• ACHIEVING DATA TRANSFER AND SERVICE MANAGEMENT INTEROPERABILITY IN SATELLITE CONTROL NETWORKS

      Sunshine, Carl; Williams, Lance; The Aerospace Corporation; Northrop Grumman (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      A critical area for achieving interoperability between satellite control networks is the means chosen to interconnect Satellite Operations Centers and remote antenna systems. The CCSDS Space Link Extension (SLE) services are good candidates for this purpose, but national security space activities have demanding requirements for accuracy of data transfer, controlled delay, and security, which may not be fully achievable with the existing recommendations. The US Air Force developed a test bed to evaluate the SLE protocols during live satellite contacts, for both data transfer and management functions such as scheduling, configuring ground resources, and status reporting. Performance was generally satisfactory, but several extensions were found to be necessary. The SLE services provide a promising basis for use in ground stations to support both legacy Air Force interfaces and newer standards based satellite control services.
    • ACQUISITION AND DISTRIBUTION OF TSPI DATA USING COTS HARDWARE OVER AN ETHERNET NETWORK

      James, Russell W.; Bevier, James C.; James Bros. Systems, Inc.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; JB Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      The Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) operates the ground stations for research vehicles operating at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). Recently, the WATR implemented a new system for distributing Time, Space, and Position Information (TSPI) data. The previous system for processing this data was built on archaic hardware that is no longer supported, running legacy software with no upgrade path. The purpose of the Radar Information Processing System (RIPS) is to provide the ability to acquire TSPI data from a variety of sources and process the data for subsequent distribution to other destinations located at the various DFRC facilities. RIPS is built of commercial, off the shelf (COTS) hardware installed in Personal Computers (PC). Data is transported between these computers on a Gigabit Ethernet network. The software was developed using C++ with a modular, object-oriented design approach.
    • AD HOC NETWORKING OVERVIEW AND APPLICATION TO A BATTLEFIELD SENSORS SYSTEM

      Kaba, James; Hashfield, Paul; Sarnoff Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      Ad hoc networking protocols enable the formation of self-organizing networks with automatic selfhealing operation in dynamic environments. There are a number of existing or planned ad hoc implementations and a body of research on protocols and performance. Ad Hoc technologies promise significant impact in future communications architectures. This paper presents a general overview of ad hoc networking and presents specific examples, including a recent implementation of a prototype ad hoc networked sensor system. The protocols used have unique characteristics derived by tailoring particular protocols to the specific application requirements. The potential relevance of ad hoc networking to possible telemetry applications is discussed.
    • ADAPTIVE SIGNAL DEGRADATION INDICATION (SDI) FOR DIVERSITY BRANCH SELECTION (DBS)

      Laird, Daniel T.; 412TW/ENTI(ARTM) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      One of several methods currently under investigation to increase telemetry efficiency is channel diversity selection. A spatial technique we are exploring exploits a signal quality indicator of phase demodulation to select ‘competing’ telemetry channels sourced by antenna separated by fractional wavelengths. The Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) program, a Centralized Test and Evaluation Improvement Program (CTEIP) research project funded by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), recently investigated three switching criteria for a multiple antenna system. This paper will discuss an algorithm that controls channel selection, or diversity branch selection (DBS), using a combination of the techniques investigated.
    • ADVANCED GPR SYSTEM FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE TOMOGRAPHIC SUBSURFACE IMAGING

      Ono, Sashi; Lee, Hua; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      In this paper, the research prototype of a high-performance GPR imaging system is presented. The system is equipped with the capability of synthetic-aperture scan, stepfrequency FMCW illumination, and high-resolution tomographic image reconstruction.
    • ADVANCEMENTS IN TRANSMITTER HARDWARE FOR WIRELESS TELEMETRY ENGINEERS

