Vigil, Jeannine S.; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      This paper details the interaction of a small satellite with a space network and estimates the number of contacts and duration of contacts between the small, spin-stabilized satellite and a TDRS satellite. The simulations were performed using Satellite Tool Kit (STK) version 3.0, an orbital analysis software program. STK was configured for the four vehicles representing the spin-stabilized satellite and three TDRS satellites, TDRS East, West, and TDRS Zone of Exclusion. A set of simulations were run in which the spinstabilized satellite was given orbital elements corresponding to an orbital altitude between 600 km and 1200 km. The orbital inclination angle for the set of simulations was also varied from 20° through 100° along with the antenna cone angle of 10° through 40° to account for the effective beamwidths. In each of the simulations, the access to each TDRS satellite in the SN constellation was examined as a function of orbital altitude, orbital inclination angle, and antenna cone angle.
    • Payload Data Analyzer and Payload Data Generator System for Space Station Integration and Test

      Werner, Jeffrey M.; NASA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      To support the processing of International Space Station (ISS) Payloads, the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) had the need to develop specialized test and validation equipment to quickly identify interface problems between the payload or experiment under test and the communication and telemetry downlink systems. To meet this need, the Payload Data Analyzer (PDA) System was developed by the Data Systems Technology Division (DSTD) of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to provide a suite of troubleshooting tools and data snapshot features allowing for diagnosis and validation of payload interfaces. The PDA System, in conjunction with the Payload Data Generator (PDG) System, allow for a full set of programmable payload validation tools which can quickly be deployed to solve crucial interface problems. This paper describes the architecture and tools built in the PDA which help facilitate Space Station Payload Processing.
    • Common Airborne Processing System (CAPS) 2.0: Data Reduction Software on a Personal Computer (PC)

      Hunt, Trent W.; TYBRIN Corporation; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      CAPS 2.0 provides a flexible, PC-based tool for meeting evolving data reduction and analysis requirements while supporting standardization of instrumentation data processing. CAPS 2.0 will accept a variety of data types including raw instrumentation, binary, ASCII, and Internet protocol message data and will output Engineering Unit data to files, static or dynamic plots, and Internet protocol message exchange. Additionally, CAPS 2.0 will input and output data in accordance with the Digital Data Standard. CAPS 2.0 will accept multiple input sources of PCM, MIL-STD-1553, or DDS data to create an output for every Output Product Description and Dictionary grouping specified for a particular Session. All of this functionality is performed on a PC within the framework of the Microsoft Windows 95/NT graphical user interface.

      Heminger, Larry J.; SBS Technologies, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      There is a wave of change coming. It started in the industrial automation community and it is slowly and surely working its way into aerospace, satellite and telemetry applications. It’s called the PC, and its not just for simple quick-look data anymore. Using state-of-the-art commercial hardware and software technologies, PC-based architectures can now be used to perform self contained, reliable and high performance telemetry data acquisition and processing functions – previously the domain of expensive, dedicated front end systems. This paper will discuss many of the key enabling technologies and will provide examples of their use in a truly next generation system architecture based on the Microsoft® Windows NT Operating System and related features.

      Wigfall, Glenn D.; Bahia, Alberto A.; U.S. Army Armament, Research, Development and Engineering Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The Army’s continuing effort to develop self-guided, anti-tank weapon systems has been fueled by successful development of an earlier generation of smart weapons. These self-guided systems, also labeled “brilliant weapons,” will present a natural progression to “smart” weapons development and testing. What has been critical to the success of these smart weapons development programs has been an end-to-end testability provided by on-board telemetry methods. The end-to-end test procedures can be efficiently performed in a static laboratory environment where space is available. On board the smart weapon, end-to-end testability is less feasible due to space and bandwidth limitations. The STAFF XM943 projectile development program makes use of a dual telemetry link to transmit an array of measurements which characterize the performance of the projectile in and end-to-end fashion. The dual telemetry systems provide analog measurement capability to evaluate system component-level functions and digital measurement capability to evaluate a system processor which lends itself to computer processing. The digital data is intrinsic to smart weapon systems since they typically employ embedded microprocessors for projectile system control. The STAFF XM943 electronic system is controlled by a TMS320C30 microprocessor. The dual telemetry system employs a traditional FM/FM technique for monitoring a number of analog functions and a “quasi-traditional” PCM/FM scheme for digital transmission. This paper discusses the implementation of this dual telemetry approach for the XM943 Projectile System.

      Harrison, Keith; Blevins, William; AlliedSignal Technical Services Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The Low Earth Orbit Terminal (LEO-T) developed by AlliedSignal for NASA Wallops is a fully autonomous satellite tracking system which provides a reliable, high quality, satellite data collection and dissemination service. The procurement was initiated by NASA, in an effort to provide more tracking capacity with a decreasing budget. A large mission set of NASA satellites in the next decade will not require the performance of existing large aperture systems. NASA is planning to use the larger aperture antennas to only support those missions needing the higher performance. The remainder of the missions will be supported with the smaller LEO-Ts, which are smaller, significantly less expensive, and fully automated. The procurement is also an attempt at a first step towards fostering commercialization and privatization of small station acquisition and services. The system design features a modular architecture to simplify integration and to support affordable future expansion. This paper begins with a brief summary of the LEO-T program, then provides the design details and capabilities of the LEO-T system.

