• ARTM TIER II WAVEFORM PERFORMANCE

      Temple, Kip; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      One of the charters of the Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) program was to develop more spectrally efficient waveforms while trying to maintain similar performance to the legacy waveform, Pulse Code Modulation/Frequency Modulation (PCM/FM). The first step toward this goal was the ARTM Tier I family of waveforms which include Feher patented, quadrature phase shift keying, -B version (FQSPKB) and shaped offset quadrature phase shift keying, Telemetry Group version (SOQPSK-TG). The final step was development of Tier II, an even more spectrally efficient waveform, multi-h Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM). This paper characterizes the performance of this waveform when applied in an airborne telemetry environment and, where appropriate, comparisons are made with existing Tier 0 and Tier I waveforms. The benefits, drawbacks, and trade-offs when applying this waveform in an airborne environment will also be discussed.
    • AN INTEGRATED DESIGN, TEST AND EVALUATION SYSTEM FOR GPS RECEIVER

      Yanhong, Kou; Dongkai, Yang; Qishan, Zhang; Beihang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      An integrated design, Test and Evaluation (T&E) system for GPS receiver is proposed in the paper, which can perform T&E early in R&D cycle, and combine new designs into a conceptual GPS receiver directly. The flowchart of its development mode is given. The architectures of the system, especially of the signal-computing software are described with frame diagrams. The mathematical models of three reference points are derived, with the impact of oscillator errors modeled. Future plans and further developments are also discussed.
    • INTELLIGENT VEHICLE NAVIGATION SYSTEM CONNECTED WITH INTERNET

      Bingxin, Yi; Qishan, Zhang; Shengxi, Ding; Beihang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      The intelligent vehicle navigation system is a multifunctional and complex integrated system that uses autonomous vehicle navigation, geography information, database system, computer technology, multimedia technology and wireless communication. In this paper, an autonomous navigation system based on embedded hardware and embedded operation system that is Linux is proposed. The system has advantages of low cost, small mass, multifunction and high stability, especially connecting with Internet.
    • Analysis of Galileo and GPS systems

      Zhi, Chen; Qishan, Zhang; Beihang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      This paper describes key points in the field of Galileo application abroad spacecraft and normal vehicles. On the basis of ephemeris of Galileo constellation, the mathematic model and procession are given in high dynamic signal environment, the digital simulation is also completed, the results are statistics and analyzed and presented. On the topic of navigation satellite constellation orbit and visibility, the paper presents the Galileo frame system, time system, navigation satellite orbit elements, constellation structure, and GDOP calculation. The users include low dynamic as well as high dynamic spacecraft. The analysis for relevant GPS is also showed. About the navigation signal structure, main points are Galileo system working frequency, including E5, E6 and L1 frequency spans, the modulation and navigation data, ets. At the same time, this paper compares Galileo with GPS. On the aspect of signal communication link, Dopplar frequency shift and power level calculation are present as well as compare with GPS system.
    • A STATUS REPORT OF THE JOINT ADVANCED MISSILE INSTRUMENTATION PROJECT THE JAMI SYSTEM TAKES SHAPE

      Powell, Dave; Scofield, Don; NAVAL AIR WARFARE CENTER WEAPONS DIVISION (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      Joint Advanced Missile Instrumentation (JAMI), a Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) initiative, is developing advanced telemetry system components that can be used in an integrated instrumentation package for tri-service small missile test and training applications. JAMI demonstrated significant improvement in the performance of low-cost Global Positioning System (GPS) based Time-Space-Position Information (TSPI) tracking hardware that can be used for world-wide test and training. Acquisition times of less than 3 seconds from a cold start and tracking dynamics to over 60 Gs were demonstrated. The design of a programmable Flight Termination Safe and Arm device has been completed. High dynamic testing results of GPS and Inertial measurement Unit (IMU) devices and problems encountered are discussed. Initial flight-testing of the JAMI components used on the missile and target and the ground processing of the data have been completed. This paper discusses the progress of the program during the past year and the efforts planned for fiscal year 2004.
    • CIGTF Enhanced Precision Reference Systems

