• The Realization Analysis of SAR Raw Data With Block Adaptive Vector Quantization Algorithm

      Yang, Yun-zhi; Huang, Shun-ji; Wang, Jian-guo; University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      In this paper, we discuss a Block Adaptive Vector Quantization(BAVQ) Algorithm for Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR). And we discuss a realization method of BAVQ algorithm for SAR raw data compressing in digital signal processor. Using the algorithm and the digital signal processor, we have compressed the SIR_C/X_SAR data.

      Law, Eugene; Naval Air System Command (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      This paper will present equations for calculating the minimum recommended frequency separation of two digital telemetry signals. The signals can be filtered continuous phase frequency shift keying (CPFSK), multi-h continuous phase modulation (CPM) [1], shaped offset quadrature phase shift keying-Telemetry Group (SOQPSK-TG, aka SOQPSK-A*) [2], or Feher’s patented quadrature phase shift keying FQPSK-B (or FQPSK-JR [3]). The equations are based on measured data in an adjacent channel interference (ACI) environment for filtered CPFSK (aka PCM/FM), multi-h CPM (or CPM for short), SOQPSK-TG, FQPSK-JR, and FQPSK-B. This paper is an extension of my 2001 and 2002 International Telemetering Conference papers on this topic [4, 5]. The quantity measured was bit error probability (BEP) versus frequency separation at a given signal energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio (Eb/No). The interferers were CPFSK, CPM, SOQPSK-TG or FQPSK-B (-JR) signals. The results presented in this paper will be for a desired signal bit rate of 1 to 20 Mb/s, one interferer 20 dB larger than the desired signal (a few tests included two interferers), and various center frequency spacings, interfering signals, receivers, and demodulators. The overall ACI test effort has collected data sets at several bit rates and with one and two interferers. The results will be useful to system designers and range operators as they attempt to maximize the number of Mb/s that can be simultaneously transmitted with minimal interference in the telemetry bands.

      Hummel, William R.; Naval Air Systems Command (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      The architecture and capabilities of Navy Flight Test’s latest generation telemetry system are described. The Real-time Telemetry Processing System (RTPS) is the name ascribed to successive systems at the Patuxent River Navy Flight Test complex since 1973. This version of the system, dubbed RTPS IV, and the associated facility improvements will enable the Navy to support the next generation military fighter, the Joint Strike Fighter, and every other ongoing and planned Navy test program.

      Modi, John J.; Essman, Tony L.; Brandon, Douglas H.; Waller, Joe W.; Hester, Robert S.; Pham, Fern L.; Bui, Vien X.; Green, Dan C.; Kerzie, Mark G.; Lockheed Martin (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      The Joint Framework Project (JFP) is an effort to conjoin the software data processing pipeline frameworks between Lockheed Martin’s Flight Test Data Centers. The JFP integrates the existing Data Processing Framework (DPFW) with the Joint Enterprise Test System (JETS) data products concept of pipelines. The JFP is constructed with simple governing concepts of data pipes and filters, engineered to manage post flight and real time test data for LM Aeronautics Flight Test mission support, and the results are presented here. The JFP is an Object-Oriented dynamically configurable framework that supports LM Aeronautics Flight Test programs. The JFP uses the Adaptive Communications Environment (ACE) framework, an open source high-performance networking package, to implement the components. The joint framework project provides a real time and an interactive / background post flight test data processing environment reproducing MIL-STD 1553, ARINC 429, Pulse Code Modulation (PCM), Time Space Position Information (TSPI), Digital Video, and High Speed Data Bus (HSDB) data streams for flight test and discipline engineers. The architecture supports existing requirements for the flight test centers, and provides a remarkably flexible environment for integrating enhancements. The JFP is a collaborative effort consisting of LM Aero Flight Test software teams at Marietta, Fort Worth, Edwards Air Force Base, and Palmdale. A prototype will be presented of the JFP addressing the data specific treatment of demultiplexing, decommutation, filtering, data merging, engineering unit conversion, and data reporting. An overview of the distributed architecture is presented, and the potential for the JFP extensibility to support future flight test program requirements is discussed.

