• MIMO CHANNEL TIME VARIATION AS A FUNCTION OF MOBILE USER VELOCITY

      Panagos, Adam G.; Kosbar, Kurt; University of Missouri – Rolla (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The analysis of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems often assumes a static, or quasi-static, environment. Platform motion and changes in the environment makes this an unreasonable assumption for many telemetry applications. This paper uses computer simulations to characterize the time variation of MIMO channel parameters when there is relative motion between the transmitter and receiver. These simulation results yield explicit time intervals over which a MIMO channel can be considered static for a given relative velocity and propagation environment. These results can be used to predict the practical limitations of proposed MIMO system algorithms.
    • FIREWIRE: THE NEW 1553?

      Blott, Michaela; ACRA CONTROL (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      MIL-STD-1553 has served the flight community well. However, in recent years several new high-speed bus standards have emerged that outperform 1553 in various respects such as data throughput and increased address space. During this time, mission requirements - including video and audio - have become more data intensive. Although some of these busses were not initially designed for the avionics industry (such as Ethernet, FireWire, and FibreChannel), they are potentially of interest as high-speed commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) solutions for both set-up and data acquisition. These busses offer not only improved overall system performance, in terms of aggregate sampling rates, but also simplify existing data acquisition system architectures. They require fewer high-bandwidth links which can serve for both set-up and data. This paper examines some of these issues, focusing in particular on IEEE1394, better known as FireWire.
    • EVALUATION OF CONSTANT ENVELOPE OFFSET QUADRATURE PHASE SHIFT KEYING TRANSMITTERS WITH A SOFTWARE BASED SIGNAL ANALYZER

      Jefferis, Robert P.; TYBRIN Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Off-line software based signal analysis can be a valuable tool for detailed examination of transmitter signal characteristics. This paper describes the Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) Constant Envelope (CE) offset quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK) modulation analyzer. It was developed expressly for evaluation of FQPSK-B^(1), FQPSK-JR and shaped OQPSK transmitter signals. Rationale for its creation, underlying assumptions, computation methods, and examples of its data products are presented.
    • THE RAH-66 COMANCHE NETWORKED BASED DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM

      Dehmelt, Chris; L3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Serial interfaces (RS232, RS422/485) have been the standard method of communications in traditional data acquisition systems. The role of these interfaces has been to supply a simple setup and control path between a host and the data acquisition master and little else. Today’s distributed data acquisition systems (DAS), which are comprised of many types of components including Ground Support Computers (GSC), Pilot Control Units (PCU), Data System Control Units (DSCU), Solid State Recorders (SSR), Data Acquisition Units (DAU) and Cockpit Instrumentation Data Systems (CIDS), are ideally suited to the use of Ethernet for not only setup functions, but for the distribution of acquired data and status to an unlimited number of users. Besides the obvious advantage of higher data rates, Ethernet provides other benefits such as greater data integrity, multi-host capability, and common programming interfaces. This paper details the integration of new L3 Communications - Telemetry East (L3-TE) Ethernet based software and hardware components that are part of the Comanche Data Systems equipment suite.
    • IntelliBus

      Rosenbauer, Tom; Cook, Paul; Rosenbauer Consulting; L-3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The IntelliBus network protocol provides an enabling technology for the next generation data acquisition system. IntelliBus provides greater data acquisition efficiency and reliability compared to other network protocols. This paper discusses the design considerations and implementation of a next generation Data Acquisition System incorporating IntelliBus with emphasis on the advantages of the new architecture over existing acquisition systems.
    • LDPC-BASED ITERATIVE JOINT SOURCE/CHANNEL DECODING SCHEME FOR JPEG2000

      Pu, Lingling; Wu, Zhenyu; Bilgin, Ali; Marcellin, Michael W.; Vasic, Bane; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper presents a joint source-channel decoding scheme based on a JPEG2000 source coder and an LDPC channel coder. At the encoder, JPEG2000 is used to perform source coding with certain error resilience (ER) modes, and LDPC codes are used to perform channel coding. At the decoder, after one iteration of LDPC decoding, the output codestream is then decoded by JPEG2000. With the error resilience mode switches on, the source decoder detects the position of the first error within each codeblock of the JPEG2000 codestream. This information is fed back to the channel decoder, and incorporated into the calculation of likelihood values of variable nodes for the next iteration of LDPC decoding. Our results indicate that the proposed method has significant gains over conventional separate channel and source decoding.
    • DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF WIRELESS FLUOROMETRY NETWORKS

      Doonan, Daniel J.; Wu, Mei-Su; Lee, Michael; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper presents the design and development of a fluorometry sensor network with LED excitation. The design of the electronics in junction with the capability of LED excitation will significantly reduce the size and costs of the flrorometer units. The coverage and effectiveness of the sensing and monitoring capability will also be greatly enhanced by the addition of the wireless networks.
    • Comparison of Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks

