• TCP/IP Remote Control of a Ground Station

      Massey, Dale P.; Universal Space Network, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      Satellite tracking ground stations are under continuous pressure to automate. Autonomy is generally the desired goal, but if the ground stations are in a Commercial Ground Network(CGN) setup to support many missions simultaneously, remote control of such stations is of much more importance. The proliferation of Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) science, earth resources and eventually global communications satellites either in orbit or planned, requires a much lower cost methodology for ground support. A CGN of TCP/IP remotely controlled ground stations lowers much of the manpower that was historically required to operate such stations. This paper will cover the remote control aspects needed for a satellite ground tracking station and offer a unique remote control topology utilizing TCP/IP.

      Voudouris, Thanos; NASA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      This paper discusses the evolution of the ground satellite communication systems and the efforts made by the Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Advanced Architectures and Automation (AAA) branch, Code 588 to bring satellite scientific data to the user’s desktop. Primarily, it describes the next generation desktop system, its architecture and processing capabilities, which provide autonomous high-performance telemetry acquisition at the lowest possible cost. It also discusses the planning processes and the applicability of new technologies for communication needs in the next century. The paper is presented in terms simple for those not very familiar with current space programs to understand.

      Honglin, Yang; Yonghui, Yang; Xinan Electronic Engineering Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      This paper describes the technology on transmitting a single super fast waveform signal in real-time and introduces the general situation of the telemetry transmitter in vehicle. The equipment is a FM system in view of RF frequency, it is a pulse system in view of RF power. This equipment can transfer not only super fast waveform signals but also slowly varying conventional telemetry signals. The design is very novel. It is a multi-usage telemetry transmitter in vehicle.

      Nasta, Rodolphe; ALCATEL ESPACE (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      This paper gives an overview on Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TTC) sub-system that are used onboard some telecommunication satellites. Then, a description of the equipments of such a sub-system is given, together with the main performances.

      Haddock, Paul C.; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      This paper discusses the design, configuration, and operation of a satellite station built for the Center for Space Telemetering and Telecommunications Laboratory in the Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Engineering at New Mexico State University (NMSU). This satellite station consists of a computer-controlled antenna tracking system, 2m/70cm transceiver, satellite tracking software, and a demodulator. The satellite station receives satellite telemetry, allows for voice communications, and will be used in future classes. Currently this satellite station is receiving telemetry from an amateur radio satellite, UoSAT-OSCAR-11. Amateur radio satellites are referred to as Orbiting Satellites Carrying Amateur Radio (OSCAR) satellites.

      Reighter, Greg; Whiteman Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      Instrumenting the operational B-2 Strategic Bomber presents some unique problems. For example, the requirement to remain operational dictates that the aircraft must retain its stealth characteristics. This means traditional antennas cannot simply be attached to the airframe. A solution to this problem is an antenna designed with stealth, or Low Observable (LO), attributes. Stealth is not an absolute; it is relative. Therefore, antenna design becomes a balancing act between the LO relativity, antenna directivity, and antenna gain. Weapons testing is an additional concern, where instrumented ordinances transmit data that must be monitored real-time prior to launch. Stealth vehicles must carry weapons internally, restricting the Radio Frequency (RF) transmission of telemetered data from the weapon. With the development of future stealthy conveyances, such as the F-22, Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), ground, and ocean-going craft, these concerns will become even more prevalent.

      Schooley, L.C.; Chyr, Y-H.; Jordan, M.; Hagedorn, M.; Han, B.; Pat, J.; Ting, S.; Trotman, T.; University of Canterbury (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      This paper was prepared as part of the team design competition for a graduate level course given at the University of Canterbury, in Christchurch, New Zealand. It presents a high level design of a bobsled data acquisition system which is intended to aid athletes and coaches in achieving the maximum benefit from their time at the bobsled track. The system will measure every applicable aspect of the bobsled’s performance down the track, and provide real time and near real time feedback for the athletes and the coach. This system implements an inertial navigation and position system, monitors wind speed, measures the drivers steering input and effort, measures individual pushing effort in the critical start stage of the run, and provides cue signals to the runners when to mount the sled. A robust packet format and error correction in conjunction with a E2ROM backup system ensure data integrity. The data is transmitted utilising a GMSK signalling scheme, operating at a frequency of 400MHz. A space conserving patch antenna is mounted on the bobsled and a leaky wave antenna placed alongside the track for the transmission system. A link budget and the error performance of the transmission system are analysed. A graphical front end at the coach’s base station provides real time data display and analysis.

