• A modular Network Architecture for Lower Cost, High Performance Telemetry Processing

      Schumacher, Gary A.; Terametrix Systems International, Inc (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      There is a continuing need in the aerospace industry for lower cost and more maintainable telemetry data processing systems that can deliver a high level of performance. While systems based on the Intel family of x86 processors and Microsoft operating systems have seen increasing use in lower performance and portable applications, UNIX/VME based systems have been necessary to achieve required performance in higher end, multi-stream applications. Recent developments in the computer industry now promise lower cost alternative to these systems. With currently available technology, it is now possible to provide a powerful distributed processor architecture based entirely on commercial products. The system takes advantage of the latest of Intel Pentium processors, the PCI bus, 100BaseT Fast Ethernet, Microsoft Windows NT, ActiveX technology and NT servers. The architecture offers both current and future cost advantages for test facilities which must support a diverse set of requirements and which must maintain and support systems for many years.
    • VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM A Test Technology Development and Demonstration Project

      Goulet, Dennis A.; McMorrow, Joseph; Roberts, G. Edward; Lynch, Robert (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The Vessel Traffic Management System is a cooperative effort of the Naval Undersea Warfare Center and the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, funded by the OSD's Test Technology Development and Demonstration Program. The project is establishing the capability to acquire ship tracking information from numerous sources (GPS and radar target extractors), and combine them into a comprehensive, integrated view of the range safety target area. The consolidated tracking information will be transmitted to range safety vessel personnel and presented on portable display systems to aid in clearing the surveillance area of unauthorized vessels. The communications module is media independent in that positional and image data can be routed via RF modem, cellular phone, Intranet or Internet, singly or in any combination. The software systems for data acquisition, display and control are also platform independent, with the system under development operating under WindowsNT and Windows95. Additionally, the use of Java and VRML tools permits a user to display data (including three dimensional presentations of the data) without requiring the applications software. This system has numerous applications including range safety, commercial vessel traffic management, port authority and services monitoring, and oceanographic data gathering.

      Busch, Charles; Lancaster, Phil; Payne, Edward; Scientific-Atlanta, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      In light of recent technology advances, reliable Remote Sensing Satellite data reception (from satellites such as SPOT, ERS, Landsat, Radarsat, JERS, and IRS) is becoming increasingly more practical using smaller aperture antenna systems. Performance, which up to a decade ago was reserved for antenna aperture sizes in excess of 9 metres, is now being realised with antenna systems that are half the size. In addition, there is an increasing demand for tactical mobile systems that can be moved from one location in the world to another, and which can be operational in that new location in a very short period of time. This paper describes a mobile 4.3 metre X-Band program-track Remote Sensing trailer mounted receive system that Scientific-Atlanta has manufactured to perform evaluation tests on its data reception capability from the Radarsat, SPOT and ERS satellites, in particular. A general overview of the system will be given, which will describe: a) the antenna and program track feed configuration; b) the X/Y pedestal; c) the trailer and pedestal erection mechanism; d) the receive electronics; e) antenna control unit and f) the station control computer which is used for updating ephemeris data and for system management. A description will be given of how the system is prepared for operation following transport, via C-130 cargo airplane or road, to a particular location, concentrating on the ease of set-up and the time required for deployment. It will also describe how the system is readied for transport following the mission. Finally, results of a series of trials that were undertaken in Canada will be presented. The trials concentrated on validating the projected deployment times and verifying the reception of data from Radarsat, ERS and SPOT at various elevation angles in varying weather conditions. One of the main features investigated was the performance of the system at the 67 degree elevation point in the Radarsat orbit, where some people believe there may be a drop-off in the EIRP. The trials were conducted over a period of 7 months, covering the fall, winter and spring.
    • Common Airborne Processing System (CAPS) 2.0: Data Reduction Software on a Personal Computer (PC)