      Spinden, David; Jasper, Jeffrey; Kosbar, Kurt; University of Missouri – Rolla (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      There are a number of telemetry applications where it would be helpful to have networks of sensors that could autonomously discover their connectivity, and dynamically reconfigure themselves during use. A number of research groups have developed wireless ad-hoc sensor network systems. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in wireless ad-hoc networks, examining the features, assumptions, limitations and unique attributes of some of the more popular solutions to this problem.
    • REAL-TIME GPS ATTITUDE DETERMINATION SYSTEM BASED ON EPOCH-BY-EPOCH™ TECHNOLOGY

      Bock, Yehuda; Macdonald, Thomas J.; Merts, John H.; Spires, William H., III; Bock, Lydia; Fayman, Jeffrey A.; Geodetics Inc.; MacroVision; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      There are many civilian and military applications requiring precise attitude determination. Geodetics Inc. has demonstrated high-accuracy GPS attitude solutions using their Epoch-by- Epoch™ (EBE) technology. EBE technology provides computational algorithms for instantaneous differential GPS processing of raw GPS measurement data (pseudorange and carrier phase). One of the most significant advantages of EBE technology over conventional GPS Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) algorithms is in its instantaneous initialization and reinitialization capability. This capability eliminates re-initialization delays due to losses-oflock, such as occur during high-dynamic maneuvers. This paper provides empirical data that was gathered during a test program, sponsored by Eglin Air Force Base, to assess the performance in real time of EBE technology as it applies to attitude determination. Using simulated data from a high-dynamic (9’g) maneuver, EBE yielded real-time attitude with accuracy better than one tenth of a degree (0.038 - 0.083 degrees, one standard deviation), utilizing geodetic quality GPS receivers operating in dual- or single-frequency mode with antenna separation of 2 meters. GPS geodetic receivers with only single frequency capability yielded attitude with accuracy of between 0.044 - 0.176 degrees after 1.3% - 2.5% of the solutions were rejected as data outliers.
    • NETWORK TELEMETRY: A NEW DIGITAL ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR AIRBUS A380 AIRCRAFT

      Delarue, Xavier; IN-SNEC company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Based on a fourty year experience in Telemetry, acquired on the European Space Program, IN-SNEC company (Zodiac group) has designed a versatile, modular and customable telemetry system for Airbus A380 aircraft program. This Aircraft Telemetry System (TMA-2000) comes with a large set of acquisition boards allowing numerous digital and analog inputs. The major innovation of this system lies in its modularity which allows the user to configure his acquisition chain in function of his monitoring needs and the use of an Ethernet link for its configuration as well as for telemetry output data flow.
    • IEEE 1451 SMART TRANSDUCER STANDARDS: STATUS, GOING WIRELESS, AND PULLING IT ALL TOGETHER

      Jones, Charles H.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      There are seven parts of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1451 Smart Transducer family of standards either approved, in work, or in review. These documents are providing a nonproprietary set of standards for the implementation of smart transducers (i.e., sensors and actuators). This paper overviews these standards and their status. In particular, the IEEE P1451.5, which addresses wireless transducers, and the IEEE P1451.0, which will provide a common high level architecture for the entire family, will be discussed. A reference model, which is being used as a focus for the IEEE P1451.0, will be introduced to help show the relation between all the members of the family.
    • CHALLENGES TO FUTURE ON-BOARD FTI – SYSTEMS FOR FIGHTER TYPE AIRCRAFT

      Roth, Heinz; EADS Military Aircraft (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The system architecture of an onboard FTI-System is specifically designed to fulfil highly demanding flight test requirements. Since these flight test requirements are steadily increasing with the growing complexity of test aircraft and mission systems, a corresponding improvement in the performance of the FTI-Systems is mandatory to satisfy those flight test demands. In addition, the individual test flights have to provide the maximum of flight test data obtainable in order to improve test efficiency and to cut project costs. Increased performance, miniaturisation, more reduced design and installation costs are the challenges for future system architectures. The developments of commercial and consumer electronics have an increasing influence on the layout of FTI-Systems.
    • THE FUTURE OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAPH TELEMETRY SYSTEMS

      Burkhardt, Brian; Redstone Technical Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The Electrocardiograph (EKG or ECG) measures electrical changes of tissue surrounding the heart to create a time-based representation of the physical operation of the heart. The purpose of this paper is to explore the future of ECG telemetry systems and how they are used in health care. The initial goal is to develop an inexpensive, efficient, and robust real-time ECG telemetry system. The future goal is to create a wireless network of miniature body sensors capable of measuring ECG data and other vital signs.
    • TELEMETRY AND SERVICE CONVERGENCE IN MIXED PROTOCOL TEST RANGE NETWORKS