      Sanzhong, Li; Qishan, Zhang; Cheng, L L (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      A parallel multi-channel receiver for binary phase shift keyed (BPSK) direct-sequence (DS) spread-spectrum (SS) is introduced in this paper. It adopts a Costas carrier frequency-tracking loop which maintains frequency lock rather than phase lock, and the delay-lock error can be noncoherently obtained to track the PN code. For airborne applications, this method will extend effectively the receiver’s tracking dynamics range for the carrier Doppler shift. A erasable programmable logic device (EPLD) is applied to get the advantage of smaller size and higher flexibility. A high speed microprocessor (TMS320C30) which acts as the processing unit of the receiver is used for acquiring and tracking of the carrier and PN code by digital signal processing algorithms. This receiver is more flexible and is easily improved by reconfiguring the EPLD and modifying the software algorithms. Its fundamental principle is described in the paper.

      Hui, Liu; Leelung, Cheng; Qishan, Zhang (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      GLONASS is similar to GPS in many aspects such as system configuration, navigation mechanism, signal structure, etc.. There exists the possibility of receiving and processing GLONASS signals with GPS technology. The frequency plan of the GLONASS system is different from that of GPS. This makes the front-end of GLONASS receiver more complicated. The work here manifests our initial effort in GLONASS receiving. A design scheme is proposed of a C/A code GLONASS receiver.
    • Space-Based Flight Termination System Incorporating GPS Telecommand Link

      Alves, Daniel F., Jr.; Alpha Instrumentation and Information Management (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      This paper will investigate the areas which must be addressed to implement a truly integrated Range instrumentation system on a GPS-based Range, using a patented L-Band commanding scheme. Hardware issues will be highlighted as well the issues to be addressed in changing from an audio tone-frequency modulated command system to a digital system incorporating encryption and spread spectrum. Some thoughts addressing costs and schedule to incorporate this approach into the architecture of the U. S. Air Force Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) architecture, as a candidate GPS-based Range are also presented, as well as a discussion of the benefits to be accrued over the existing system, if this approach were adopted.

      Siu, David P.; Edwards Air Force Base; Computer Sciences Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The older F16 jet fighters are currently being flight tested to evaluate the upgraded electronics for aircraft avionics, flight control and weapons systems. An instrumentation system capable of recording three different video signals, recording four Military- Standard-1553B (Mil-Std-1553B) data streams, recording one PCM stream, transmitting the PCM stream, and transmitting two video signals was needed. Using off the shelf equipment, the F16 instrumentation system was design to meet the electronic specifications, limited available space of a small jet fighter, and limited space in the SBand frequency range.
    • International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 33 (1997)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10

      Spadaro, Martin J.; Vector Microwave Research Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      Low cost, commercial off-the-shelf Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers can be used to provide real-time track of ground launched subsonic, sea-skimming missile targets when integrated with existing telemetry equipment and commercial radio modems. GPS reference stations can be deployed that are capable of generating, broadcasting and monitoring Differential GPS corrections that effectively eliminate the deliberate position errors imposed by the Department of Defense. Commercial GPS receivers are effective and provide contiguous position data even during the boost phase of flight when G forces exceed the receiver manufacturer’s published specifications.
    • Telemetry Data Sharing Using S/MIME

      Kalibjian, Jeffrey R.; CounterSign Software, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      Last year the design and implementation of a secure World Wide Web based data sharing tool which could enable geographically remote contractor teams to access flight and test telemetry data securely over the Internet was presented [1]. Key technologies facilitating this capability were the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) capable web browsers and web servers. This year the applicability of the Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (S/MIME) specification is being evaluated for the transport of telemetry data via secure E-mail.

      Gross, Jeffrey; Keller, G. E., Jr; ViaSat Inc.; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      In this paper, the Miniature Data Acquisition Transceiver System (Mini-DAT), a Type II PC-Card based data acquisition and transceiver system is described. The Mini-DAT was developed by ViaSat and is currently in use at the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) at Eglin AFB. AFRL is investigating the use of this Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band system for data collection with advanced munitions. The Mini-DAT combines the advantages of PC-Card technology with an off the shelf interfacing and packaging approach to provide a large array of capabilities in a very small package. The system provides everything needed to collect analog, discrete and digital data, process the data and transfer the data in a wireless fashion using the latest license free spread spectrum modulation technology. The advanced design of the Mini-DAT allows for operation in harsh remote environments, collecting data unattended and accessed remotely. A graphical user interface (GUI) is provided via a Windows 3.x and 95 software package that can be easily customized for specific applications. The Mini-DAT provides fast and reliable error-free data transfer over the 2.4GHz ISM communication band. It operates over a shared 80MHz bandwidth, allowing multiple access of a number of portable units operating simultaneously in the same band.

