards of technical excellence.
    • Development of a New IRIG Standard Flight Recorder

      Russ, Roger; Graham, Mark; Metrum Division of Bell Technologies; Computing Devices Co., Ltd. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      An IRIG standard flight recorder has been developed that is based on half-inch helical scan technology. The recorder was developed by combining the data channel of existing ground-based recording systems with transport technology used in both flight test and operational fighter aircraft environments. The design goal was to achieve cross play compatibility with the defined IRIG 106.6 tape format. Significant margins were provided in the design to maintain compatibility with tapes recorded in fighter aircraft environments. Operation at up to 50,000 feet, a temperature range of -40EC to +55EC, and vibration sources to Mil Spec 5400T are requirements in this environment. How these technical problems were overcome during the development of this recorder is addressed in this paper.
    • Analysis of JDAM Tests at China Lake

      Rice, Michael; Welling, Kenneth; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      This paper examines telemetry signal levels of the Joint Direct Air Munition (JDAM) tests at China Lake NAWC. Significant received signal level variations were observed as the munition approached impact. This paper presents and examines two simple multipath models to explain the received signal variations. The first model assumes a flat earth and a single specular multipath reflection. The second model uses the actual contour of the earth and considers a number of specular multipath reflections. The first model (which assumes the single multipath reflection) more accurately reproduces the variations in the received signal level than the second.

      Spadaro, Martin J.; Vector Microwave Research Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      Low cost, commercial off-the-shelf Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers can be used to provide real-time track of ground launched subsonic, sea-skimming missile targets when integrated with existing telemetry equipment and commercial radio modems. GPS reference stations can be deployed that are capable of generating, broadcasting and monitoring Differential GPS corrections that effectively eliminate the deliberate position errors imposed by the Department of Defense. Commercial GPS receivers are effective and provide contiguous position data even during the boost phase of flight when G forces exceed the receiver manufacturer’s published specifications.

      Cebik, James A.; Connor, William J.; Boeing/Sikorsky Combined Test Team (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The RAH-66 Comanche flight test program required a state of the art Airborne Data Acquisition System consisting of: 1) A modular distributed system that uses a series of software programmable building blocks capable of signal conditioning all types of sensors. 2) A digital multiplexing system capable of combining various types of digital streams at high rates including Synchronous and Asynchronous PCM, MIL-STD-1553B, and RS-422 data streams. 3) A Data Combiner Unit that accepts synchronous PCM data streams from one to eight sources at 4 MBPS or less and a frame size of up to 8128 words each that outputs four independent PCM streams at 8 MBPS or less and a frame size of up to 16384 words. 4) A Data System Control Unit that controls the tape recorder, serves as the interface to the Pilot’s Control Unit and monitors/reports status of the data acquisition system to the Pilots Control Unit. 5) An Airborne Computer that provides the control and interface to the pilot & copilot instrumentation displays. 6) A Cockpit Instrumentation Pilot Display System consisting of a Main Unit Multi- Function Display, a Load Factor/Hub Moment Display and a Right Wing Flight Control Position Display. The Main Unit Multi-Function Display has the capability to display multiple graphic pages generated by the Airborne Computer. 7) The ability to record high speed avionics buses from the (Mission Equipment Package) MEP such as MIL-STD-1553B, (High Speed Data Bus) HSDB, (Processor Interconnect) PI Bus, (Data Flow Network) DFN and PCM utilizing the Ampex DCRsi-107 Tape Recorder.