      Hunt, Trent W.; TYBRIN Corporation; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      CAPS 2.0 provides a flexible, PC-based tool for meeting evolving data reduction and analysis requirements while supporting standardization of instrumentation data processing. CAPS 2.0 will accept a variety of data types including raw instrumentation, binary, ASCII, and Internet protocol message data and will output Engineering Unit data to files, static or dynamic plots, and Internet protocol message exchange. Additionally, CAPS 2.0 will input and output data in accordance with the Digital Data Standard. CAPS 2.0 will accept multiple input sources of PCM, MIL-STD-1553, or DDS data to create an output for every Output Product Description and Dictionary grouping specified for a particular Session. All of this functionality is performed on a PC within the framework of the Microsoft Windows 95/NT graphical user interface.
    • New Development of Chinese Onboard Data Acquisition System

      Ping, Wang Yan; Ming, Li Shu; Jie, Shi Chang; Beijing Research Institute Of Telemetry; China Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      This paper describes a new development of Chinese onboard telemetry data acquisition system--onboard telemetry fundamental system. This system is a new type of miniature, universal onboard measurement system and designs for satisfying future requirement. This is a standard, serial, miniature, modular TDM onboard data acquisition system. It has two buses, three levels’ structure and has a very flexible systematic configuration. According to the requirement you can select the configuration. This system is an open system structure and can add new modules or instrument equipment.

      Pedroza, Albert; Bombardier Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The accurate determination of test aircraft position and velocity is a very strong requirement in several certification and development flight test applications. This requirement often requires availability of test ranges properly instrumented with optical or radar tracking systems, precision time for data reduction and dependency on environmental and meteorological conditions. The capabilities of GPS (Global Positioning System) technology, in terms of data accuracy, speed of data availability and reduction of test operating cost, moved Bombardier Flight Test Center to make an investment and integrate a system utilizing GPS for extensive use in flight and ground test activity. Through the use of differential GPS (DGPS) procedures, Bombardier Flight Test Center was able to implement a complete system which could provide real-time data results to a very acceptable output rate and accuracy. Furthermore, the system was capable of providing post-processed data results which greatly exceeded required output rate and accuracy. Regardless of the type of aircraft testing conducted, the real-time or post-processed data could be generated for the same test. After conducting various types of testing, Bombardier Flight Test Center has accepted the DGPS as an acceptable and proper flight and ground test measurement tool for its various aircraft test platforms.

      James, Calvin L.; AlliedSignal Aerospace Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The basic building blocks for implementing complex waveform generators using a look-up table approach are random access memory (RAM) and read only memory (ROM) devices. Due to technological advancements in field programmable gate array (FPGA) development, these devices have the ability to allocate large amounts of memory elements within the same structure. The self containment property makes the FPGA a suitable topology for complex waveform generation applications. In addition, this self containment property significantly reduces implementation costs by reducing the number of external components required to support many applications. This paper examines the use of FPGA’s in various complex waveform generation applications. In particular, a discussion will ensue examining possible mappings of the time domain response of the complex waveform into memory elements of the FPGA. The analyses and examples contained in the sequel are from existing waveform generation applications, developed for Gauissian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) and Unbalanced Quadriphase Shift Keying (UQPSK) modulation formats.

      Winstead, Michael L.; Saenz, Karen J.; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      Flight Safety concerns increase proportionally with increasing missile performance. These concerns are greatest in the near launch arena where a missile has the greatest potential energy. Systems such as radar, GPS tracking systems, and optics are normally of limited use in this arena for a number of reasons. A system was required that would provide useful tracking data in the first few seconds of a missile launch. This system has met that requirement providing nominal path deviation data from the launcher out to as much as 120 seconds. The tracking system described herein uses the principle of radio interferometry to derive phase difference measurements between carefully spaced antennas. These measurements are transmitted to the Operational Display Facility and converted to a usable angular deviation plot for use by Flight Safety Personnel. This paper provides an elementary radio interferometer system background and discusses this particular system setup and use. Some detail is provided on the premission simulation and setup of the system as well as the real-time display setup and output of the final data product.

      Shubo, Jin; Yanshan, Zhao; Xinan Electronic Engineering Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      This paper describes a kind of Microwave Digital Frequency Synthesizer used for S-band telemetry receivers. As well known many modern electronic systems employ a Frequency Synthesizer whose spectral purity is critical. The characteristics of a PLL (Phase-Locked Loop) Frequency Synthesizer, such as frequency resolution, phase noise, spurious suppression and switch time, should be compromised in our design. A heterodyne Frequency Synthesis is often considered as a good approach to solve the problem. But it is complicated in structure and circuit. A variable-reference-driven PLL Frequency Synthesizer was introduced which can give an improved trade-off among frequency resolution, phase noise, spurious suppression. In this paper the phase noise and spurious suppression characteristic of variable-reference-driven PLL Frequency Synthesizer is analyzed theoretically and compared with that of the heterodyne Frequency Synthesizer. For engineering application, a practical Microwave Digital Frequency Synthesizer used for telemetry receiver has been designed, which is characterized by simply structure, low phase noise and low spurious output. The output spectrum of experimental measurements is given.