      Burke, Larry; Osgood, Karina; Muir, John; Dearstine, Christina; Cardullo, Micheal; Fox, Timothy; M/A-COM, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      M/A-COM has developed a chip set designed specifically for miniaturized ballistic telemetry applications. One key component of this chip set is a dual port voltage controlled oscillator (VCO). This device allows for independent optimization of both modulation and tuning parameters at the chip level. In the dual port architecture, the modulation port of the VCO may be tailored for the peak (frequency) deviation requirements of each system, while still permitting the device to tune over entire SLOWER band. Additionally, M/A-COM has developed S band power amplifiers (PAs) for medium power (500mW, 1W and 2W) telemetry applications. These new PAs are very efficient, (>45% PAE) when operated in saturation. This improved efficiency means these components may be integrated into transmitters with a miniaturized form factor. The excellent thermal performance of these new PAs allows them to be packaged in commercial plastic packages which are robust in high shock/high vibration applications. This paper reviews the design of each MMIC device and presents system performance data.
    • AIR-GROUND TELEMETRY SYSTEMS FOR RESEARCH HELICOPTERS

      Kasper, Eugene F.; Leong, Gary; Ames Research Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      This paper describes the development of a compact mobile telemetry system using commercial-off-the-shelf components. The personal computer-based systems support microwave pulse code modulation and serial spread-spectrum radio modem telemetry. The mobile ground station provides data display and archiving of test activities, air-ground communications between experimenters and the flight test crew, and acts as a flight test Differential Global Positioning System base station. The success of the systems indicates that functional telemetry capabilities can be established for small flight test programs at modest cost.
    • ALAMOUTI SPACE-TIME CODING FOR QPSK WITH DELAY DIFFERENTIAL

      Rice, Michael; Nelson, Tom; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      Space-time coding (STC) for QPSK where the transmitted signals are received with the same delay is well known. This paper examines the case where the transmitted signals are received with a nonnegligible delay differential when the Alamouti 2x1 STC is used. Such a differential can be caused by a large spacing of the transmit antennas. In this paper, an expression for the received signal with a delay differential is derived and a decoding algorithm for that signal is developed. In addition, the performance of this new algorithm is compared to the standard Alamouti decoding algorithm for various delay differentials.
    • Analysis of Galileo and GPS systems

      Zhi, Chen; Qishan, Zhang; Beihang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      This paper describes key points in the field of Galileo application abroad spacecraft and normal vehicles. On the basis of ephemeris of Galileo constellation, the mathematic model and procession are given in high dynamic signal environment, the digital simulation is also completed, the results are statistics and analyzed and presented. On the topic of navigation satellite constellation orbit and visibility, the paper presents the Galileo frame system, time system, navigation satellite orbit elements, constellation structure, and GDOP calculation. The users include low dynamic as well as high dynamic spacecraft. The analysis for relevant GPS is also showed. About the navigation signal structure, main points are Galileo system working frequency, including E5, E6 and L1 frequency spans, the modulation and navigation data, ets. At the same time, this paper compares Galileo with GPS. On the aspect of signal communication link, Dopplar frequency shift and power level calculation are present as well as compare with GPS system.
    • Analytical Model for Handoff of Fast Moving Nodes in High-Performance Wireless LANs for Data Telemetry

      Barrett, G. R.; Bamberger, R. J.; D’Amico, W. P.; Lauss, M. H.; Johns Hopkins University; Yuma Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      In our prior work [1] we proposed that network-centric data telemetry systems offer substantial improvements over traditional serial data telemetry systems. This paper is a follow up to that work and is also a companion to our experimentation paper [2]. In network-centric telemetry systems, there can be many infrastructure sites that form the network’s ad hoc communications paths, and there can be many fast-moving nodes, e.g., munitions, which enter the network, generate telemetry data, and exit the network. As the geographic size of such data telemetry networks grows, constraints on link margin will typically preclude a one-to-one matching of ground-based infrastructure sites to airborne, fast-moving nodes. That is, the fast-moving nodes will traverse distances that will require the mobile node to change which specific ground node it communicates with to transfer telemetry data. This paper describes an analytic model for the generic process of a fast moving node entering a wireless network and the associated handoffs of that node among ground stations as the fast mover traverses the spatial region covered by the wireless network. Our analysis and associated worst-case example demonstrate that wireless networking technology can handle the stress of rapidly managing connectivity to high-speed nodes for effective telemetry data extraction.
    • APPLICATION OF DATA COMPRESSION TO FRAME AND PACKET TELEMETRY