      Kovach, Bob; Terawave Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      In the past few years, an evolution has been occurring in test range network topologies. With the proliferation of IP-based networks at the desktop, range officers are seeking ways to extend IP-based networks to the test range, to derive the cost and operational benefits offered with IP technology. This transition is not without its own set of problems. The operational transition from the traditional, ATM-based ranges to IP-based ranges must be addressed. In many cases, it is desired to maintain the ATM range, and add IP capabilities as time and budget permits. The net result is that frequently a mixed protocol network emerges. Terawave Communications has been developing telemetry transport solutions for both ATM and IP-based networks, along with technology to enable convergence of additional services such as video, voice, and data across test ranges. Terawave has developed a solution for various network topologies from ATM-only and IP-only to mixed protocol implementations, which supports end-to-end interworking of telemetry, video, and additional services over mixed protocol networks. In this paper, Terawave will detail the implementation decisions made in the course of application development, and share a framework for enabling seamless intra- and inter- range communication of telemetry and mixed services.
    • LIDAR OUTGOING LASER ENERGY MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

      Reagan, John; Gibbons, Jasper; Moss, David; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      A flexible system has been designed to accurately measure and average the outgoing laser energy of a micro-pulse LIDAR unit (MPL). This system incorporates specifically designed analog measurement circuitry interfaced with a microcontroller, allowing researchers to manage experiments from a personal computer. The final system produces a linearly proportional response between an incident laser energy input and the analog and digital circuitry’s output, accurate to within 0.1%. Custom designed algorithms allow the system to average the energy measured in a series of pulses. Each series can range on the order of tens of thousands of pulses.
    • USING LABVIEW TO DESIGN A FAULT-TOLERANT LINK ESTABLISHMENT PROTOCOL

      Horan, Stephen; Deivasigamani, Giriprassad; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The design of a protocol for a satellite cluster link establishment and management that accounts for link corruption, node failures, and node re-establishment is presented in this paper. This protocol will need to manage the traffic flow between nodes in the satellite cluster, adjust routing tables due to node motion, allow for sub-networks in the cluster, and similar activities. This protocol development is in its initial stages and we will describe how we use the LabVIEW Sate Diagram tool kit to generate the code to design a state machine representing the protocol for the establishment of inter-satellite communications links.
    • SPACE-TIME CODED SOQPSK IN THE PRESENCE OF DIFFERENTIAL DELAYS

      Rice, Michael; Nelson, Tom; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper presents a method of detecting the Tier I modulation SOQPSK when it is used in a space-time coded (STC) system in which there is a non-negligible differential delay between the received signals. Space-time codes are useful to eliminate data dropouts which occur on aeronautical telemetry channels in which transmit diversity is employed. The proposed detection algorithm employs a trellis to detect the data while accounting for the offset between the in-phase and quadrature-phase components of the signals as well as the differential delay. The performance of the system is simulated and presented and it is shown that the STC eliminates the BER floor which results from the data dropouts.
    • AN OPEN ARCHITECTURE AND MIDDLEWARE FOR COLLECTIVE ROBOT TEAMS

      Marefat, Michael; Reagan, John; Lesmeister, Micah; Elhourani, Theodore; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      In this paper we propose an open multi-robot architecture that dramatically reduces the time to deployment and increases the utility value to the mainstream non-technical user. We describe a multi-robot behavior-based coordination architecture and argue its suitability in the context of general-purpose robot teams operating in dynamic and unpredictable environments. We then formalize and describe a command fusion module for the coordination of high-level behaviors of the system. The command fusion module is interfaced to our middle-ware/compiler that generates behavior selection tips from a user specified abstract description of a scenario. Finally, we utilize an example search and rescue scenario to illustrate the overall process and give preliminary results of the experiments performed on actual robots.
    • Analysis of Optimized Design Tradeoffs in Application of Wavelet Algorithms to Video Compression

      Wanis, Paul; Fairbanks, John S.; L-3 Communications Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Because all video compression schemes introduce artifacts into the compressed video images, degradation occurs. These artifacts, generated by a wavelet-based compression scheme, will vary with the compression ratio and input imagery, but do show some consistent patterns across applications. There are a number of design trade-offs that can be made to mitigate the effect of these artifacts. By understanding the artifacts introduced by video compression and being able to anticipate the amount of image degradation, the video compression can be configured in a manner optimal to the application under consideration in telemetry.
    • SIGNAL PROCESSING ALGORITHMS FOR HIGH-PRECISION NAVIGATION AND GUIDANCE FOR UNDERWATER AUTONOMOUS SENSING SYSTEMS

      Doonan, Daniel; Utley, Chris; Lee, Hua; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper presents an alternative approach to high-precision bearing estimation for navigation and guidance in homing and docking of underwater vehicles. This new technique is significantly simpler than the conventional methods in terms of computation complexity and yet produces results of superior precision and consistency.