Guadiana, Juan M.; Macias, Fil; Naval Surface Warfare Center; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      End-to-End testing is a tool for verifying that Range Telemetry (TM) System Equipment will deliver satisfactory performance throughout a planned flight test. A thorough test verifies system thresholds while gauging projected mission loading all in the presence of expected interference. At the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) in New Mexico, system tests are routinely conducted by Range telemetry Engineers and technicians in the interest of ensuring highly reliable telemetry acquisition. Even so, flight or integration tests are occasionally halted, unable to complete these telemetry checks. The Navy Standard Missile Program Office and the White Sands Missile Range, have proactively conducted investigations to identify and eliminate problems. A background discussion is provided on the serious problems with the launcher acquisition, which were resolved along the way laying the ground work for effective system testing. Since there were no provisions to test with the decryption equipment an assumption must be made. Encryption is operationally transparent and reliable. Encryption has wide application, and for that reason the above assumption must be made with confidence. A comprehensive mission day encrypted systems test is proposed. Those involved with encrypted telemetry systems, and those experiencing seemingly unexplainable data degradations and other problems with or without encryption should review this information.

      McAndrews, Thomas J., III; TYBRIN Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      The Air Force Flight Test Center in association with the Range Commanders Council (RCC) Range Safety Group is conducting a program that will explore the next generation of ground-based flight termination technology, known as the Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS) program. The first part of the program was successfully concluded in May 2002. The Government is leading this program with support from contractors, academia, and other RCC groups including the Telemetry Group, Frequency Management Group, and Telecommunications and Timing Group. Additionally, the National Security Agency is providing key support along with vendors who design, build and test range safety systems. This paper will discuss details of the design validation and development phases (part two) of the EFTS program. Redesign of flight termination receivers and ground system modification plans will be discussed as well as flight and ground hardware testing objectives.

      Lockard, Michael; Ziegler, Brian; Conway, Brian; EMC^2 Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      As stated in IRIG 106-93/96/99/00, the purpose of the Telemetry Attributes Transfer Standard (TMATS) is; “... provides a common format for the transfer of information between the user and a test range or between ranges. This format will minimize the 'station unique' activities that are necessary to support any test item. In addition, it is intended to relieve the labor intensive process currently required to reformat the information by providing the information on computer compatible media, thus reducing errors and requiring less preparation time for test support.” However, it is well known that TMATS does not support “Instrumentation” data. Also, TMATS does not include many current data conversion formats, or have a way to easily include new formats as they are adopted. We believe that such changes will help TMATS reach its full potential and become more closely aligned with its stated objectives. It is the hope of the authors that this paper will generate support for IRIG to revise TMATS to include these important amendments.

      Crenwelge, Robert; Conway, Brian; Dillon, Kevin; EMC Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      This paper presents efforts in developing a data management system and storage infrastructure for assisting test engineers in achieving information superiority and maintaining vital up-to-date information. The focus of this Paper is to generate support for a technology refresh, upgrading the major data centers that share in the responsibility of processing telemetry information. We illustrate how our efforts fit into this goal and provide an overview of our concept for a revolutionary transformation in data management systems. We present the significance of this new technology and suggest a path to implementing the solution.

      Chengfang, Huang; Jianping, Hu; Southwest Institute of Electronics Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      The Equipment Time-Delay (ETD) measurement technology for Continuous Wave (CW) transponder is discussed with emphasis on the principle of measuring the ETD of the intermediate frequency (IF) modulation transponder through measuring subcarrier modulation sideband tone phase. A general method for measuring ETD of different types of transponder (including IF-modulation transponder) is introduced. Finally the measurement method error is analyzed.

      Geoghegan, Mark; Nova Engineering Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      It has been shown that a multi-symbol detector can improve the detection efficiency of PCM/FM by 3 dB when compared to traditional methods without any change to the transmitted waveform. Although this is a significant breakthrough, further improvements are possible with the addition of Forward Error Correction (FEC). Systematic redundancy can be added by encoding the source data prior to the modulation process, thereby allowing channel errors to be corrected using a decoding circuit. Better detection efficiency translates into additional link margin that can be used to extend the operating range, support higher data throughput, or significantly improve the quality of the received data. This paper investigates the detection efficiency that can be achieved using a multisymbol detector and turbo product coding. The results show that this combination can improve the detection performance by nearly 9 dB relative to conventional PCM/FM systems. The increase in link margin is gained at the expense of a small increase in bandwidth and the additional complexity of the encoding and decoding circuitry.