      Lawrence, Robert S.; Gregory, George; Stutz, Derryl; Sanchez, Jerry; Neal, Brent; Holloman Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      The 746th Test Squadron at Holloman AFB has developed and utilized the Central Inertial Guidance Test Facility (CIGTF) High Accuracy Post-processing Reference System (CHAPS). CHAPS is a multi-sensor navigation reference system used to evaluate position, velocity, and attitude performance of Global Positioning System (GPS), Inertial Navigation System (INS), and Embedded GPS/INS (EGI) navigation systems on large vehicles and aircraft. Reference data is processed post-test with accuracy ranges from a meter to sub-meter depending on the reference configuration and test environment (profile, trajectory dynamics, GPS jamming, etc.). The GPS Aided Inertial Navigation Reference (GAINR) system developed by the Air Force Flight Test Center (Edwards AFB) offered other utilization capabilities (test beds and post-processing time). The basic sensor assembly is an EGI navigation system. The data are post-processed with Multisensor Optimal Smoothing Estimation Software (MOSES). Incorporating CHAPS and GAINR capabilities generates a reference system with enhanced accuracy (sub-meter) in a dynamic GPS non-jamming/jamming environment. This paper will present the enhanced reference system combination of CHAPS/GAINR capabilities, characterization process and development methodology.
    • DELAY PERFORMANCE OF PR-CFDAMA MAC PROTOCOL VIA SATELLITE

      Jia, Shilou; Zhou, Xi; Harbin Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      A novel satellite multiple access scheme called PR-CFDAMA (Predictive Request-Combined Free/Demand Assignment Multiple Access) is proposed in this paper. The delay performances between PR-CFDAMA and R-CFDAMA (Round Robin-CFDAMA) scheme were compared by computer simulation. Simulations were carried out with the Interrupted Poisson Process (IPP) and Interrupted Fluid Process (IFP) traffic models. Simulation results demonstrate that comparing with R-CFDAMA scheme, the PR-CFDAMA scheme achieves a lower delay, meets a much lower delay constraint.
    • FLIGHT TEST MONITORING OF AVIONIC FIBRE CHANNEL NETWORKS FOR RECORDING AND TELEMETRY

      Zettwoch, Robert N.; The Boeing Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      The F/A-18E/F Super Hornet fighter aircraft program is currently flight testing a Fibre Channel Network (FCN), which will initially replace certain Avionics Systems’ MIL-STD-1553 communications. The Advanced Mission Computers and Displays (AMC&D) and the Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) RADAR are replacing their MIL-STD-1553 counterparts to fulfill performance enhancements and growing data requirements. The maximum amount of data that can be transferred between these systems is significantly increasing. Each remote terminal on a MIL-STD-1553 bus can transmit or receive approximately 1Mbps. Each node on a FCN can simultaneously transmit and receive 1Gbps. With a Fibre Channel Network Switch (FCNS), multiple systems can communicate concurrently, thus increasing overall system throughput even further. Several other systems will be replaced in the near future utilizing the FCNS. The Fibre Channel Interface Unit (FCIU) was designed for the F/A-18E/F AESA program as a nonintrusive way to monitor multiple nodes, extract node specific information, and record this information using conventional on-board recorders. In order to reduce the risks associated with developing hardware and software concurrently with the Avionic System’s protocol, the FCIU was developed as an upper-level-protocol (ULP) (layer FC-4) independent device. Two big advantages of ULP independence are the avoidance of complex protocol programming for each different type of monitored network system and the non-intrusive nature of the FCIU connection to the FCN. This facilitates the quick installation of the FCIU to monitor any FC network and the FCIU IRIG-106 PCM type output lends itself to be integrated quickly into a typical Flight Test data recording or telemetry system.
    • A ROBUST DIGITAL WIRELESS LINK FOR TACTICAL UAV’S

      Durso, Christopher M.; Pacific Microwave Research, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      Tactical unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV’s) can deliver real-time battlefield video directly to the soldier providing unprecedented situational awareness. The video communications system must be compact, lightweight, secure, and easy to deploy without a complicated ground station. Pacific Microwave Research, Inc. is developing a system capable of providing reliable and secure video communications to handheld terminals throughout the theater. PMR’s Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (COFDM) video transmission system is designed for tactical video transmission in battlefield or Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) environments. Using digital modulation coding, the system provides a very robust link in the mobile environment.
    • AD HOC NETWORKING OVERVIEW AND APPLICATION TO A BATTLEFIELD SENSORS SYSTEM