      Yates, James William; L-3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      Current changes in the way that large flight test systems are utilized have affected the industry’s methodology in both the early design phases and in the implementation of nextgeneration hardware and software. The reduction of available RF spectrum, the implementation of packet telemetry methods and systems, and a desire to implement commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware are only some of the considerations that telemetry systems integrators and product houses have to face. This paper describes how test methodology changes affect current large systems design at both government test ranges and at airframe/missile manufacturer test facilities. In addition, consideration is given to the area of increased processing power as it affects hardware and software design, the leveraging of such current and future telecommunications technology as network switch technology and compression, cross utilization, standardized technology, and the movement toward platform-independent software.

      Hordeski, Theodore J.,Jr.; GDP Space Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      The telemetry and aerospace communities require communications equipment providing various modulation and demodulation formats. One format, with application in Space Ground Link Subsystems (SGLS), utilizes a Ternary (tri-tone) Frequency Shift-Keyed (FSK) signal Amplitude Modulated (AM) by a triangle waveform. Historically, SGLS equipment has operated with a fixed tri-tone frequency set (e.g., 65 kHz, 76 kHz and 95 kHz). The need for additional transmission channels and increased bandwidth efficiency creates the requirement for equipment with the flexibility to generate and receive varied and higher frequency tone sets. Combining analog and digital techniques, GDP Space Systems has developed the FDT001. It is an FSK/AM detector which recovers a bit rate clock at one of four selectable bit rates and reproduces ternary FSK modulation data over a widely tunable range of tone frequencies. The tuning range is expanded by using two methods of digital frequency discrimination. The following paper describes the design of the FDT001.

      Cylc, Linda; Aydin Telemetry (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      PSK demodulators have been an integral part of the signal recovery process for decades. Unless a person has designed a demodulator, how much can a person know or understand about its operation? Instruction on how to set up a demodulator’s parameters to acquire a signal is found in a manual. An explanation of why parameters are set a certain way to handle particular input signal characteristics is often not provided in a manual. This paper is designed to be a tool to aid engineers, technicians, and operators who utilize demodulators. Its purpose is to relay the functionality of a demodulator to a user so that he or she can take advantage of its control parameters and status feedback. Knowing the reasons why a demodulator is set to certain parameters may greatly reduce confusion when a system is not working properly. On site troubleshooting may be accomplished without the need to call the manufacturer of the product. Another advantage of understanding the operation will be recognized when interfacing with the manufacturer. A person will be able to relay the information to a design engineer more easily, and will understand more of the engineer’s feedback on the potential problem. Utilizing this paper as an aid to enhance operation of a PSK demodulator will bring a user one step closer to understanding the complexity of its design.

      Pingfang, Zheng; Qishan, Zhang; Lung, Cheng Lee; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics; City University of Hong Kong (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      With the rapid development of intelligent transport system in the world during the past few years, it promotes some navigation & location technology to a wide application especially in the car application. This paper firstly introduces some kinds of navigation & location systems and then analyzes the advantage and disadvantage of each system. On the basis of integrating every system and considering the high accuracy which can be achieved by adopting the technology based on DGPS (Differential Global Position System) at present, vehicle navigation & location system based on DGPS/INS/GIS integrated technology is put forward. The propound of this system shortens the distance between academic plan and real application greatly, and it provides a high accuracy and high reliability navigation & location system for traffic department and some car manufacturing Inc. In addition, this system is also provided with a friendly interface that makes it very easy to the manipulator or the user. The emphasis of this paper is put on the hardware and software of this system through introducing the system performance, the system component and the system software, and the characteristic of each module that makes up the whole system. The propound of the vehicle navigation & location system based on DGPS/INS/GIS integrated technology is a new attempt for development of intelligent transport system in our country, it will be sure to accelerate the process of our intelligent transport system.

