• LAUNCH VEHICLE EXHAUST PLASMA / PLUME EFFECTS ON GROUND TELEMETRY RECEPTION, QRLV-2

      McWhorter, Mark; Honeywell Aerospace Electronic Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      This paper discusses the effect of vehicle exhaust plasma/plume on the ability to receive telemetered data via an S-band RF link. The data discussed herein was captured during the launch of the QRLV-2 (Quick Reaction Launch Vehicle) on April 24, 2002 from Kodiak Launch Center, Kodiak, Alaska using Honeywell’s BMRST (Ballistic Missile Range Safety Technology) system.
    • LEGACY SYSTEMS’ SENSORS BECOME PLUG-N-PLAY WITH IEEE P1451.3 TEDS

      Sinclair, Robert; Beech, Russell; Jones, Kevin; Mundon, Scott; Jones, Charles H.; NVE Corporation.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      Replacing and maintaining sensors in existing legacy systems is costly and time consuming since no information beyond voltage or current is supplied by these sensors. When a sensor is replaced or added, information for that sensor has to be incorporated by the software programmer into the main system software – a costly and time-consuming process. A method has been developed to give these old sensors the intelligence to meet the requirements of the proposed IEEE P1451.3 standard. This is accomplished with no changes to the legacy hardware and a minor, one time change to the legacy main system software.
    • LINEAR POWER AMPLIFIERS: A FINAL FRONTIER FOR SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIOS

      Andrews, M. S.; TRW Radio Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      The scope of the problem with generalized linear power amplifiers is herein addressed. In this paper, after an introduction to the problem of linearity and power amplifiers is addressed, a survey of various design issues from PA topology, materials, and linearization electronics is given. Following this, a look toward future work in this very active area of current research is also offered.
    • LOW BUDGET APPROACH TO ACCURATE TIME TAGGING OF SATELLITE DATA

      Fike, Brian O’dell; Weiss, Michael A.; Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      The GEOSAT Follow-On (GFO) Time Tag Correlation System (TTCS) was implemented as a ground-based time correlation system for precision time tagging of satellite data. This system uses simple ground hardware and software to convert satellite time to UTC, resulting in time tagging of payload data to within +/- 20 microseconds. The technique described in this paper eliminates the need for an on-board satellite Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) to achieve precision time tagging of satellite data and, therefore, can result in a significant cost savings to future missions.
    • LOW-COST TELEMETRY USING FREQUENCY HOPPING AND THE TRF6900™ TRANSCEIVER1

      Thornér, Carl-Einar I.; Iltis, Ronald A.; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      The ISM bands have opened up new opportunities for telemetry using spread-spectrum communications. A low-cost frequency-hopping radio is described here for the 900 MHz ISM band that can be programmed with a wide range of hop and data rates. The ‘C6201 DSP from TI is used to control the frequency and data rate of the TI TRF6900 transceiver chip using a custom interface of the 6201 EVM board to the serial I/O on the 6900 evaluation board.
    • MAGNETIC TAPE CARE & RESTORATION

      Wheeler, Jim; Tape Restoration & Forensic Services (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      For the past thirty years, many people around the world have been engaged in studies to determine how long tape will last. We have learned how to extend the life of tapes but no one has come up with a method for predicting the life of a tape. This paper will summarize the present-day recommended practices for tape care and storage and will also describe the most common tape problems and how to overcome them. The most common problem with playing an old tape is finding a machine to play it. Machine obsolescence is probably a bigger problem than tape degradation.
    • Making All The Data Available Some Of The Time In Very Large Telemetry Volume Space Applications

      Cook, David B. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      What do you do when your downlink telemetry needs outstrip your downlink bandwidth capability? The telemetry needed to support construction and operation of the largest, most complex engineering project ever undertaken, the International Space Station (ISS), already requires utilization of the full capacity of the downlink S-band capacity, yet there are additional systems and capabilities still to be added by NASA and the International Partners. The ISS Command and Telemetry Team has developed a method of swapping packets of telemetry that are intended for special operations, while simultaneously sending essential systems telemetry and less critical telemetry that is needed on a continuous basis. To support this attempt to “make available all of the data at least some of the time” the team developed concepts for grouping telemetry into families that would always be selected as a group and then created a set of metadata associated with these groups. This metadata is pre-defined to support automated selection and scrubbing of telemetry to correspond to major upgrades in the command and control software for the ISS. The new process will at least double the effective S-band downlink bandwidth. It will also provide automated selection, scrubbing, reporting and verification of telemetry selections.
    • MOTION COMPENSATION FOR HIGH-RESOLUTION SYNTHETIC-APERTURE SONAR IMAGING