      Pérez-Falcón, Tony; Kolar, Ray; Reliable System Services Corporation; Atlantic Coast Technologies, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      This paper presents a Flight Safety System (FSS) for multiple, reliable Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV’s) capable of flying Over-the-Horizon (OTH) and outside test range airspace. Expanded uses beyond flight safety, such as UAV Air Traffic Control, are considered also. This system satisfies the operational requirement for a Hazard Control Communication Channel as well as providing a reverse communications channel to provide Safety Critical Information to the Range Safety Officer (RSO). Upon examining 60 communications candidates, IRIDIUM accessed through a Data Distribution Network (DDN), with ARINC being a potential service provider, is recommended.

      Arce, Dennis; Bourne Technologies, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      Next generation flight termination systems (FTSs) will use digital technologies to verify the authenticity of range safety commands by command receiver-decoders located on each vehicle. This paper will discuss the general principles behind simplex message authentication using a block encryption cipher, and presents examples for demonstration.

      Dick, Chris; Xilinx Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      FPGAs are increasingly being employed for building real-time signal processing systems. They have been used extensively for implementing the PHY in software radio architectures. This paper provides a technology and market perspective on the use FPGAs for signal processing and demonstrates FPGA DSP using an adaptive channel equalizer case study.
    • FQPSK-B Baseband Filter Alternatives

      Jefferis, Robert; TYBRIN Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      Designers of small airborne FQPSK-B (-B) transmitters face at least two significant challenges. First, many U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) test applications require that transmitters accommodate a continuum of data rates from 1, to at least 20 Mb/s in one design. Another challenge stems from the need to package a high-speed digital baseband signal generator in very close proximity to radio frequency (RF) circuitry required for 1.4 to 2.4 GHz operation. The -B baseband filter options prescribed by Digcom/Feher [2] are a major contributor to variable data rate design challenges. This paper summarizes a study of -B filter alternatives and introduces FQPSK-JR (JR), an alternative to -B that can simplify digital baseband transmitter designs. Very short impulse response digital filters are used to produce essentially the same spectral efficiency and nonlinear amplifier (NLA) compatibility as -B while preserving or improving detection efficiency (DE). In addition, a strategy for eliminating baseband shaping filters is briefly discussed. New signaling wavelets and, modified wavelet versus symbol sequence mapping rules associated with them, can be captured from a wide range of alternative filter designs.
    • A Fresh View of Digital Signal Processing for Software Defined Radios: Part I

      Harris, Fred; San Diego State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      Digital signal processing has inexorably been woven into the fabric of every function performed in a modern radio communication system. In the rush to the marketplace, we have fielded many DSP designs based on analog prototype solutions containing legacy compromises appropriate for the technology of a time past. As we design the next generation radio we pause to examine and review past solutions to past radio problems. In this review we discover a number of DSP design methods and perspectives that lead to cost and performance advantages for use in the next generation radio.
    • A Fresh View of Digital Signal Processing for Software Defined Radios: Part II

      Harris, Fred; San Diego State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      A DSP modem is often designed as a set of processing blocks that replace the corresponding blocks of an analog prototype. Such a design is sub-optimal, inheriting legacy compromises made in the analog design while discarding important design options unique to the DSP domain. In part I of this two part paper, we used multirate processing to transform a digital down converter from an emulation of the standard analog architecture to a DSP based solution that reversed the order of frequency selection, filtering, and resampling. We continue this tack of embedding traditional processing tasks into multirate DSP solutions that perform multiple simultaneous processing tasks.
    • Hardware Description for the Advanced Subminiature Telemetry System

      Sadowski, Eric M.; Schmidt, Robert; Cleveland Medical Devices Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      The Advanced Subminiature Telemetry System (ASMT) contract was awarded several years ago and the basic framework for the overall system has been described in earlier papers. This paper discusses an overview of the design of the hardware pieces to create the ASMT system.