      Kaba, James; Hashfield, Paul; Sarnoff Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      Ad hoc networking protocols enable the formation of self-organizing networks with automatic selfhealing operation in dynamic environments. There are a number of existing or planned ad hoc implementations and a body of research on protocols and performance. Ad Hoc technologies promise significant impact in future communications architectures. This paper presents a general overview of ad hoc networking and presents specific examples, including a recent implementation of a prototype ad hoc networked sensor system. The protocols used have unique characteristics derived by tailoring particular protocols to the specific application requirements. The potential relevance of ad hoc networking to possible telemetry applications is discussed.
    • RESEARCH OF SECURITY HARDWARE IN PKI SYSTEM

      Wenhua, Qi; Qishan, Zhang; Hailong, Liu; BeiHang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      Security hardware based on asymmetric algorithm is the key component of Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), which decides the safety and performance of system. Security device in server or client have some common functions. We designed the client token and cryptographic server to improve the performance of PKI, and got obvious effect.
    • PKI/PMI AND SMART TOKENS IN HEALTHCARE INFORMATION SYSTEMS

      Liu, Hailong; Qi, Wenhua; Zhang, Qishan; Wu, Jinpei; BeiHang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      While healthcare industry is striving to achieve e-health systems for improvements in healthcare quality, cost, and access, privacy and security about medical records should be considered carefully. This paper makes a deep study of Public Key Infrastructures (PKIs) and Privilege Management Infrastructures (PMIs) and how they can secure e-health systems. To access resources, e.g. patient records, both authentication and authorization are needed, so public key certificates and attribute certificates are both required to protect healthcare information. From a typical medical scenario, we see not only static but also dynamic permissions are required. Dynamic authorization maybe the most complex problem in e-health systems.
    • THE IMPACT OF XML SECURITY STANDARDS ON MANAGING POST PROCESSED TELEMETRY DATA

      Kalibjian, Jeffrey R.; Hewlett Packard Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      Today many organizations use the Secure Sockets Layer protocol (SSL, now known as TLS, or Transport Layer Security) to secure post processed telemetry data transmitted over internal or external Internet Protocol (IP) networks. While TLS secures data traveling over a network, it does not protect data after it reaches its end point. In the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) layer model, TLS falls several layers below the application category. This implies that applications utilizing data delivered by TLS have no way of evaluating whether data has been compromised before TLS encryption (from a source), or after TLS decryption (at the destination). This security “gap” can be addressed by adoption of a security infrastructure that allows security operations to be abstracted at an OSI application level.
    • RESEARCH AND IMPLEMENTATION OF MOBILE BANK BASED ON SSL

      Meihong, Li; Qishan, Zhang; Jun, Wang; Beihang University; Beijing University Of Post And Telecommunication (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      SSL protocol is one industrial standard to protect data transferred securely on Internet. Firstly SSL is analyzed, according to its characteristics, one solution plan on mobile bank based on SSL is proposed and presented, in which GPRS technology is adopted and elliptic curve algorithm is used for the session key, finally several functional modules of mobile bank are designed in details and its security is analyzed.
    • The Promise of Wireless Interfaces Onboard Spacecraft

      Plummer, Chris; Magness, Rodger; Cotectic Ltd; European Space Agency (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      Wireless interfaces are becoming ubiquitous in terrestrial applications ranging from local area networking in business and commercial environments to large scale factory automation and process control. The pressure to develop these wireless interfacing techniques has come from the need to reduce cabling, reduce installation costs, and make it easier to extend network infrastructures. Concerns about electromagnetic compatibility, safety, reliability, and security have lead to the development of techniques and protocols that enable such wireless interfaces to be operated in electromagnetically harsh environments, without generating unacceptable interference, and providing reliable, dependable and secure data communications. On the face of it, the use of wireless interfaces onboard spacecraft looks like a good way of reducing the spacecraft harness mass and bulk. However, recent work by the European Space Agency has shown that, while harness reduction will undoubtedly be one benefit of using wireless interfaces, they offer many other benefits that will be more significant in the near future. Amongst these are significant advantages during integration and testing, the ability to retrofit and upgrade facilities, and cable replacement in moving structures such as robotic arms. In this paper we briefly survey the benefits of wireless interface technologies for spacecraft onboard use, and identify the challenges involved in adapting them for flight use. We then look at the considerations that should be taken into account in establishing the financial case for developing wireless interface technologies for flight applications.
    • STANDARD USER DATA SERVICES FOR SPACECRAFT APPLICATIONS