      Sinclair, Robert; Beech, Russell; Jones, Kevin; Mundon, Scott; Jones, Charles H.; NVE Corporation; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      When a sensor is replaced or added to a legacy data acquisition system, information for that sensor has to be incorporated by the software programmer into the main system software - a costly and timeconsuming process. The new ‘smart’ sensors that are being designed according to the new IEEE P1451.3 and .4 standards will have the necessary information contained in their Transducer Electronics Data Sheet (TEDS). A method has been developed to give the old sensors the intelligence to meet the requirements of these new IEEE standards without changes to the legacy hardware and a minor change to the system software.

      Horan, Stephen; Newtson, Kathy; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      Prototyping an Internet Protocol (IP) compliant architecture will demonstrate a realistic basis for satellite communication design. The prototype IP architecture should prove seamless and secure communications between the satellites and ground stations. Using commercial off the shelf (COTS) equipment, design and development of satellite communications becomes easier and less expensive than developing specialized equipment. IP space applications will improve communications while minimizing development costs.

      Meihong, Li; Qishan, Zhang; Jun, Wang; Beihang University; Beijing University Of Post And Telecommunication (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      SSL protocol is one industrial standard to protect data transferred securely on Internet. Firstly SSL is analyzed, according to its characteristics, one solution plan on mobile bank based on SSL is proposed and presented, in which GPRS technology is adopted and elliptic curve algorithm is used for the session key, finally several functional modules of mobile bank are designed in details and its security is analyzed.

      Smith, Joseph F.; Hwang, Chailan; Fowell, Stuart; Plummer, Chris; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; SciSys; Cotectic, Ltd. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is an international organization of national space agencies that is branching out to provide new standards to enhanced reuse of spacecraft equipment and software. These Spacecraft Onboard Interface (SOIF) standards will be directed towards a spacecraft architecture, as a distributed system of processors and busses. This paper will review the services that are being proposed for SOIF. These services include a Command and Data Acquisition Service, a Time Distribution Service, a Message Transfer Service, a File Transfer Service, and a CCSDS Packet Service. An Instrument & Subsystem “Plug & Play Service is currently under study, but is included in this paper for completeness.

      Horan, Stephen; Mauldin, Kendall; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      As more satellite ground station systems use the Internet as a means of connectivity, the security of the ground stations and data transferred between stations becomes a growing concern. Possible solutions include software-level password authentication, link encryption, IP filtering, and several others. Many of these methods are being implemented in many different applications. SSH (Secure Shell) tunneling is one specific method that ensures a highly encrypted data link between computers on the Internet. It is used every day by individuals and organizations that want to ensure the security of the data they are transferring over the Internet. This paper describes the security requirements of a specific example of a ground station network, how SSH can be implemented into the existing system, software configuration, and operational testing of the revised ground network.

      Schnurr, Richard; Marquart, Jane; Lin, Michael; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      Advancements in flight semiconductor technology have opened the door for IP-based networking in spacecraft architectures. The GSFC believes the same significant cost savings gained using MILSTD- 1553/1773 as a standard low rate interface for spacecraft busses can be realized for highspeed network interfaces. To that end, GSFC is developing hardware and software to support a seamless, space mission IP network based on Ethernet and MIL-STD-1553. The Ethernet network shall connect all flight computers and communications systems using interface standards defined by the CCSDS Standard Onboard InterFace (SOIF) Panel. This paper shall discuss the prototyping effort underway at GSFC and expected results.

      Horan, Stephen; Horan, Sheila B.; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      Reduction of signal transmission is of paramount concern to many in the telemetry and wireless industry. One technique that is available is the compression of the data before transmission. With telemetry type data, there are many approaches that can be used to achieve compression. Data compression of the Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) PCM data sets in the frame and packet modes, and for the entire data file will be considered and compared. The technique of differencing data will also be applied to the data files by subtracting the previous major frame and then applying compression techniques. It will be demonstrated that telemetry compression is a viable option to reduce the amount of data to be transmitted, and hence the bandwidth. However, this compression produces variable-length data segments with implications for real-time data synchronization.