      Li, Chen; Qi-shan, Zhang; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      This paper introduces the essential points for designing a navigating system, and describes the modules of a typical vehicle navigator. This paper also gives a practical navigator example. Some experience for design is also mentioned.
    • An IF Sampling Digital Receiver Implementation for Space-based Command and Telemetry Applications

      Maples, Bruce W.; Fix, Keith A.; CMC Electronics Cincinnati (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      This paper describes an approach to the implementation of an IF sampling digital receiver for low data rate command and telemetry applications in the NASA Goddard Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) and Air Force Space-Ground Link System (SGLS). The digital design is targeted for an FPGA-based implementation and was written entirely in VHDL. Several size and clock reduction techniques are described which were utilized due to limited gate-array resources and power. The system-level design architecture is described followed by a discussion of algorithms and performance of critical stages in the receiver chain. Bit error performance of the prototype receiver is also presented. Finally, although this design is specifically targeted for a narrowband command and telemetry application, the methodology forms the basis of a configurable receiver for higher data rate applications.

      Eccles, Lee H.; Boeing Commercial Airplanes (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      Transducers have traditionally been incorporated into data systems by connecting the transducer to a signal conditioner that is then connected to a multiplexer with an Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC). The signal conditioning, multiplexer and the ADC are usually included within the same assembly that is called a Data Acquisition Unit (DAU) or an encoder. A network centric data system allows the same architecture to be used if the interface to the encoder is changed to be a network interface. However, a network centric architecture allows other options as well. The signal conditioning and ADC can be included within the same package as the transducer and the assembly can be interfaced to the network. When this is combined with the processing capability now available, a whole new range of possibilities present themselves. The transducer can now be digitally processed to provide a linear output, it can be converted to Engineering Units, digitally filtered or have a host of other functions performed within the housing that contains the transducer. However, the network centric approach does not produce these advantages without some disadvantages. The major problem that needs to be solved is how we time stamp the data. With the encoder we could time stamp the PCM frame and be able to determine the time that a sample was taken from that information. Even in systems that convert the encoder to have a network interface, the time stamp needs to be affixed to the data in the encoder. With a network centric approach, the sample can be taken in the transducer and how to time stamp it becomes a real problem. This is a problem that must be considered at the system level. Some method of making time available at a low enough level in the system to allow transducer outputs to be time stamped is either a network issue or it requires a separate interface.

      Brierley, Scott; Boeing Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      Using a network-based telemetry system places additional requirements on the Radio Frequency (RF) link. Limitations imposed by this link must be considered in advance when designing a network-based telemetry system.
    • The Impact Of Wireless Security Protocols on Post Processed Telemetry Data Transfer

      Kalibjian, Jeffrey R.; Hewlett Packard Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      Commercial wireless protocol use (e.g. Wireless Access Protocol, Bluetooth, etc.) is becoming widespread as the demand to access computing devices in remote locations grows. Although not widely prevalent today, wireless access of post processed telemetry data will become a common activity. Essential to the use of such a capability is the security of the wireless links involved in the data transfer. Each wireless protocol has an associated security paradigm. Some protocols have stronger security schemes than others and this should influence protocol selection for particular telemetry data transfer applications.

      Hill, Terrance; Geoghegan, Mark; Hutzel, Kevin; Nova Engineering Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      Legacy telemetry systems, although widely deployed, are being severely taxed to support the high data rate requirements of advanced aircraft and missile platforms. Increasing data rates, in conjunction with loss of spectrum have created a need to use available spectrum more efficiently. In response to this, new modulation techniques have been developed which offer more data capacity in the same operating bandwidth. Demodulation of these new waveforms is a computationally challenging task, especially at high data rates. This paper describes the design, implementation and performance of a high-speed, multi-mode demodulator for the Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) program which meets these challenges.

      Jefferis, Robert; TYBRIN Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      Multipath (MP) fading is the dominant channel impairment in many aeronautical telemetry links. One product of a recent multipath mitigation study is the discovery of a simple technique for detecting its presence over a useful range of conditions. The technique also detects significant random noise levels in the channel. This paper describes the “Signal Degradation Indicator” (SDI) and its application to FQPSK-B and SOQPSK [2] modulation. Laboratory emulation data is presented and implementation considerations are discussed.