Jones, Charles H.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      Data cycle maps (DCM) describe the cyclic mapping of telemetered data. The efficiency of a DCM thus directly effects the efficiency of the use of the telemetry spectrum. The availability of this spectrum is decreasing while the demand is increasing. Certainly one of the first things to be done in trying to alleviate this bandwidth crunch is to make sure that all bits in a telemetry stream are useful and required. This paper provides results of a study on what types of bits there are in a DCM and how the bits were allocated in DCMs actually used at Edwards AFB, California.

      Herold, F. W.; Kaiser, J. A.; Fredrick Herold & Associates, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      Conventional phased arrays nominally sum the signals received by the elements prior to detection. By multiplying rather than summing signals received from pairs of elements, i.e., interferometer pairs, a set of Spatial Frequencies (SFs) is obtained. Obtaining the SFs requires employment of a multiple local oscillator technique. When summed, these spatial frequencies produce a single lobed (voltage) radiation pattern which, when passed through a biased detector, removes all sidelobes from the response at a small loss of desired signal power.

      Eslinger, Brian; Garza, Reynaldo; TYBRIN Corp.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      Communications support for the X-33 requires addressing several unique challenges to meet program and range safety requirements. As an avenue to minimize costs, the program has reduced requirements to the communications system, which lowered the cost of networking the extended range. Cost trade-offs showed that by lowering the telemetry data rate from 2 Megabits per second to 1.440 Megabits per second that significant cost avoidance could be realized. Also, by adopting standard telecommunications data rate for the uplink data stream, an efficient and integrated solution for the extended range communications could be supported. Meeting the program requirements as well as range safety requirements for this effort are critical to the success of the program. This paper describes some of the important requirements driving the design of the extended range communications support and the design of the system to meet those requirements.

      DeBenedetto, Louis J.; Myriad Logic, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      Since becoming an ANSI standard in 1994, Fibre Channel has matured into a high-speed reliable data communication solution. Fibre Channel uses point-to-point, arbitrated loop, or switched topologies, to provide a wide range of options for data storage and highspeed data transfer applications. Unlike Gigabit Ethernet, Fibre Channel supports protocols such as HIPPI-FP, SCSI and IPI, allowing for greater flexibility when designing systems. However, the wide range of options supported in the Fibre Channel standard can be the source of misunderstanding and incompatibility. This paper intends to clear up some of the misconceptions about Fibre Channel by presenting the current standard and discussing how Fibre Channel can be used in data acquisition systems. Since these systems often require extremely high throughput for routing data, as well as high speed data storage to long term media, solutions are not often cut and dry. This paper will give examples of how using different layers of the Fibre Channel protocol will meet the needs of today’s data acquisition requirements. It provides a brief overview of Fibre Channel technology and identifies the different types of Fibre Channel products available. It provides examples of how commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) products can be used to build data acquisition and storage systems requiring throughputs of up to 90 Mbytes per second on a single fiber. Additionally, it shows how multiple fibers can be used to achieve much higher data rates.
    • FQPSK Doubles Spectral Efficiency of Telemetry: Advances and Initial Air to Ground Flight Tests

      Feher, Kamilo; Digcom, Inc.; University of California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      FQPSK is the abbreviation for Feher Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (FQPSK) patented systems [1]. Digcom, Inc. licensed FQPSK products demonstrated significant spectral saving and RF power efficient robust BER performance advantages. These bit rate agile modems and Non Linearly Amplified (NLA) transceivers, DSP and hardware implementations, and in some instances “software-radios” (20kb/s to more than 100Mb/s) and RF frequency agile (from 150MHz to more than 40GHz) developments and systems have recently been demonstrated and deployed. The spectral efficiency, i.e., data throughput capability of the 1st generation of FQPSK, as demonstrated in initial Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) flight tests, approximately doubles while 2nd generation “FQPSK-2” systems have the potential to quadruple the spectral efficiency of operational PCM/FM telemetry systems and be backward compatible with the 1st generation of FQPSK technologies. It is also demonstrated that the spectral efficiency advantage of FQPSK over that of NLA power efficient GMSK, OQPSK and QPSK modulated transceivers is in the 50% to 300% range and that the potential spectral efficiency advantage of FQPSK-2 over GMSK [1] is in the 200% to 500% range. Based on extensive multi-year studies of alternative solutions for spectral and RF power efficient, robust BER performance systems, several commercial US and international organizations, AIAA, CCSDS, NASA, ESA, CCSDS and various programs of the US Department of Defense (DoD) concluded that FQPSK offers the most spectrally efficient high performance-high speed proven technology solutions and recommended FQPSK standardization for several data links. Initial DoD-ARTM Program Office Air-to-Ground L-band and S-band jet airborne telemetry Test and Evaluation (T&E) data, obtained during the summer of 1998 are briefly highlighted. These include simultaneosly tested FQPSK and PCM/FM. In these tests the following ARTM objectives have been demonstrated: (a) FQPSK approximately doubles the spectral efficiency of currently operational PCM/FM; (b) The Data Link Performance of these two systems is comparable. The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) draft modulation standard recommended to the DoD, NASA and CCSDS, was approved by the AIAA [23]. The AIAA standard recommends “that FQPSK modulation be immediately adopted as the interim increment–1 standard.”
    • FQPSK-L: An Improved Constant Envelope Modulation Scheme for QPSK