      Starkey, Ryan P.; Lewis, Mark J.; Jones, Charles H.; University of Maryland; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      During certain hypersonic flight regimes, shock heating of air creates a plasma sheath resulting in telemetry attenuation or blackout. The severity of the signal attenuation is dependent on vehicle configuration, flight trajectory, and transmission frequency. This phenomenon is investigated with a focus placed on the nonequilibrium plasma sheath properties (electron concentration, plasma frequency, collision frequency, and temperature) for a range of flight conditions and vehicle design considerations. Trajectory and transmission frequency requirements for air-breathing hypersonic vehicle design are then addressed, with comparisons made to both shuttle orbiter and RAM-C II reentry flights.

      Moen, Selmer; Jones, Charles; Killdeer Mountain Manufacturing; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      The Bit Rate Agile Onboard Telemetry Formatting (BRAOTF) system was developed by Killdeer Mountain Manufacturing to address increasing demands on the efficiency of telemetry systems. The BRAOTF thins and reorders data streams, adjusting the bit rate of a pulse code modulation (PCM) stream using a bit-locked loop to match the desired information rate exactly. The BRAOTF accomplishes the adjustment in hardware, synthesizing a clock whose operating frequency is derived from the actual timing of the input format. Its firmware manages initialization and error management. Testing has confirmed that the BRAOTF implementation meets its design goals.
    • A New TDRSS Compatible Transceiver for Long Duration High Altitude Scientific Balloon Missions

      Stilwell, Bryan D.; Siemon, Marty; New Mexico State University; General Dynamics Decision Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      High altitude scientific balloons have been used for many years to provide scientists with access to space at a fraction of the cost of satellite based experiments. In recent years, these balloons have been successfully used for long duration missions of up to several weeks. Longer missions with durations of up to 100 days (Ultra-Long) are on the drawing board. An enabling technology for the growth of the scientific balloon missions is the use of the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) for telemetering the health, status, position and payload science data to mission operations personnel. The TDRSS system provides global coverage by relaying the data through geostationary relay satellites to a single ground station in White Sands New Mexico. Data passes from the White Sands station to the user via commercial telecommunications services including the Internet. A forward command link can also be established to the balloon for real-time command and control. Early TDRSS communications equipment used by the National Scientific Balloon Facility was either unreliable or too expensive. The equipment must be able to endure the rigors of space flight including radiation exposure, high temperature extremes and the shock of landing and recovery. Since a payload may occasionally be lost, the cost of the TDRSS communications gear is a limiting factor in the number of missions that can be supported. Under sponsorship of the NSBF, General Dynamics Decision Systems has developed a new TDRSS compatible transceiver that reduces the size, weight and cost to approximately one half that of the prior generation of hardware. This paper describes the long and ultra-long balloon missions and the role that TDRSS communications plays in mission success. The new transceiver design is described, along with its interfaces, performance characteristics, qualification and production status. The transceiver can also be used in other space, avionics or terrestrial applications.

      Dong-soo, Seo; Sung-hoon, Jang; Sung-hee, Han; Heung-bum, Kim; Agency for Defense Development (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      Unmanned Telemetry Ground System (UTGS) was implemented in Defense System Test Center (DSTC), Agency for Defense Development (ADD). The components of UTGS are Antenna, NPS (Network Power Switch), RCB (Receiver/Combiner/Bit synchronizer) and microwave link. We have installed RCB which is composed of receiver, combiner and bit synchronizer. RCB can be controlled and monitored by RS232 serial communication and microwave network. NPS controls its power supplies. UTGS sends PCM stream to local site using E1-class HDSL and microwave link. This system is possible the signal acquisition and reduction of man power at remote site. The usability and performance of UTGS was proved in flight tests. This paper describes the hardware, software design and an implementation of UTGS.

