• NONCOHERENT AND DIFFERENTIAL DETECTION OF FQPSK WITH MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD SEQUENCE ESTIMATION IN NONLINEAR CHANNELS

      Lin, Jin-Son; Feher, Kamilo; University of California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      This paper presents noncoherent limiter-discriminator detection and differential detection of FQPSK (Feher quadrature phase-shift-keying) with maximum-likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) techniques. Noncoherent FQPSK systems are suitable for fast fading and cochannel interference channels and channels with strong phase noise, and they can offer faster synchronization and reduce outage events compared with conventional coherent systems. In this paper, both differential detection and limiter-discriminator detection of FQPSK are discussed. We use MLSE with lookup tables to exploit the memory in noncoherently detected FQPSK signals and thus significantly improve the bit error rate (BER) performance in an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel.
    • EQUIPMENT TIME-DELAY (ETD) MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTINUOUS WAVE TRANSPONDER

      Chengfang, Huang; Jianping, Hu; Southwest Institute of Electronics Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      The Equipment Time-Delay (ETD) measurement technology for Continuous Wave (CW) transponder is discussed with emphasis on the principle of measuring the ETD of the intermediate frequency (IF) modulation transponder through measuring subcarrier modulation sideband tone phase. A general method for measuring ETD of different types of transponder (including IF-modulation transponder) is introduced. Finally the measurement method error is analyzed.
    • USING BRIDGES, ROUTERS AND GATEWAYS IN DATA ACQUISITION NETWORKS

      De Selms, Tom; Veridian Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      Using acquisition networks requires an understanding of the capabilities, design constraints and limitations of each available network device. The proper use of bridges, routers and gateways become extremely important in large networks where dissimilar busses, protocols or applications may be found. As data acquisition networks become a reality, the instrumentation network engineer must understand the benefits of each of these network devices and when to use them.
    • OPTIMIZATION OF A MINATURE TRANSMITTER MODULE FOR WIRELESS TELEMETRY APPLICATIONS

      Osgood, Karina; Burke, Larry; Webb, Amy; Muir, John; Dearstine, Christina; Quaglietta, Anthony; M/A-COM, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      M/A-COM, Inc. has previously developed a highly integrated transmitter chip set for wireless telemetry applications for the military L and S band frequencies and the commercial 2.4GHz ISM band. The original chip set is comprised of a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), a silicon phase locked loop (PLL), and a family of power amplifiers (PA's). Using these components, M/A-COM has produced a miniature IRIG-compliant transmitter module, which has been flight-tested by the U.S. Army’s Hardened Subminiature Telemetry and Sensor System (HSTSS) program. Since the initial offering, several product enhancements have been added. The module performance has been improved by tailoring the VCO specifically for direct frequency modulation applications. In addition to improving noise performance, these enhancements have produced improved modulation linearity, decreased lock time and increased carrier stability. Modulation rates in excess of 10Mbps have been demonstrated. High efficiency power amplifiers operating at 3V have also been added to the family of amplifiers (PAE > 50%). This greatly enhanced efficiency allows higher RF power output while maintaining the same miniature form factor for the transmitter. Further, M/A-COM has added a silicon-on-sapphire PLL to the chip set, which operates at frequencies up to 3.0GHz. This paper details the enhancements to the components within the chip set, and the improvement in performance of the transmitter module. Test data is presented for the transmitter modules and individual components.
    • AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE (ADS) SYSTEM RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

      Boying, Lu; Jun, Zhang; Shuhui, Nie; Xinjian, Huang; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      This paper presents the basic concept, construction principle and implementation work for the Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) system. As a part of ADS system, the ADS message processing system based on PC computer was given more attention. Furthermore, the paper introduces the ADS trial status and points out that the ADS implementation will bring tremendous economical and social efficiency.
    • Time-Tagging Issues Relating to Networked Data Acquisition Systems

      Owens, Tara; Berard, Alfredo; Boolos, Tim; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      The CENTS Program is a Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) effort conducted by the 46th Test Wing at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. The project uses advanced internetworking technology to collect data unobtrusively from multiple sensors located throughout the aircraft without the time and expense of installing new wires. The sensors are used to unobtrusively extract data from several Line Replaceable Units (LRU’s). The harvested data is then transported to a master network controller using the existing aircraft power lines. A critical aspect of networked data acquisition is time-tagging the data so that the data timeline can be reconstructed to a specified resolution at the conclusion of the tests. This paper will discuss the time-tagging issues that arise when developing a networked data acquisition system, especially how they relate to the current effort to develop a power line based data acquisition network. In addition this paper will detail the scheme currently being tested to time tag data in the Common Event Network Test-Instrumentation System (CENTS) developed by the 46 TW/TSI Flight Test Division, Air Armament Center, Eglin AFB, FL.
    • ENCRYPTED BIT ERROR RATE TESTING