      Lee, Tong-Fu; Wang, Shih-Ho; Liu, Chia-Liang; Bao, Liu; University of California Davis; Industrial Technology Research Institute; Tianjin University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      A new constant envelope modulation scheme and architecture for QPSK by cubic spline interpolation methods which increase spectral efficiency and power efficiency, named FQPSK-L, is presented. This modulation technique is an extension of the Feher Quadrature Shift Keying (FQPSK) patented technologies, see Ref [1]. Being a constant envelope modulation, FQPSK-L can operate with class C power amplifier without spectrum regrowth. We achieve a more compact spectrum with comparable bit error rate performance. For example, FQPSK-L is about 20% more spectral efficient than GMSK BTb=0.3 from 40 to 70 dB attenuation point. Moreover, FQPSK-L intrinsically has spikes at fc ± 0.5fb, fc ± 1.0fb, fc ± 1.5fb, ... which are useful for carrier recovery, symbol time recovery and fading compensation. In Rayleigh fading channel, FQPSK-L outperform GMSK BTb=0.3 by 0.8 dB. FQPSK-L is an excellent scheme for wireless and satellite communications which require high spectral and power efficiency.
    • FQPSK-O: An Improved Performance Constant Envelope Modulation Scheme for OQPSK

      Lee, Tong-Fu; Wang, Shih-Ho; Liu, Chia-Liang; University of California; Industrial Technology Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      A new constant envelope modulation scheme for OQPSK, called FQPSK-O, is presented. This modulation technique is an extension of the Feher Quadrature Shift Keying (FQPSK) patented technologies, see Ref[l]. This scheme uses cubic spline interpolation to generate very smooth baseband waveforms in order to increase the spectral and power efficiency. Being a constant envelope modulation, FQPSK-O can operate with class C power amplifier without spectrum regrowth. We achieve a more compact spectrum with comparable bit error rate performance. For example, the spectrum of FQPSK-O is 25% narrower than that of GMSK with BT(b)=0.3 and FQPSK-1 with hardlimiter [2] at -40 dB attenuation point. For coherent demodulation under AWGN channel, FQPSK-O has almost the same BER performance as FQPSK-1 with hardlimiter. Both of them are better than GMSK with BT(b)=0.3 for BER < 10^-4. In Rayleigh fading channel, FQPSK-O outperforms GMSK with BT(b)=0.3 by 2 dB. FQPSK-O is an excellent scheme for wireless and satellite communications which require high spectral and power efficiency.

      Wexler, Marty; L-3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      The necessity to acquire and analyze data dates back to the beginning of science itself. Long ago, a scientist may have run experiments and noted the results on a piece of paper. These notes became the data. The method was crude, but effective. As experiments got more complex, the need for better methodologies arose. Scientists began using computers to gather, analyze, and store the data. This method worked well for most types of data acquisition. As the amount of data being collected increased, larger computers, faster processors, and faster storage devices were used in order to keep up with the demand. This method was more refined, but still did not meet the needs of the scientific community. Requirements began to change in the data acquisition arena. More people wanted access to the data in real time. Companies producing large data acquisition systems began to move toward a network-based solution. This architecture featured a specialized computer called the server, which contained all of the data acquisition hardware. The server handled requests from multiple clients and handled the data flow to the network, data displays, and the archive medium. While this solution worked well to satisfy most requirements, it fell short in meeting others. The ability to have multiple computers working together across a local or wide area network (LAN or WAN) was not addressed. In addition, this architecture inherently had a single point of failure. If the server machine went down, all data from all sources was lost. Today, we see that the requirements for data acquisition systems include features only dreamed of five years ago. These new systems are linked around the world by wide area networks. They may include code to command satellites or handle 250 Mbps download rates. They must produce data for dozens of users at once, be customizable by the end user, and they must run on personal computers (PCs)! Systems like these cannot work using the traditional client/server model of the past. The data acquisition industry demands systems with far more features than were traditionally available. These systems must provide more reliability and interoperability, and be available at a fraction of the cost. To this end, we must use commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) computers that operate faster than the mainframe computers of only a decade ago. These computers must run software that is smart, reliable, scalable, and easy to use. All of these requirements can be met by a network of PCs running the Windows NT operating system.
    • High Explosive Radio Telemetry System