      Lee, Hua; University of California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      This paper presents a motion estimation and correction technique for the realization of synthetic-aperture sonar imaging. It utilizes the redundancy provided by the multiple-element receiver array and physical-array sub-images are used for the estimate the motion errors between adjacent receiver positions in the form of phase errors. Subsequently, motion errors can be corrected accordingly by making adjustments to the wavefield data samples prior to the formation of synthetic-aperture images.
    • Network Telemetry: Practical Experiences and Unique Features

      D’Amico, William P.; Stadter, Patrick A.; Lauss, Mark H.; Hooper, Andrew; Johns Hopkins University; Materiel Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      The US Army’s Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) uses a wireless local area network (WLAN) to gather test data. It is desired to extend this WLAN to support tests of gun-launched munitions where miniature and rugged data acquisition hardware will be required. The Two Way Robust Acquisition of Data (2-RAD) program has been initiated under the Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) to develop a process to expand the use of WLAN technology, which is now primarily used at YPG for internal ballistic test data acquisition.
    • NETWORKABLE TELEMETRY DATA RECORDERS BASED ON COTS COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY

      Smith, Grant M.; Dewetron Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      Advances in several related technologies have brought together the previously incompatible goals of incorporating as much COTS technology as possible into the telemetry data recording architecture, providing operators with the kinds of real-time graphical data displays that they are accustomed to, and allowing these same data display systems to share data across a network and write to common database files accessible from centralized workstations.
    • NETWORKING SATELLITE GROUND STATIONS USING LABVIEW

      Mauldin, Kendall; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      A multi-platform network design that is automated, bi-directional, capable of store and forward operations, and low-bandwidth has been developed to connect multiple satellite ground stations together in real-time. The LabVIEW programming language has been used to develop both the server and client aspects of this network. Future plans for this project include implementing a fully operational ground network using the described concepts, and using this network for real-time satellite operations. This paper describes the design requirements, RF and ground-based network configuration, software implementation, and operational testing of the ground network.
    • NONCOHERENT AND DIFFERENTIAL DETECTION OF FQPSK WITH MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD SEQUENCE ESTIMATION IN NONLINEAR CHANNELS

      Lin, Jin-Son; Feher, Kamilo; University of California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      This paper presents noncoherent limiter-discriminator detection and differential detection of FQPSK (Feher quadrature phase-shift-keying) with maximum-likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) techniques. Noncoherent FQPSK systems are suitable for fast fading and cochannel interference channels and channels with strong phase noise, and they can offer faster synchronization and reduce outage events compared with conventional coherent systems. In this paper, both differential detection and limiter-discriminator detection of FQPSK are discussed. We use MLSE with lookup tables to exploit the memory in noncoherently detected FQPSK signals and thus significantly improve the bit error rate (BER) performance in an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel.
    • OBJECT DETECTION AND LOCALIZATION IN THE WAVELET DOMAIN

      Kandadai, Srivatsan; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      We are interested in the problem of detecting and localizing objects in the compressed domain. The practical uses of this research are video surveillance, queries over digital library archives and teleconferencing. Most image operations, such as object recognition, are formulated as sequences of operations in the image domain. Such methods need direct access to pixel information as a starting point, but pixel information is not directly available in a compressed image stream. The standards that have emerged for still-image and video compression each contain steps that are commonly found in compression algorithms, like linear transformations, coefficient quantization, run-length coding and entropy coding. Coders like JPEG 2000 and SPHIT are built around the wavelet transform. Thus as a step toward detection and localization of objects embedded in the compressed bit stream we consider here the problem of localizing and detection in the wavelet domain.
    • ON THE PERFORMANCE OF MULTI-H CPM IN MULTIPATH INTERFERENCE

      Rice, Michael; Perrins, Erik; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      The performance of multi-h CPM over multipath interference channels is evaluated with computer simulations using the optimal coherent receiver and a suboptimal noncoherent receiver. For channels with high-amplitude short-delay multipath reflections, the simulations show that both receivers reach an error floor in their performance as the amplitude of the multipath reflections grows. The rate of degradation for the noncoherent receiver is worse than for the coherent receiver. For channels with low-amplitude long-delay reflections the coherent and noncoherent receivers had losses of 1 dB and 3 dB respectively relative to their respective unfaded performance.
    • OPTIMAL LINEAR DETECTION OF SOQPSK