      Guadiana, Juan M.; Macias, Fil; Naval Surface Warfare Center; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      End-to-End testing is a tool for verifying that Range Telemetry (TM) System Equipment will deliver satisfactory performance throughout a planned flight test. A thorough test verifies system thresholds while gauging projected mission loading all in the presence of expected interference. At the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) in New Mexico, system tests are routinely conducted by Range telemetry Engineers and technicians in the interest of ensuring highly reliable telemetry acquisition. Even so, flight or integration tests are occasionally halted, unable to complete these telemetry checks. The Navy Standard Missile Program Office and the White Sands Missile Range, have proactively conducted investigations to identify and eliminate problems. A background discussion is provided on the serious problems with the launcher acquisition, which were resolved along the way laying the ground work for effective system testing. Since there were no provisions to test with the decryption equipment an assumption must be made. Encryption is operationally transparent and reliable. Encryption has wide application, and for that reason the above assumption must be made with confidence. A comprehensive mission day encrypted systems test is proposed. Those involved with encrypted telemetry systems, and those experiencing seemingly unexplainable data degradations and other problems with or without encryption should review this information.
    • ENHANCING THE TELEMETRY ATTRIBUTES TRANSFER STANDARD (TMATS) TO INCLUDE INSTRUMENTATION DATA AND NEW DATA CONVERSION FORMATS

      Lockard, Michael; Ziegler, Brian; Conway, Brian; EMC^2 Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      As stated in IRIG 106-93/96/99/00, the purpose of the Telemetry Attributes Transfer Standard (TMATS) is; “... provides a common format for the transfer of information between the user and a test range or between ranges. This format will minimize the 'station unique' activities that are necessary to support any test item. In addition, it is intended to relieve the labor intensive process currently required to reformat the information by providing the information on computer compatible media, thus reducing errors and requiring less preparation time for test support.” However, it is well known that TMATS does not support “Instrumentation” data. Also, TMATS does not include many current data conversion formats, or have a way to easily include new formats as they are adopted. We believe that such changes will help TMATS reach its full potential and become more closely aligned with its stated objectives. It is the hope of the authors that this paper will generate support for IRIG to revise TMATS to include these important amendments.
    • JAVA FOR REAL-TIME TELEMETRY SYSTEMS

      K/Bidy, Gilles; L-3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      Because of an ever-increasing need for performance and high predictability in modern real-time telemetry systems, the Java programming language is typically not considered a viable option for embedded software development. Nevertheless, the Java platform provides many features that can easily be applied to embedded telemetry systems that other development platforms cannot match. But obviously, there are pitfalls to be aware of. This paper will present an alternative solution to address today’s problems in real-time telemetry systems and will cover the following topics: • Java development platforms for the embedded world • Impact on software portability and reusability • Performance and optimization techniques • Direct access to hardware devices • Memory management and garbage collection • Network-centric component-oriented architecture • Real-time examples from past experience • Future developments
    • A WIDEBAND CHANNEL MODEL FOR AERONAUTICAL TELEMETRY — PART 2: MODELING RESULTS

      Rice, Michael; Davis, Adam; Bettwieser, Christian; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      This paper is the second of two papers that present a multipath channel model for wideband aeronautical telemetry. Channel sounding data were collected at Edwards AFB, California at both L-Band and lower S-Band. Frequency domain analysis techniques were used to evaluate candidate channel models. The channel model is composed of three propagation paths: a line-of-sight path, and two specular reflections. The first specular reflection is characterized by a relative amplitude of 70% to 96% of the line-of-sight amplitude and and a delay of 10 – 80 ns. This path is the result of “ground bounces” off the dry lake bed at Edwards and is a typical terrain feature at DoD test ranges located in the Western USA. The amplitude and delay of this path are defined completely by the flight path geometry. The second path is a much lower amplitude path with a longer delay. The gain of this path is well modeled as a zero-mean complex Gaussian random variable. The relative amplitude is on the order of 2% to 8% of the line-of-sight amplitude. The mean excess delay is 155 ns with an RMS delay spread of 74 ns.
    • Performance of a Bluetooth Based Structural Health Monitoring Telemetry Network

      Kosbar, Kurt; Uchil, Vilas; University of Missouri (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      The Bluetooth standard is intended to provide short-range (10-100 meter) wireless connectivity between mobile and desktop devices. It was developed as a replacement for short cables, and has the ability to form ad-hoc networks. A large inter-connection of piconets can be arranged to form a scatternet for data collection in a Bluetooth based structural health monitoring Telemetry network. The Bluetooth protocol architecture supports the formation of a daisy chain network. However Bluetooth technology was not intended for long daisy chain networks. In this work, we propose to evaluate the throughput and latency for data transmission in a long daisy chained Bluetooth based telemetry network.
    • A Fresh View of Digital Signal Processing for Software Defined Radios: Part I