      Prohaska, Thomas S.; Redstone Technical Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      Telemetry is usually thought of as a medium to transmit data to verify missile and equipment performance. Almost always the telemetry kit is tested to total destruction. Redstone Technical Test Center (RTTC) has developed several video telemetry kits for use as training aids. The military is training modern soldiers and pilots to use high dollar/tech weapons. When the gunner being trained makes an error and is not corrected, his/her bad behavior is reinforced. Aircraft carrying the TGM-65 MAVERICK do not have enough space for a human trainer. Training with the TGM-65 MAVERICK is performed by recording seeker video, then replaying it during the debriefing. The newly developed video telemetry system for the trainer allows experienced pilots to observe the training from the ground station and to provide immediate feedback to correct any errors. This paper focuses on the use of video telemetry as a training aid to provide quality training for servicemen.

      Gurr, J. Richard; Auvil, Anthony; Rizzo, Jim; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      Reduction in available radio frequency (RF) spectrum for use in aircraft testing has steadily increased the probability of interference. The increase in users and required bandwidth generates requirements for increased monitoring and active management of the RF spectrum. The detection of background RF emissions and monitoring of authorized users will be used by future range test engineers to make decisions on when and where to conduct test missions to minimize the probability of interference. The detection of authorized users exceeding their allotted RF spectrum as well as unknown emitters should include: the general geographic area of potential interference, and times of transmission. This paper outlines the development of a complete system for wide-band RF monitoring to identify and locate active emissions. The RF surveillance system proposed must be inexpensive, easy to maintain, support large area coverage, and monitor wide bandwidths at long range. The system should contain software for emitter identification, which will determine where the current background and authorized RF transmissions occur and how they might effect authorized transmissions, and specialized software to alert spectrum managers of potential interference scenarios in real time based upon the daily schedule.

      Mackall, Dale A.; Sakahara, Robert; Kremer, Steven E.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      Development of an extended test range, with range instrumentation providing continuous vehicle communications, is required to flight-test the X-33, a scaled version of a reusable launch vehicle. The extended test range provides vehicle communications coverage from California to landing at Montana or Utah. This paper provides an overview of the approaches used to meet X-33 program requirements, including using multiple ground stations, and methods to reduce problems caused by reentry plasma radio frequency blackout. The advances used to develop the extended test range show other hypersonic and access-to-space programs can benefit from the development of the extended test range.

      Sharma, Ashley; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      In support of the X-33 single-stage-to-orbit program, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center was selected to provide continuous range communications of the X-33 vehicle from launch at Edwards Air Force Base, California, through landing at Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana, or at Michael Army Air Field, Utah. An extensive real-time range simulation capability is being developed to ensure successful communications with the autonomous X-33 vehicle. This paper provides an overview of the various levels of simulation, integration, and test being developed to support the X-33 extended range subsystems. These subsystems include the flight termination system, L-band command uplink subsystem, and S-band telemetry downlink subsystem.

      Burkes, Darryl A.; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1998-10)
      The X-33 program requires the use of multiple telemetry ground stations to provide continuous coverage of the launch, ascent, re-entry and approach phases for flights from Edwards AFB, California, to landings at Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah, and Malmstrom AFB, Montana. This paper will discuss the X-33 telemetry requirements and design, including information on the fixed and mobile telemetry systems, automated best source selection system, processing/display support for range safety officers (RSO) and range engineers, and comparison of real-time data with simulated data using the Dynamic Ground Station Analysis model. Due to the use of multiple ground stations and short duration flights, the goal throughout the X-33 missions is to automatically provide the best telemetry source for critical vehicle performance monitoring. The X-33 program was initiated by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Cooperative Agreement No. NCC8-115 with Lockheed Martin Skunk Works (LMSW).