      Reid, Robert J.; Naval Undersea Warfare Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      A "Warfighter's Internet" recognizes that next-generation warfare will take place in an information-rich environment, with highly mobile forces who are dependent on beyond line-of-sight (BLOS) communications. Connectivity is required to provide them information, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) products, command and control (C2) messages, logistics support, and fire support. This technology also has direct application to the Test and Evaluation (T&E) community by providing the geographical extension of the range boundary via mobile BLOS communications.

      Jian, Zhang; Junxin, Ge; Futang, Zhang; Xinan Electronic Engineering Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      In this paper, the basic ideas of advanced Spread Spectrum Unified Tracking Telemetry & Command System are introduced, the approaches and strategies to reject narrowband interference, multiple access interference and multipath interference are discussed. With effective interference-rejection, the safety and robustness of SS-UTTCS will be improved enormously.

      Cirineo, Tony; NAWCWPNS (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      This paper describes the development of a PC based IRIG tone generator and flight termination transmitter. The tone generator and flight termination transmitter card are part of a flight line test set. The test set has several PC based cards which include an S-Band telemetry receiver, a bit synchronizer, a decommutator, an encryption support card and the flight termination transmitter card. The test set can perform a complete end to end test of a weapon’s flight termination system prior to loading on an aircraft.

      Losik, Len; L-3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      Lunar Prospector’s project engineering staff selected a Windows PC platform as the RF test console for the Lunar Prospector spacecraft. The spacecraft test team chose the PCbased RF test console because the PC provides a low-cost, common platform with a graphical user interface. The PC provides point-and-click, menu-driven windows that are common throughout the satellite factory. The PC RF test console is being used to exercise the Lunar Prospector spacecraft RF link for RF commanding, telemetry, and ranging signals during factory test, including thermal vacuum chamber testing. For spacecraft command and control at the factory, the PC-based RF test console is networked to a UNIX workstation over RS-422. The PC RF test console and spacecraft interface are controlled through a coax switch residing in a test rack next to the workstation. The PC RF test console is connected directly to the Lunar Prospector spacecraft using coax cable through the spacecraft Telemetry, Commanding, & Ranging (TC&R) RF antenna hat for both transmit and receive functions. The PC RF test console is also connected hard-line to the spacecraft transponder through the transponder RS-422 connection. This connection provides the ability for spacecraft telemetry to be received at the PC at RF or baseband. The same hard-line spacecraft telemetry data is provided to the UNIX workstation for comparison. NASA’s Lunar Prospector project is the first of the Discovery series of “faster, better, cheaper” missions to be competitively awarded. Lunar Prospector project funding was capped by NASA to ensure that no overruns would occur. The mission was funded to support the scientific community’s desire to verify the presence of ice on the moon and collect environmental data to understand the dynamics that may have led to polar ice deposits. The Lunar Prospector mission received funding in 1996 with a launch planned for September 1997

      Gao, Wei; Feher, Kamilo; University of California at Davis; Digcom, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      A simple, low cost radio frequency (RF) power and spectrally efficient integrated transceiver/modem architecture employing Feher’s patented Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (FQPSK) is described. The FQPSK signals presented in this paper are obtained by using additional post low-pass filters in the FQPSK architecture. This implementation significantly improves the spectral efficiency of the worldwide commercially standardized Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) systems. The Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of FQPSK in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel has been investigated by means of computer simulation and hardware prototype measurements. The results of the hardware and software simulations are compared to GMSK and QPSK/OQPSK performance. These results show that the filtered FQPSK modulated signal passing through a non-linear amplifier (NLA) can achieve a spectral efficiency improvement of about 60% over NLA filtered OQPSK and an integrated spectral efficiency improvement of 50% over GMSK and a better BER performance. In particular, 100 kb/s to 34 Mb/s hardware experimental results over 2.4 GHz NLA (saturated) 1 Watt system confirmed that FQPSK hardware systems attain a BER=f(Eb/N0) performance within 1 dB to 2 dB of predicted theoretical results.