      DeLong, Brian; Sypris Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      The efficient distribution of telemetry data via standard Ethernet networks has become an increasingly important part of telemetry system designs. While there are several methods and architectures to choose from, a solution based on IP multicast transmission provides for a fast and efficient method of distributing data from a single source to multiple clients. This data distribution method allows for increased scalability as data servers are no longer required to service individual client connections, and network bandwidth is minimized with multiple network clients being simultaneously serviced via a single data transmission.

      Orozco, Gina; Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      The NMSUSat is part of the AFRL/NASA University Nanosatellite program. The constellation will consist of a main microsatellite that will have a command link from ground and a telemetry link to ground while a picosatellite will act as a sensor reporting data to the microsatellite. Innovative command and data handling will be incorporated at low cost and greater accessibility. In this paper we present the necessary communications and control architecture for the space segment and the ground segment of the nanosatellite.

      Zetocha, Paul; Kirtland Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      There is an increasing desire in many organizations, including NASA and the DoD, to use constellations or fleets of autonomous spacecraft working together to accomplish complex mission objectives. At the Air Force Research Laboratory’s (AFRL) Space Vehicles Directorate we are investigating and developing architectures for commanding and controlling a cluster of cooperating satellites. For many space missions, large monolithic satellites are required to meet mission requirements. In many cases this results in costly satellites which are more complex, more susceptible to failure, and which have performance characteristics that are less than optimal due to realistic physical size limitations. Recently various organizations have begun to explore how distributed clusters of cooperating satellites can replace their larger monolithic counterparts resulting in an overall cost reduction, enhanced mission performance, and increased system fault tolerance. Large clusters of satellites flying in formation are required to have some level of on-board autonomy in order to: fly within specified tolerance levels; perform collision avoidance; address fault detection, isolation, and resolution (FDIR); share knowledge; and plan and schedule activities. In addition, from an operations standpoint, commanding and controlling a large cluster of satellites can be very burdensome for ground operators. At AFRL we are addressing these issues by development of an on-board Cluster Management system which will, in essence, provide the capability to treat a cluster of satellites as a single virtual satellite. A systems level approach is being taken, therefore from a ground perspective the ground control station must also be able to treat the cluster as a virtual satellite. [1] This paper will describe our Cluster Management system, which is the intelligent entity that is responsible for making cluster level decisions and which enables the satellite cluster to function as a virtual satellite. The cluster manager functionality can be broken down into the following five areas: • Command and control • Cluster data management • Formation flying • Fault management • On-board Planning This paper will contain a detailed description of the Cluster Manager architecture along with its various modules.
    • A Bit Error Rate Analysis of Offset QPSK over the Aeronautical Telemetry Multipath Channel

      Rice, Michael; Dang, Xiaoyu; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      The impact of multipath fading parameters on the probability of error for Offset QPSK (OQPSK) is derived. The multipath fading channel is modeled using the aeronautical telemetry channel model [1-2]. Expressions for the probability of bit error are derived that are a function of the multipath model parameters. The expressions are shown to agree with computer simulations and show that a strong multipath reflection with a short delay causes much more degradation than a weak multipath reflection with a long delay.

      Mirchandani, Chandru; Fisher, David; Brentzel, Kelvin; Coronado, Patrick; Harris, Carol; NASA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      A vital part of all satellite development is the ground system that will be used to process the satellite downlink. To support the High-Rate Data (HRD) Downlink satellites planned for launch by the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP), GSFC has developed a Single Chassis System (SCS) solution, which provides data processing from RF to data product using leading-edge hardware components. The SCS is a hardware solution that meets and exceeds this rate requirement. In realtime, the SCS autonomously processes and delivers Direct Broadcast data from NPP satellites. An objective of the HRD System development was that it be an integrated processing element housed in a single commercial off-the-shelf PC capable of exceeding the near-term requirements of NPP and moving towards the mid and far term needs of NASA.