      Geoghegan, Mark; Nova Engineering Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      Shaped Offset QPSK (SOQPSK), as proposed and analyzed by Terrance Hill, is a family of constant envelope waveforms that is non-proprietary and exhibits excellent spectral containment and detection efficiency. Detection results using the filtering found in conventional OQPSK demodulators have been published for two variants of SOQPSK, namely SOQPSK-A and –B. This paper describes a method of synthesizing an optimal linear detection filter, with regard to bit error probability (BEP), and presents the resulting performance.
    • OPTIMIZATION OF A MINATURE TRANSMITTER MODULE FOR WIRELESS TELEMETRY APPLICATIONS

      Osgood, Karina; Burke, Larry; Webb, Amy; Muir, John; Dearstine, Christina; Quaglietta, Anthony; M/A-COM, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      M/A-COM, Inc. has previously developed a highly integrated transmitter chip set for wireless telemetry applications for the military L and S band frequencies and the commercial 2.4GHz ISM band. The original chip set is comprised of a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), a silicon phase locked loop (PLL), and a family of power amplifiers (PA's). Using these components, M/A-COM has produced a miniature IRIG-compliant transmitter module, which has been flight-tested by the U.S. Army’s Hardened Subminiature Telemetry and Sensor System (HSTSS) program. Since the initial offering, several product enhancements have been added. The module performance has been improved by tailoring the VCO specifically for direct frequency modulation applications. In addition to improving noise performance, these enhancements have produced improved modulation linearity, decreased lock time and increased carrier stability. Modulation rates in excess of 10Mbps have been demonstrated. High efficiency power amplifiers operating at 3V have also been added to the family of amplifiers (PAE > 50%). This greatly enhanced efficiency allows higher RF power output while maintaining the same miniature form factor for the transmitter. Further, M/A-COM has added a silicon-on-sapphire PLL to the chip set, which operates at frequencies up to 3.0GHz. This paper details the enhancements to the components within the chip set, and the improvement in performance of the transmitter module. Test data is presented for the transmitter modules and individual components.
    • OPTIMIZED LOW BIT RATE PCM/FM TELEMETRY WITH WIDE IF BANDWIDTHS

      Law, Eugene; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      This paper will present the results of some experiments with non-coherent, single symbol detection of pulse code modulation (PCM)/frequency modulation (FM) where the receiver intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth is much wider than the bit rate. The experiments involved varying the peak deviation and measuring the bit error probability (BEP) at various signal energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratios (E(b)/N(o)). The experiments showed that the optimum peak-to-peak deviation was about 0.7 to 0.8 times the –3 dB IF bandwidth and that the E(b)/N(o) required for a given BEP increased as the ratio of IF bandwidth to bit rate increased. Further, bi-phase-level/FM performed slightly better than non-return-to-zero-level (NRZ-L)/FM with an ac coupled RF signal generator and IF bandwidths much wider than the bit rate.
    • OVER QUANTIZING, THE NEXT STEP IN DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

      Hicks, William T.; L-3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      Simplification of the analog front end of a signal conditioning circuit can be accomplished by over-quantizing the input signal and using DSP for gain and offset. In this case, a much higher precision A/D converter is used than required by the desired output accuracy. The excess bits are then used to allow the DSP math to give an effective gain to the signal. By a similar function, offset of over 100% can be mathematically removed as long as the input signal does not exceed the A/D input voltage range.
    • A PARALLEL -SEQUENTIAL SEARCH ALGORITHM IN A HIGH DYNAMIC GPS RECEIVER

      Xingyu, Luo; Qishan, Zhang; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      It is need to design acquisition and tracking for code loop and carrier loop to detect the high dynamic Global Position System (GPS) signal. Acquiring signal quickly and shortening acquisition time in the cold case are key technology of a high dynamic GPS receiver. Moreover, fast acquisition of C/A code is the base of code tracking and carrier acquisition and tracking. This paper describes elements and implementation of a new parallel-sequential search Algorithm to acquire C/A code of the high dynamic GPS signal. And combined with a 12-channel correlator named GP2021 produced by GEC Co., the arithmetic implementation to acquire C/A code of the high dynamic GPS signal used sequential search based on DSP technology is also given.
    • Performance of a Bluetooth Based Structural Health Monitoring Telemetry Network

      Kosbar, Kurt; Uchil, Vilas; University of Missouri (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      The Bluetooth standard is intended to provide short-range (10-100 meter) wireless connectivity between mobile and desktop devices. It was developed as a replacement for short cables, and has the ability to form ad-hoc networks. A large inter-connection of piconets can be arranged to form a scatternet for data collection in a Bluetooth based structural health monitoring Telemetry network. The Bluetooth protocol architecture supports the formation of a daisy chain network. However Bluetooth technology was not intended for long daisy chain networks. In this work, we propose to evaluate the throughput and latency for data transmission in a long daisy chained Bluetooth based telemetry network.