• International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 40 (2004)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10
    • Comparison of Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks

      Spinden, David; Jasper, Jeffrey; Kosbar, Kurt; University of Missouri – Rolla (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      There are a number of telemetry applications where it would be helpful to have networks of sensors that could autonomously discover their connectivity, and dynamically reconfigure themselves during use. A number of research groups have developed wireless ad-hoc sensor network systems. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in wireless ad-hoc networks, examining the features, assumptions, limitations and unique attributes of some of the more popular solutions to this problem.

      Reagan, John; Gibbons, Jasper; Moss, David; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      A flexible system has been designed to accurately measure and average the outgoing laser energy of a micro-pulse LIDAR unit (MPL). This system incorporates specifically designed analog measurement circuitry interfaced with a microcontroller, allowing researchers to manage experiments from a personal computer. The final system produces a linearly proportional response between an incident laser energy input and the analog and digital circuitry’s output, accurate to within 0.1%. Custom designed algorithms allow the system to average the energy measured in a series of pulses. Each series can range on the order of tens of thousands of pulses.

      Kovach, Bob; Terawave Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      In the past few years, an evolution has been occurring in test range network topologies. With the proliferation of IP-based networks at the desktop, range officers are seeking ways to extend IP-based networks to the test range, to derive the cost and operational benefits offered with IP technology. This transition is not without its own set of problems. The operational transition from the traditional, ATM-based ranges to IP-based ranges must be addressed. In many cases, it is desired to maintain the ATM range, and add IP capabilities as time and budget permits. The net result is that frequently a mixed protocol network emerges. Terawave Communications has been developing telemetry transport solutions for both ATM and IP-based networks, along with technology to enable convergence of additional services such as video, voice, and data across test ranges. Terawave has developed a solution for various network topologies from ATM-only and IP-only to mixed protocol implementations, which supports end-to-end interworking of telemetry, video, and additional services over mixed protocol networks. In this paper, Terawave will detail the implementation decisions made in the course of application development, and share a framework for enabling seamless intra- and inter- range communication of telemetry and mixed services.
    • Implementation of A 30-Channel PCM Telemetry Encoder

      Kim, Jung Sup; Jang, Myung Jin; Agency for Defense Development (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The function of a PCM telemetry encoder, installed in moving vehicles such as automobiles, aircraft, missiles, and artillery projectiles, is to transform many physical variables, such as velocity, shock, temperature, vibration and pressure, into digital data. Also, the encoder is required to make a data frame composed of digital input signals and frame synchronous data. The framed data is supplied to the input of a transmitter. There are three critical considerations in developing a PCM telemetry encoder to be installed in an artillery projectile. The first is the performance consideration, such as sampling rate, data receiving rate and data transmission rate. The second is the size consideration due to the severely limited installation space in an artillery projectile and the last is the power consumption consideration due to limitations of the munition’s power supply. To meet these three considerations, the best alternative is a one-chip solution. Using a commercially available TMS320F2812 DSP chip, we have implemented a 30-channel PCM telemetry encoder to process randomized data frames, composed of 16-channel analog data, 14-channel digital data and 2 frame synchronization data per data frame, at 10Mbps transmission baud rate. This paper describes the structure of the 30-channel PCM telemetry encoder and its performance.

      Bell, John J. (Jack); Mileshko, James; Payne, Edward L.; Wagler, Paul; ViaSat, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper will present the design of a network used to receive and record sensor data and provide voice communications between a flight controller and the pilot of an aircraft undergoing flight testing in remote areas. The network utilizes a completely self-contained mobile tracking subsystem to receive and relay the sensor data and cockpit voice in real-time over a geostationary satellite. In addition to the aircraft tracking and data/voice relay functions, the system also provides local data recording at the mobile station, telephone and intercom connectivity between the mobile station and the control center, and remote equipment setup via the satellite link.

      Ono, Sashi; Lee, Hua; University of California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper describes a new approach to object recognition by using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) imaging systems. The recognition procedure utilizes the spectral content instead of the object shape in traditional methods. To produce the identification feature of an object, the most common spectral component is obtained by singular value decomposition (SVD) of the training sets. The identification process is then integrated into the backward propagation image reconstruction algorithm, which is implemented on the FMCW GPR imaging systems.

