• A DECOUPLED APPROACH TO COMPENSATION FOR NONLINEARITY AND INTERSYMBOL INTERFERENCE

      Lyman, Raphael J.; Wang, Qingsong; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      To achieve good efficiency in a space-based radio transmitter, its final amplifier must be operated near the saturation point, in its nonlinear region. Because of strict band limitations, this nonlinear operation is combined with the problem of intersymbol interference. Normally, these problems are addressed using a combination of equalization and power back-off, resulting in reduced power efficiency. Many proposed receiver-based methods, such as Volterra equalization, attempt to compensate for the nonlinearity and ISI in a single block before the detector, allowing higher efficiency operation, but introducing a great deal of complexity. We propose a receiver-based method in which the two effects are dealt with in separate blocks, an equalizer and a linearizer, resulting in considerable simplification. We go further and place the detector before the linearizer, achieving improved performance by eliminating the errors introduced by the linearizer. Simulation results compare favorably with the performance of a linear AWGN channel.
    • DEFINING AN OPEN FLIGHT DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM

      Corry, Diarmuid; ACRA CONTROL INC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      As today’s flight test data acquisition systems grow more complex, there is an urgent need for open standards that allow Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) equipment from different vendors to be used together. However, there is more to inter-operability than getting the wiring right – it flows through from requirements specification to the gathering of data. This paper discusses the characteristics of an open system at each interface between customer requirements and programming of the Data Acquisition Unit (DAU): • Industry standard specifications for data interchange with databases and software packages • Human readable file formats for Data Acquisition Unit (DAU) setup • Communications link from ground station equipment to DAU • Industry standard protocols for interconnection of DAUs • Intra-DAU backplane specification to allow custom acquisition functionality to be added Only by providing third-party entry points at all five layers can the goal of an open data acquisition system be achieved.
    • DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF AN AUTONOMOUS SOCCER-PLAYING ROBOT

      Archibald, James K.; Beard, Randal W.; Olson, Steven A. R.; Dawson, Chad S.; Jacobson, Jared; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      This paper describes the construction of an autonomous soccer playing robot as part of a senior design project at Brigham Young University. Each participating team designed and built a robot to compete in an annual tournament. To accomplish this, each team had access to images received from a camera placed above a soccer field. The creation of image processing and artificial intelligence software were required to allow the robot to perform against other robots in a one-on-one competition. Each participating team was given resources to accomplish this project. This paper contains a summary of the experiences gained by team members and also a description of the key components created for the robot named Prometheus to compete and win the annual tournament.
    • DEVELOPMENT OF A BASELINE TELEMETRY SYSTEM FOR THE CUBESAT PROGRAM AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

      Fink, U.; Schooley, L. C.; Hudor, A.; Eatchel, A. L.; Fevig, R.; Cooper, C.; Gruenenfelder, J.; Wallace, J.; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      A telemetry system has been developed at the University of Arizona to serve as a baseline for future CubeSat designs. Two satellites are scheduled for launch in November of 2002. One features a beacon that operates autonomously of all but the power system and can independently deploy the antennas. The other will test the performance of new semiconductor devices in low earth orbit. Sensors will monitor voltages, currents (from which attitude and tumble rate can be derived), received signal strength and a distribution of temperatures. The CubeSat’s architecture, operating system, sensors, telemetry format and link budget are discussed.
    • DISTRIBUTED TERRESTRIAL RADIOLOCATION USING THE RLS ALGORITHM

      Brown, Andrew P.; Iltis, Ronald A.; University of California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      This paper presents the development of two distributed terrestrial radiolocation algorithms that use range estimates derived from DS-CDMA waveforms. The first algorithm, which is RLS-based, is derived as the solution of an approximate least-squares positioning problem. This algorithm has the advantage of reduced computational complexity, compared with the EKF-based algorithm that is presented. It is shown via simulations that both positioning algorithms perform well, with the performance of the EKF-based algorithm being superior.
    • Effective Ball Handling and Control in Robot Soccer

      Beard, Randal W.; Archibald, James K.; Johnson, Walter H.; Franklin, Rob; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      An autonomous soccer-playing robot was designed and constructed as part of the electrical engineering senior project at Brigham Young University. Unique physical features enable ball handling abilities. A front-side rotating drum retains the ball by applying backspin. A pneumatic kicker allows for fast accurate kicks. Robot movement control is performed by three different systems. The low-level velocity controller ensures output of desired forward and angular velocities. The position controller is used to match the robot's position with a desired position. Path generation directs the robot along a desired path at a specified velocity. The locations of the robots and ball on the soccer field is determined by the vision system. This document is a formal description of the unique designs and construction of the our team's robot.
    • EMBEDDED GIS IN INTELLIGENT NAVIGATION SYSTEM