      Crawford, Ted; Bracht, Roger; Johnson, Richard; Mclaughlin, Barry; Los Alamos National Laboratories; AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      This paper overviews the High Explosive Radio Telemetry (HERT) system, under co-development by Los Alamos National Laboratories and AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing & Technologies. This telemetry system is designed to measure the initial performance of an explosive package under flight environment conditions, transmitting data from up to 64 sensors. It features high speed, accurate time resolution (10 ns) and has the ability to complete transmission of data before the system is destroyed by the explosion. In order to affect the resources and performance of a flight delivery vehicle as little as possible, the system is designed such that physical size, power requirements, and antenna demands are as small as possible.
    • High Rate Digital Demodulator ASIC

      Ghuman, Parminder; Sheikh, Salman; Koubek, Steve; Hoy, Scott; Gray, Andrew; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Lockheed Martin Space Mission Systems & Services; SGT Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      The architecture of the High Rate (600 Mega-bits per second) Digital Demodulator (HRDD) ASIC capable of demodulating BPSK and QPSK modulated data is presented in this paper. The advantages of all-digital processing include increased flexibility and reliability with reduced reproduction costs. Conventional serial digital processing would require high processing rates necessitating a hardware implementation other than CMOS technology such as Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) which has high cost and power requirements. It is more desirable to use CMOS technology with its lower power requirements and higher gate density. However, digital demodulation of high data rates in CMOS requires parallel algorithms to process the sampled data at a rate lower than the data rate. The parallel processing algorithms described here were developed jointly by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The resulting all-digital receiver has the capability to demodulate BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, and DQPSK at data rates in excess of 300 Mega-bits per second (Mbps) per channel. This paper will provide an overview of the parallel architecture and features of the HRDR ASIC. In addition, this paper will provide an overview of the implementation of the hardware architectures used to create flexibility over conventional high rate analog or hybrid receivers. This flexibility includes a wide range of data rates, modulation schemes, and operating environments. In conclusion it will be shown how this high rate digital demodulator can be used with an off-the-shelf A/D and a flexible analog front end, both of which are numerically computer controlled, to produce a very flexible, low cost high rate digital receiver.

      Law, Gene; Whiteman, Don; IFM EFFECTS ON PCM/FM TELEMETRY SYSTEMS (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      Incidental Frequency Modulation (IFM) products in telemetry transmitters can be a significant cause of bit errors in received Pulse Code Modulation/Frequency Modulation (PCM/FM) telemetry data. Range Commanders Council (RCC) and other documents give little or no guidance as to acceptable levels of IFM for telemetry applications. The expected higher vibration levels of future high velocity missile systems means that IFM levels are likely to be higher than previously encountered. This paper presents measured data on Bit Error Rate (BER) versus IFM levels at given Signal to Noise Ratios (SNR’s) for PCM/FM telemetry systems. The information presented can be utilized with BER versus SNR plots in the Telemetry Applications Handbook, RCC Document 119, to determine the additional link margin required to minimize IFM effects on telemetry data quality.

      Skelley, Daniel S.; Jones, Sidney R., Jr.; Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      The purpose of this paper is to present a broad view of the impact of network architectures on future data acquisition systems. The major advantages and challenges associated with the use of network architectures are rooted in the packetized structure of the data. Many of the issues raised are subtle and complex. It is not the intent of this paper to give these issues the thorough academic and technical analysis they deserve. It is the hope of the authors this paper will generate awareness and discussion on these issues.

      Dongkai, Yang; Qishan, Zhan; Lung, Cheng Lee; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics; City University of Hong Kong (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      An Improved AMI (Alternate Mark Inverse) Code used in telemetry system is proposed, its implementation and properties analysis are reported, including error performance analysis, power spectrum analysis, the relationship between acqusition probability of the first frame marker and error threshold and length of frame marker, etc. This type of code has the approximately identical power spectrum performance as the AMI Code. In addition, there have no long continuous zeroes in the data stream, which will cause phase-locked loop to fail. Using the Improved AMI Code, the equal probability of 0 and 1 is changed, which will increase acqusition probability of the first frame marker. Detailed description about how to create the Improved AMI Code is also discussed in this paper.