      Smith, Joseph F.; Hwang, Chailan; Fowell, Stuart; Plummer, Chris; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; SciSys; Cotectic, Ltd. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is an international organization of national space agencies that is branching out to provide new standards to enhanced reuse of spacecraft equipment and software. These Spacecraft Onboard Interface (SOIF) standards will be directed towards a spacecraft architecture, as a distributed system of processors and busses. This paper will review the services that are being proposed for SOIF. These services include a Command and Data Acquisition Service, a Time Distribution Service, a Message Transfer Service, a File Transfer Service, and a CCSDS Packet Service. An Instrument & Subsystem “Plug & Play Service is currently under study, but is included in this paper for completeness.
    • INTRODUCTION TO STANDARDIZED SPACECRAFT ONBOARD INTERFACES

      Smith, Joseph F.; Plummer, Chris; Plancke, Patrick; Jet Propulsion Laboratory; Cotectic Ltd; European Space Agency (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), an international organization of national space agencies, is branching out to provide new standards to enhanced reuse of onboard spacecraft equipment and software. These Spacecraft Onboard Interface (SOIF) standards will be based on the well-known Internet protocols. This paper will provide a description of the SOIF work by describing three orthogonal views: the Services View that describes data communications services, the Interoperability view shows how to exchange data and messages between different spacecraft elements, and the Protocol view, that describes the SOIF protocols and services. This paper will give the reader an excellent introduction to the work of the international SOIF team.
    • STANDARD SPACECRAFT INTERFACES AND IP NETWORK ARCHITECTURES: PROTOTYPING ACTIVITIES AT THE GSFC

      Schnurr, Richard; Marquart, Jane; Lin, Michael; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      Advancements in flight semiconductor technology have opened the door for IP-based networking in spacecraft architectures. The GSFC believes the same significant cost savings gained using MILSTD- 1553/1773 as a standard low rate interface for spacecraft busses can be realized for highspeed network interfaces. To that end, GSFC is developing hardware and software to support a seamless, space mission IP network based on Ethernet and MIL-STD-1553. The Ethernet network shall connect all flight computers and communications systems using interface standards defined by the CCSDS Standard Onboard InterFace (SOIF) Panel. This paper shall discuss the prototyping effort underway at GSFC and expected results.
    • PEER-TO-PEER NETWORKING WITH TELEMETRY RECORDERS

      Kortick, David N.; Astro-Med, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      Telemetry recorders have historically been used as standalone systems with each user responsible for operation and data interpretation on that system. Utilizing the latest peerto- peer networking technologies, telemetry recorders can now be linked to provide instantaneous communication between systems. This fully distributed, network-based architecture can be used for command and control of multiple recorders, as well as message passing between them. A centralized server is no longer required, resulting in considerable logistical and cost savings. The peer-to-peer communication topology can efficiently connect telemetry recorder “islands of information”.
    • ENTERPRISE DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

      Garling, James; Cahill, David; Edwards Air Force Base; EMC Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2003-10)
      This paper discusses ongoing regulatory effects on efforts aimed at developing data infrastructures that assist test engineers in achieving information superiority and for maintaining their information, and on possible architectural frameworks for resolving the engineer’s need versus the regulatory requirements. Since current commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) Enterprise Content Management (ECM) systems are targeted primarily at business environments such as back office applications, financial sectors, and manufacturing, these COTS systems do not provide sufficient focus for managing the unique aspects of flight test data and associated artifacts (documents, drawings, pretest data, etc.). This paper presents our ongoing efforts for deploying a storage infrastructure independent enterprise data management system for maintaining vital up-to-date information and for managing the archival of such data.