      Xiaobo, Xie; Qishan, Zhang; Xingjian, Huang; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      Embedded GIS in Intelligent Navigation System is a special information system. This paper puts forward several basic principles and constraints during design for Embedded GIS at first, and then analyzes the feature of embedded platform and the function of Intelligent Navigation System, and presents a realization scheme of Embedded GIS.
    • ENCRYPTED BIT ERROR RATE TESTING

      Guadiana, Juan M.; Macias, Fil; Naval Surface Warfare Center; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      End-to-End testing is a tool for verifying that Range Telemetry (TM) System Equipment will deliver satisfactory performance throughout a planned flight test. A thorough test verifies system thresholds while gauging projected mission loading all in the presence of expected interference. At the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) in New Mexico, system tests are routinely conducted by Range telemetry Engineers and technicians in the interest of ensuring highly reliable telemetry acquisition. Even so, flight or integration tests are occasionally halted, unable to complete these telemetry checks. The Navy Standard Missile Program Office and the White Sands Missile Range, have proactively conducted investigations to identify and eliminate problems. A background discussion is provided on the serious problems with the launcher acquisition, which were resolved along the way laying the ground work for effective system testing. Since there were no provisions to test with the decryption equipment an assumption must be made. Encryption is operationally transparent and reliable. Encryption has wide application, and for that reason the above assumption must be made with confidence. A comprehensive mission day encrypted systems test is proposed. Those involved with encrypted telemetry systems, and those experiencing seemingly unexplainable data degradations and other problems with or without encryption should review this information.
    • ENHANCED FLIGHT TERMINATION SYSTEM PROGRAM - PART TWO

      McAndrews, Thomas J., III; TYBRIN Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      The Air Force Flight Test Center in association with the Range Commanders Council (RCC) Range Safety Group is conducting a program that will explore the next generation of ground-based flight termination technology, known as the Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS) program. The first part of the program was successfully concluded in May 2002. The Government is leading this program with support from contractors, academia, and other RCC groups including the Telemetry Group, Frequency Management Group, and Telecommunications and Timing Group. Additionally, the National Security Agency is providing key support along with vendors who design, build and test range safety systems. This paper will discuss details of the design validation and development phases (part two) of the EFTS program. Redesign of flight termination receivers and ground system modification plans will be discussed as well as flight and ground hardware testing objectives.
    • ENHANCING THE TELEMETRY ATTRIBUTES TRANSFER STANDARD (TMATS) TO INCLUDE INSTRUMENTATION DATA AND NEW DATA CONVERSION FORMATS

      Lockard, Michael; Ziegler, Brian; Conway, Brian; EMC^2 Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      As stated in IRIG 106-93/96/99/00, the purpose of the Telemetry Attributes Transfer Standard (TMATS) is; “... provides a common format for the transfer of information between the user and a test range or between ranges. This format will minimize the 'station unique' activities that are necessary to support any test item. In addition, it is intended to relieve the labor intensive process currently required to reformat the information by providing the information on computer compatible media, thus reducing errors and requiring less preparation time for test support.” However, it is well known that TMATS does not support “Instrumentation” data. Also, TMATS does not include many current data conversion formats, or have a way to easily include new formats as they are adopted. We believe that such changes will help TMATS reach its full potential and become more closely aligned with its stated objectives. It is the hope of the authors that this paper will generate support for IRIG to revise TMATS to include these important amendments.
    • ENTERPRISE FLIGHT DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EFDMS) AND STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY DISCUSSION

      Crenwelge, Robert; Conway, Brian; Dillon, Kevin; EMC Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      This paper presents efforts in developing a data management system and storage infrastructure for assisting test engineers in achieving information superiority and maintaining vital up-to-date information. The focus of this Paper is to generate support for a technology refresh, upgrading the major data centers that share in the responsibility of processing telemetry information. We illustrate how our efforts fit into this goal and provide an overview of our concept for a revolutionary transformation in data management systems. We present the significance of this new technology and suggest a path to implementing the solution.
    • EQUIPMENT TIME-DELAY (ETD) MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTINUOUS WAVE TRANSPONDER

      Chengfang, Huang; Jianping, Hu; Southwest Institute of Electronics Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      The Equipment Time-Delay (ETD) measurement technology for Continuous Wave (CW) transponder is discussed with emphasis on the principle of measuring the ETD of the intermediate frequency (IF) modulation transponder through measuring subcarrier modulation sideband tone phase. A general method for measuring ETD of different types of transponder (including IF-modulation transponder) is introduced. Finally the measurement method error is analyzed.
    • EXTENDING THE RANGE OF PCM/FM USING A MULTISYMBOL DETECTOR AND TURBO CODING