      Abbott, Laird; 49th Test Squadron (Air Combat Command) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      Airborne instrumentation used during flight tests is being installed and maintained in a unique way by operational bomber testers from the Air Force’s 53d Wing. The ability of the flight test community to test on operational aircraft has always been somewhat curtailed by the need for advanced forms of instrumentation. Operational fighter flight test squadrons have aircraft assigned to them, which they modify on as needed basis, much the same as developmental testers. However, bomber operational test units must use operational aircraft to accomplish their mission as there are no bombers in the Air Force’s Air Combat Command (ACC) specifically set aside for operational tests. During test missions, these units borrow aircraft from operational bomb wings, and then return them to service with the bomb wing after testing is complete. Yet, the requirement for instrumentation on these test missions is not much different than that of developmental testers. The weapon system engineer’s typically require Mil-Std-1553, video, telemetry, and Global Positioning System (GPS) Time-Space-Position-Information airborne receiver recordings. In addition, this data must be synchronized with an IRIG-B time code source, and recorded with the same precision as the data gathered during development test and evaluation (DT&E). As a result, several techniques have been developed, and instrumentation systems designed for these operational test units to incorporate instrumentation on operational aircraft. Several factors hamper the usual modification process in place at bases such as Edwards AFB and Eglin AFB. Primary among these is the requirement to maintain the aircraft in an operational configuration, and still meet all of the modification design safety criteria placed on the design team by the aircraft’s single manager. Secondary to the list of restrictions is modification time. Aircraft resources are stretched quite thin when one considers all of the bomb wing’s operational commitments. When they must release an aircraft for test missions, the testers must insure that schedule impacts are minimal. Therefore, these systems must install and de-install within one to two days and be completely portable. Placing holes in existing structures or adding new permanent structure is unacceptable. In addition, these aircraft must be capable of returning to combat ready status at any time. This paper centers on the B-52 bomber, and the active aircraft temporary modifications under control of the 49th Test Squadron (49 TESTS) at Barksdale AFB in Louisiana. The B-52 presents unique design challenges all its own, in addition to the general restrictions already mentioned. This paper will present the options that the 49 TESTS has successfully used to overcome the aforementioned restrictions, and provide an appropriate level of specialized instrumentation for its data collection requirements.

      Wells, Lawrence L.; Montgomery, Robert S.; Interstate Electronics Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      This paper describes a highly integrated and low cost GPS Translator/Telemetry system for use on missile platforms – the Digital GPS Translator (DGT), a component part of the Translated GPS Range System (TGRS). The DGT provides translated GPS tracking capability combined with transmission of telemetry at rates of up to 10 Mbps with optional encoding and/or encryption. This integrated approach to GPS tracking and telemetry results in a significant reduction in hardware size and cost compared to a segregated approach. The TGRS includes a ground-processing unit that provides real time processing of both the GPS and telemetry portions of the DGT transmission.
    • International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 34 (1998)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10
    • ISO 9001 Registration for the Electronic Hardware Fabrication Process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

      Bonner, J. K. “Kirk”; de Silveira, Carl; California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      More and more companies and organizations are recognizing the benefits to be gained by achieving ISO 9000 registration. An effort is underway at JPL to become ISO 9001 registered. To facilitate this activity, the entire laboratory has been divided into processes, each one having a designated process owner. This paper concentrates more specifically on one of these processes, namely, the Packaging and Fabrication of Electronic Hardware (PAFEH), and the effort being undertaken to ensure that this process will successfully pass registration. A comprehensive approach is being utilized by the Electronic Packaging and Fabrication Section to bring this about.

      Shigemoto, Fred; Wei, Mei; Somes, Austin; Ng, Sunny; NASA; Sterling Software (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      FAA is currently evaluating DGPS based CAT III Landing Systems for use as the next generation commercial aviation landing system standard. Any technique to validate such a DGPS based system must have at least equivalent accuracy. A laser position tracking system coupled with a high performance real-time computational capability was developed providing real-time analysis of performance. This real-time performance measurement system was key in enabling the quick completion of a large number of test approach and landings needed to achieve statistically accurate results.

      Barton, Randal L.; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      The Near Earth Asteroid Prospector (NEAP) has a scheduled launch date between mid- 1999 and mid-2000, and will encounter a yet to be determined near Earth asteroid (1.1 - 2.2 AU distance from Earth) some ten months later [2]. The purpose of this mission is not only to collect valuable scientific and geological data, but to also determine the value of the asteroid’s materials for possible mining and exploitation [2], [3]. The purpose of this paper is to detail frequency allocation issues and to determine possible return (space to Earth) data rates associated with deep space communications with the NEAP spacecraft.

      Franco, R. J.; Platzbecker, M. R.; Sandia National Laboratories (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      The Telemetry Technology Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories actively develops and tests acceleration recorders for penetrating weapons. This new acceleration recorder (MinPen) utilizes a microprocessor-based architecture for operational flexibility while maintaining electronics and packaging techniques developed over years of penetrator testing. MinPen has been demonstrated to function in shock environments up to 20,000 Gs. The MinPen instrumentation development has resulted in a rugged, versatile, miniature acceleration recorder and is a valuable tool for penetrator testing in a wide range of applications.