      Horan, Stephen; Horan, Sheila B.; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      Reduction of signal transmission is of paramount concern to many in the telemetry and wireless industry. One technique that is available is the compression of the data before transmission. With telemetry type data, there are many approaches that can be used to achieve compression. Data compression of the Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) PCM data sets in the frame and packet modes, and for the entire data file will be considered and compared. The technique of differencing data will also be applied to the data files by subtracting the previous major frame and then applying compression techniques. It will be demonstrated that telemetry compression is a viable option to reduce the amount of data to be transmitted, and hence the bandwidth. However, this compression produces variable-length data segments with implications for real-time data synchronization.
    • THE APPLICATION OF DISK RECORDING TECHNOLOGY TO PLATFORM DATA CAPTURE & ANALYSIS

      Howard, John M.; Avalon Electronics Ltd (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      Disk Recorders now represent a high performance, low cost and reliable alternative to traditional tape recorders for a wide range of platform data recording applications. This paper discusses the latest advances in disk-based recording technology in the context of multi-channel Telemetry applications, showing the degree of flexibility that is now possible in terms of both channel count and the ability to record synchronous and asynchronous digital data streams alongside multiple wideband analog channels. The techniques described are equally applicable to Acoustic, SIGINT and Telecommunications data capture and analysis applications aboard static, airborne and maritime platforms. Topics covered include how new disk-based data capture technologies have been able to extend bandwidth, storage capacity, signal fidelity and the overall capability of mission recorders. Advanced operational issues, including true ‘read-after-write’, data security, portability and archiving, enhanced data management and analysis strategies are also covered. The Paper includes detailed test results from COTS Disk Recorders already in service as well as an informative Road Map for this exciting new technology.
    • ARCHITECTURE DISTRIBUTED ON EUROPEAN LAUNCHER

      Blondeau, Fabrice; EADS Launch Vehicles (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      Space vehicle telemetry requirements have evolved considerably over the past decade. More and more onboard data need to be acquired, not only for purposes of launch vehicle qualification in flight, but also for calibrating simulations. The flexibility required of the architecture has also changed the hardware considerably in order to fit into many different configurations without redoing the whole equipment development. EADS-LV accommodates these evolving needs and costs with a modular, distributed Telemetry channel architecture. This uses a single product line to meet the various needs ranging from the small launch vehicle to the heavy Ariane 5 vehicles.
    • ARTM TIER II WAVEFORM PERFORMANCE

      Temple, Kip; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      One of the charters of the Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) program was to develop more spectrally efficient waveforms while trying to maintain similar performance to the legacy waveform, Pulse Code Modulation/Frequency Modulation (PCM/FM). The first step toward this goal was the ARTM Tier I family of waveforms which include Feher patented, quadrature phase shift keying, -B version (FQSPKB) and shaped offset quadrature phase shift keying, Telemetry Group version (SOQPSK-TG). The final step was development of Tier II, an even more spectrally efficient waveform, multi-h Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM). This paper characterizes the performance of this waveform when applied in an airborne telemetry environment and, where appropriate, comparisons are made with existing Tier 0 and Tier I waveforms. The benefits, drawbacks, and trade-offs when applying this waveform in an airborne environment will also be discussed.
    • BASELINE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM FOR A SMALL SATELLITE

      Orozco, Gina; Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      The NMSUSat is part of the AFRL/NASA University Nanosatellite program. The constellation will consist of a main microsatellite that will have a command link from ground and a telemetry link to ground while a picosatellite will act as a sensor reporting data to the microsatellite. Innovative command and data handling will be incorporated at low cost and greater accessibility. In this paper we present the necessary communications and control architecture for the space segment and the ground segment of the nanosatellite.
    • A Bit Error Rate Analysis of Offset QPSK over the Aeronautical Telemetry Multipath Channel