      Gonzalez, Daniel G.; Richard, Gaetan C.; Malibu Research Associates (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The requirement for a lightweight, quick deployment C-Band satellite communication antenna system for Aegis Class Destroyers has been addressed and this paper describes a novel solution currently being implemented. The new antenna system takes advantage of the low windload properties of the FLAPS™ (Flat Parabolic Surface) reflector and features a broadband FLAPS™ reflector mounted on a lightweight, high performance X-Y positioner. The system is designed in a modular fashion and operates in a shipboard environment without the protection of a radome. The system is stabilized to counteract the ship's motion, operates without counterweights, weighs less than 250 kg and provide communication links in the 3900 to 4100 MHz and 6000 to 6200 MHz frequency bands.
    • An Overview of the Joint Advanced Missile Instrumentation (JAMI) Program An OSD Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) Initiative

      Scofield, Don; Powell, Dave; Macdonald, Thomas J.; NAWC-WD; TASC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      JAMI, a 1997 new-start multi-year CTEIP program, will develop an integrated instrumentation package for tri-service small missile test and training applications. JAMI will provide telemetry, time-space-position information(TSPI), flight termination and end-game vector scoring in a low-cost, modular package that will allow world-wide test and training -- eliminating, in most cases, the need for range-specific (or multi-system) facilities. JAMI will incorporate GPS-based technology as the TSPI and vector scoring engine, state-of-the art telemetry, and an off-the-shelf UHF Flight Termination Receiver (FTR), and address the feasibility of a solid state programmable Safe-and-Arm. The effort will include a Test Technology Development and Demonstration (TTD&D) risk reduction effort which will: validate tri-service requirements, provide a technology demonstration, assess the applicability of advanced antenna technology, and determine the achievable performance and complexity of alternative kinematic GPS vector scoring techniques. To effect the vector scoring function, a cooperative arrangement with the target will address the mechanization of the target portion of the scoring function.

      Brown, Barbie; Ghuman, Parminder; Medina, Johnny; Wilke, Randy; NASA; Century Computing Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      The international space community, including National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), European Space Agency (ESA), Japanese National Space Agency (NASDA) and others, are committed to using the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommendations for low earth orbiting satellites. With the advent of the CCSDS standards and the availability of direct broadcast data from a number of current and future spacecraft, a large number of users could have access to earth science data. However, to allow for the largest possible user base, the cost of processing this data must be as low as possible. By utilizing Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC), pipelined data processing, and advanced software development technology and tools, highly integrated CCSDS data processing can be attained in a single desktop system. This paper describes a prototype desktop system based on the Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus that performs CCSDS standard frame synchronization, bit transition density decoding, Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC) error checking, Reed-Solomon decoding, data unit sorting, packet extraction, annotation and other CCSDS service processing. Also discussed is software technology used to increase the flexibility and usability of the desktop system. The reproduction cost for the system described is less than 1/8th the current cost of commercially available CCSDS data processing systems.

      Rice, Michael; Law, Eugene; Brigham Young University; NAWCWPNS (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      This paper describes the two main causes of fading encountered at test ranges. The first cause of fading results from nulls in the transmit antenna gain pattern. Variations in the received signal level are a result of changes in the gain pattern as the spatial relationship between transmitter and receiver change. The second cause of fading is due to multipath interference. This occurs when multiple copies of the transmitted signal with different delays arrive at the receiver and are phased relative to each other so that destructive interference occurs.
    • Antenna Gain Pattern Effects on Multipath Interference in Aeronautical Telemetering

      Rice, Michael; Friend, Daniel H.; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      This paper examines the effect of antenna gain pattern on multipath fades for a typical aeronautical telemetry system. Assuming a parabolic reflector antenna at the tracking station and a single specular reflection as the source of multipath, an expression for the fade depth which incorporates the attenuating effects of the antenna gain pattern is derived. A representative example is presented which demonstrates the utility of the expressions derived.

      Losik, Len; L-3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1997-10)
      PC technology has progressed to the point that it can very effectively support commercial geostationary spacecraft design, manufacture, test, launch, ground station, and on-orbit mission control activities. Many of the manufacturers that provide VME spacecraft test hardware and software are now providing the same functions and performance for the PC. A PC workstation equipped with single and multiple Pentium processors and Windows NT software can support single and multiple uplinks/downlinks and provide client/server capabilities that perform traditional UNIX client/server operations. Such a PC workstation can provide the functionality, features, and performance necessary for commercial spacecraft board-level test, unit-level test, subsystem-level test, spacecraft bus and payload integration, and ground station monitoring and control, as well as on-orbit mission control activities.