      Harris, Fred; San Diego State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      Digital signal processing has inexorably been woven into the fabric of every function performed in a modern radio communication system. In the rush to the marketplace, we have fielded many DSP designs based on analog prototype solutions containing legacy compromises appropriate for the technology of a time past. As we design the next generation radio we pause to examine and review past solutions to past radio problems. In this review we discover a number of DSP design methods and perspectives that lead to cost and performance advantages for use in the next generation radio.
    • SOFTWARE RADIO TECHNOLOGY AND CHALLENGES

      Chapin, John; Shah, Alok; Vanu, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      This paper provides an overview of software radio and its current state in the industry. Software radio is a technology in which all of the waveform processing, including the physical layer, of a wireless device moves into software. If designed properly, this approach leads to dramatically improved device flexibility, software portability, and reduced development costs. Of course, such a technology brings with it numerous challenges, from hardware components to power constraints to the regulatory environment.
    • FPGAs: RE-INVENTING THE SIGNAL PROCESSOR

      Dick, Chris; Xilinx Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      FPGAs are increasingly being employed for building real-time signal processing systems. They have been used extensively for implementing the PHY in software radio architectures. This paper provides a technology and market perspective on the use FPGAs for signal processing and demonstrates FPGA DSP using an adaptive channel equalizer case study.
    • Wireless Local Area Network for Data Telemetry from Fast Moving Nodes

      Bamberger, Robert J.; Barrett, George R.; Nichols, Robert A.; Burbank, Jack L.; Lauss, Mark H.; Johns Hopkins University; U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      A Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) based system called 2-Way Robust Acquisition of Data (2-RAD) is being developed to telemeter data from a number of fast moving airborne platforms to ground collection points distributed over a large test range. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) is analyzing a 2-RAD prototype currently in operation at the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) that uses an IEEE 802.11b WLAN infrastructure. Preliminary analysis efforts at JHU/APL indicate that the Doppler shift from fast movers, and the system radio link margin, do not preclude IEEE 802.11b from being used for 2 -RAD.
    • COMPARISON OF RECEIVERS FOR MULTI-H CPM

      Rice, Michael; Perrins, Erik; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      A noncoherent receiver for the general case of M-ary partial response multi-h continuous phase modulation (CPM) is presented. The receiver operates on the principle of sequence estimation via the Viterbi Algorithm (VA). It offers a significant complexity reduction from the optimal coherent maximum likelihood sequence estimating (MLSE) receiver. The performance of the receiver is evaluated with computer simulations. It performs at a loss of 1–6 dB relative to the MLSE receiver for the CPM schemes considered in the simulations. The receiver shows promise in applications requiring reduced complexity and use of existing hardware.
    • LINEAR POWER AMPLIFIERS: A FINAL FRONTIER FOR SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIOS

      Andrews, M. S.; TRW Radio Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      The scope of the problem with generalized linear power amplifiers is herein addressed. In this paper, after an introduction to the problem of linearity and power amplifiers is addressed, a survey of various design issues from PA topology, materials, and linearization electronics is given. Following this, a look toward future work in this very active area of current research is also offered.
    • NETWORKING SATELLITE GROUND STATIONS USING LABVIEW

      Mauldin, Kendall; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      A multi-platform network design that is automated, bi-directional, capable of store and forward operations, and low-bandwidth has been developed to connect multiple satellite ground stations together in real-time. The LabVIEW programming language has been used to develop both the server and client aspects of this network. Future plans for this project include implementing a fully operational ground network using the described concepts, and using this network for real-time satellite operations. This paper describes the design requirements, RF and ground-based network configuration, software implementation, and operational testing of the ground network.
    • ON THE PERFORMANCE OF MULTI-H CPM IN MULTIPATH INTERFERENCE

      Rice, Michael; Perrins, Erik; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      The performance of multi-h CPM over multipath interference channels is evaluated with computer simulations using the optimal coherent receiver and a suboptimal noncoherent receiver. For channels with high-amplitude short-delay multipath reflections, the simulations show that both receivers reach an error floor in their performance as the amplitude of the multipath reflections grows. The rate of degradation for the noncoherent receiver is worse than for the coherent receiver. For channels with low-amplitude long-delay reflections the coherent and noncoherent receivers had losses of 1 dB and 3 dB respectively relative to their respective unfaded performance.
    • SPECIFYING A PCMCIA IRIG-106 (Ch. 4) DECOMMUTATOR

      Mc Girr, Niall; ACRA CONTROL INC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      There are many applications where an ultra-compact PC (palm-top) is required for quick analysis of PCM data. There are many design issues associated with the design of a PC-Card (PCMCIA) decommutator. • Is it possible to connect a 20Mbps PCM stream? • What outputs are required from such a card? • How many cards can be used? • Which mode to use (memory or I/O) • How to program such a card • How to develop third-party software for analysis of data This paper discusses some of these issues and the applications for such a card.