      Rice, Michael; Dang, Xiaoyu; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      The impact of multipath fading parameters on the probability of error for Offset QPSK (OQPSK) is derived. The multipath fading channel is modeled using the aeronautical telemetry channel model [1-2]. Expressions for the probability of bit error are derived that are a function of the multipath model parameters. The expressions are shown to agree with computer simulations and show that a strong multipath reflection with a short delay causes much more degradation than a weak multipath reflection with a long delay.
    • BIT RATE AGILITY FOR EFFICIENT TELEMETRY

      Moen, Selmer; Jones, Charles; Killdeer Mountain Manufacturing; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      The Bit Rate Agile Onboard Telemetry Formatting (BRAOTF) system was developed by Killdeer Mountain Manufacturing to address increasing demands on the efficiency of telemetry systems. The BRAOTF thins and reorders data streams, adjusting the bit rate of a pulse code modulation (PCM) stream using a bit-locked loop to match the desired information rate exactly. The BRAOTF accomplishes the adjustment in hardware, synthesizing a clock whose operating frequency is derived from the actual timing of the input format. Its firmware manages initialization and error management. Testing has confirmed that the BRAOTF implementation meets its design goals.
    • BRINGING RANGES CLOSER TOGETHER – NEW OPPORTUNITIES IN RANGE INTERCONNECTIVITY

      Eslinger, Brian; Young, Tom; Edwards Air Force Base; TYBRIN Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      Test and training ranges have sought the holy grail of large-scale range interconnectivity for many years. The ability to test at any range and transmit the information to the engineers at the home base and control the mission without sending the entire test team to a remote location improves the test schedules, reduces the cost of testing and improves the testing capabilities. New opportunities of interconnecting ranges are changing the business of open air range testing and the resulting capabilities. Two predominant opportunities will be discussed in this paper. First, is taking advantage of the fiber glut that the US is currently experiencing along with opportunities for government-acquired assets to service the testing community. This approach provides the government the ability to fiber-optically create a virtual test range and provide full interconnectivity of all data. Second is to take advantage of the existing networks such as the Defense Research Engineering Network (DREN) to make efficient on-demand type connectivity where, otherwise, it would be cost prohibitive.
    • BUILDING BRIDGES: LINKING CAIS TO ETHERNET AND OTHER PROTOCOLS

      Corry, Diarmuid; ACRA CONTROL Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      The technologies used for flight test are evolving. Trusted standards like CAIS and IRIG106 PCM are giving way to new “trusted standards” (and proven technologies/protocols) found in telecommunication and networking such as Ethernet, fiber channel, TCP/IP, UDP, ATM and so on. Currently there is $100Ms+ invested in CAIS and IRIG compliant equipment in the world. A key challenge in this evolution is to provide a reliable solution that allows the FTI engineer to immediately take advantage of these advanced technologies while protecting prior investment in equipment, knowledge, and resources during this transition. This paper presents an analysis of how to protect existing assets while still leveraging the power of the latest technologies. It looks at the characteristics of a “bridge” system, and suggests solutions for merging and linking data from and to different transmission protocols using data synchronization and deterministic data management cycles.
    • CALCULATING POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY IN A NETWORKBASED TELEMETRY SYSTEM

      Brierley, Scott; The Boeing Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      Calculating the power spectral density (PSD) at the transducer or data acquisition system offers advantages in a network-based telemetry system. The PSD is provided in real time to the users. The conversion to PSD can either be lossless (allowing a complete reconstruction of the transducer signal) or lossy (providing data compression). Post-processing can convert the PSD back to time histories if desired. A complete reconstruction of the signal is possible, including knowledge of the signal level between the sample periods. Properly implemented, this method of data collection provides a sharp anti-aliasing filter with minimal added cost. Currently no standards exist for generating PSDs on the vehicle. New standards could help telemetry system designers understand the benefits and limitations calculating the power spectral density in a network-based telemetry system.