      Tao, Jianping; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The most bandwidth-efficient communication methods are imperative to cope with the congested frequency bands. Pulse Shaping methods have excellent effects on narrowing bandwidth and increasing band utilization. The position of the baseband filters for the pulse shaping is crucial. Filters after the modulator will have non-constant envelope and before the modulator will have constant envelope. These two types have different effects on narrowing the bandwidth and producing bit errors. The constant envelope 8 PSK is used throughout the simulations and is compared with the non-constant envelope results. This work provides simulation results of spectrum analysis and measure of bit errors produced by pulse shaping in an AWGN channel.

      Heminger, Larry J.; SBS Technologies, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      There is a wave of change coming. It started in the industrial automation community and it is slowly and surely working its way into aerospace, satellite and telemetry applications. It’s called the PC, and its not just for simple quick-look data anymore. Using state-of-the-art commercial hardware and software technologies, PC-based architectures can now be used to perform self contained, reliable and high performance telemetry data acquisition and processing functions – previously the domain of expensive, dedicated front end systems. This paper will discuss many of the key enabling technologies and will provide examples of their use in a truly next generation system architecture based on the Microsoft® Windows NT Operating System and related features.
    • Space-Based Flight Termination System Incorporating GPS Telecommand Link

      Alves, Daniel F., Jr.; Alpha Instrumentation and Information Management (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      This paper will investigate the areas which must be addressed to implement a truly integrated Range instrumentation system on a GPS-based Range, using a patented L-Band commanding scheme. Hardware issues will be highlighted as well the issues to be addressed in changing from an audio tone-frequency modulated command system to a digital system incorporating encryption and spread spectrum. Some thoughts addressing costs and schedule to incorporate this approach into the architecture of the U. S. Air Force Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) architecture, as a candidate GPS-based Range are also presented, as well as a discussion of the benefits to be accrued over the existing system, if this approach were adopted.

      Kibalo, Tom; Miles, Ben (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      Alliant Techsystems’ Advanced Technology Applications organization incorporates the latest IRIG standards for range equipment and operation. Over the past five years, our objective has been to assure interoperability among diverse data recording users while achieving technical excellence for our ADARIO(Analog Digital Adaptable Input Output) family of products. In this paper, we summarize 25 years of ADARIO development; technical challenges, risks and processes; as well as our five-year effort to modify and develop our recording system products to meet the evolutionary standards of technical excellence.
    • Development of a New IRIG Standard Flight Recorder

      Russ, Roger; Graham, Mark; Metrum Division of Bell Technologies; Computing Devices Co., Ltd. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      An IRIG standard flight recorder has been developed that is based on half-inch helical scan technology. The recorder was developed by combining the data channel of existing ground-based recording systems with transport technology used in both flight test and operational fighter aircraft environments. The design goal was to achieve cross play compatibility with the defined IRIG 106.6 tape format. Significant margins were provided in the design to maintain compatibility with tapes recorded in fighter aircraft environments. Operation at up to 50,000 feet, a temperature range of -40EC to +55EC, and vibration sources to Mil Spec 5400T are requirements in this environment. How these technical problems were overcome during the development of this recorder is addressed in this paper.

      Rice, Michael; Perrins, Erik; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) Mobile Terminal (AMT) has been deployed aboard the USS Princeton (CG 59) in an experiment to test the viability of K and Ka band technology in military communication applications. Pilot tone data recorded on-board the USS Princeton (CG 59) show that most variations in the received power level result from antenna tracking errors and did not appear to be caused by obstructions from the ship superstructure. The data also showed that multipath interference was negligible. The data studied in this paper were gathered during ship maneuvers in the Caribbean (13E 33’ N, 76E 16’ W) in late May 1997 and in the Eastern Pacific (6E 34’ N, 79E 40’ W) in early June 1997. The relationship between pitch/yaw/roll and received power levels is studied. Plots showing received power (time series) are presented to aid in link budget calculations.