      Geoghegan, Mark; Nova Engineering Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      It has been shown that a multi-symbol detector can improve the detection efficiency of PCM/FM by 3 dB when compared to traditional methods without any change to the transmitted waveform. Although this is a significant breakthrough, further improvements are possible with the addition of Forward Error Correction (FEC). Systematic redundancy can be added by encoding the source data prior to the modulation process, thereby allowing channel errors to be corrected using a decoding circuit. Better detection efficiency translates into additional link margin that can be used to extend the operating range, support higher data throughput, or significantly improve the quality of the received data. This paper investigates the detection efficiency that can be achieved using a multisymbol detector and turbo product coding. The results show that this combination can improve the detection performance by nearly 9 dB relative to conventional PCM/FM systems. The increase in link margin is gained at the expense of a small increase in bandwidth and the additional complexity of the encoding and decoding circuitry.
    • FLIGHT SAFETY SYSTEM FOR UNMANNED AIRBORNE VEHICLES (UAVs)

      Pérez-Falcón, Tony; Kolar, Ray; Reliable System Services Corporation; Atlantic Coast Technologies, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      This paper presents a Flight Safety System (FSS) for multiple, reliable Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV’s) capable of flying Over-the-Horizon (OTH) and outside test range airspace. Expanded uses beyond flight safety, such as UAV Air Traffic Control, are considered also. This system satisfies the operational requirement for a Hazard Control Communication Channel as well as providing a reverse communications channel to provide Safety Critical Information to the Range Safety Officer (RSO). Upon examining 60 communications candidates, IRIDIUM accessed through a Data Distribution Network (DDN), with ARINC being a potential service provider, is recommended.
    • FLIGHT TERMINATION COMMAND AUTHENTICATION USING BLOCK ENCRYPTION

      Arce, Dennis; Bourne Technologies, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      Next generation flight termination systems (FTSs) will use digital technologies to verify the authenticity of range safety commands by command receiver-decoders located on each vehicle. This paper will discuss the general principles behind simplex message authentication using a block encryption cipher, and presents examples for demonstration.
    • FPGAs: RE-INVENTING THE SIGNAL PROCESSOR

      Dick, Chris; Xilinx Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      FPGAs are increasingly being employed for building real-time signal processing systems. They have been used extensively for implementing the PHY in software radio architectures. This paper provides a technology and market perspective on the use FPGAs for signal processing and demonstrates FPGA DSP using an adaptive channel equalizer case study.
    • FQPSK-B Baseband Filter Alternatives

      Jefferis, Robert; TYBRIN Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      Designers of small airborne FQPSK-B (-B) transmitters face at least two significant challenges. First, many U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) test applications require that transmitters accommodate a continuum of data rates from 1, to at least 20 Mb/s in one design. Another challenge stems from the need to package a high-speed digital baseband signal generator in very close proximity to radio frequency (RF) circuitry required for 1.4 to 2.4 GHz operation. The -B baseband filter options prescribed by Digcom/Feher [2] are a major contributor to variable data rate design challenges. This paper summarizes a study of -B filter alternatives and introduces FQPSK-JR (JR), an alternative to -B that can simplify digital baseband transmitter designs. Very short impulse response digital filters are used to produce essentially the same spectral efficiency and nonlinear amplifier (NLA) compatibility as -B while preserving or improving detection efficiency (DE). In addition, a strategy for eliminating baseband shaping filters is briefly discussed. New signaling wavelets and, modified wavelet versus symbol sequence mapping rules associated with them, can be captured from a wide range of alternative filter designs.
    • A Fresh View of Digital Signal Processing for Software Defined Radios: Part I

      Harris, Fred; San Diego State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      Digital signal processing has inexorably been woven into the fabric of every function performed in a modern radio communication system. In the rush to the marketplace, we have fielded many DSP designs based on analog prototype solutions containing legacy compromises appropriate for the technology of a time past. As we design the next generation radio we pause to examine and review past solutions to past radio problems. In this review we discover a number of DSP design methods and perspectives that lead to cost and performance advantages for use in the next generation radio.
    • A Fresh View of Digital Signal Processing for Software Defined Radios: Part II

      Harris, Fred; San Diego State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      A DSP modem is often designed as a set of processing blocks that replace the corresponding blocks of an analog prototype. Such a design is sub-optimal, inheriting legacy compromises made in the analog design while discarding important design options unique to the DSP domain. In part I of this two part paper, we used multirate processing to transform a digital down converter from an emulation of the standard analog architecture to a DSP based solution that reversed the order of frequency selection, filtering, and resampling. We continue this tack of embedding traditional processing tasks into multirate DSP solutions that perform multiple simultaneous processing tasks.
    • Hardware Description for the Advanced Subminiature Telemetry System

      Sadowski, Eric M.; Schmidt, Robert; Cleveland Medical Devices Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      The Advanced Subminiature Telemetry System (ASMT) contract was awarded several years ago and the basic framework for the overall system has been described in earlier papers. This paper discusses an overview of the design of the hardware pieces to create the ASMT system.