      Hudgins, B. Gene; Lucas, Jason; TENA; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The Foundation Initiative 2010 (FI 2010) project, sponsored by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP), has developed and is continuing to refine a common architecture and requisite software used to integrate testing, training, and simulation systems distributed across many DoD test and training range facilities. The Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA), has been successfully implemented on DoD and commercial range instrumentation systems, used as a reusable enabler of distributed, live United States Joint Forces Command (USJFCOM) and Joint National Training Capability (JNTC) exercises.
    • Using Telemetry Front-end Equipment and Network Attached Storage Connected to Form a Real-time Data Recording and Playback System

      Gatton, Tim; General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The use of traditional telemetry decommutation equipment can be easily expanded to create a real-time pulse code modulation (PCM) telemetry data recorder. However, there are two areas that create unique demands where architectural investment is required: the PCM output stage and the storage stage. This paper details the efforts to define the requirements and limits of a traditional telemetry system when used as a real-time, multistream PCM data recorder with time tagging.

      Achtzehnter, Joachim; Hauck, Preston; NetAcquire Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper describes the TENA architecture, which has been proposed by the Foundation Initiative 2010 (FI 2010) project as the basis for future US Test Range software systems. The benefits of this new architecture are explained by comparing the future TENA-enabled range infrastructure with the current situation of largely non-interoperable range resources. Legacy equipment and newly acquired off-the-shelf equipment that does not directly support TENA can be integrated into a TENA environment using TENA Gateways. This paper focuses on issues related to the construction of such gateways, including the important issue of real-time requirements when dealing with real-world data acquisition instruments. The benefits of leveraging commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) Data Acquisition Systems that are based on true real-time operating systems are discussed in the context of TENA Gateway construction.

      Fernandes, Ronald; Graul, Michael; Meric, Burak; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper presents a new approach for the effective generation of translator scripts that can be used to automate the translation of data display configurations from one vendor format to another. Our approach uses the IDEF5 ontology description method to capture the ontology of each vendor format and provides simple rules for performing mappings. In addition, the method includes the specification of mappings between a language-specific ontology and its corresponding syntax specification, that is, either an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) Schema or Document Type Description (DTD). Finally, we provide an algorithm for automatically generating eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT) scripts that transform XML documents from one language to another. The method is implemented in a graphical tool called the Data Display Translator Generator (DDTG) that supports both inter-language (ontology-to-ontology) and intra-language (syntax-to-ontology) mappings and generates the XSLT scripts. The tool renders the XML Schema or DTD as trees, provides intuitive, user-friendly interfaces for performing the mappings, and provides a report of completed mappings. It also generates data type conversion code when both the source and target syntaxes are XML Schema-based. Our approach has the advantage of performing language mappings at an abstract, ontology level, and facilitates the mapping of tool ontologies to a common domain ontology (in our case, Data Display Markup Language or DDML), thereby eliminating the O(n^2) mapping problem that involves a number of data formats in the same domain.

      Jensen, Michael A.; Rice, Michael D.; Nelson, Thomas; Anderson, Adam L.; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Transmit diversity schemes such as the Alamouti space-time code have been shown to be viable candidates to enable robust dual-antenna transmission from maneuvering air vehicles. However, due to the complicated structure of shaped offset quadrature phase shift keying (SOQPSK) modulation, the Alamouti approach has not been applicable to SOQPSK systems. This paper develops a precoding and detection algorithm which allows implementation of dual-antenna Alamouti signaling for SOQPSK modulation. Performance simulations demonstrate the performance of the scheme for a realistic flight scenario.

      Bin, Xu; XiaoLin, Zhang; Guolei, Lu; Weiwei, Hu; Beihang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper discusses the design and implementation of the base station telemetry data processing system for the unmanned helicopter. The system designed is composed of code synchronizer, decoding and frame synchronizer as well as PCI bus interface. The functions of the system are implemented with very large integrated circuits and a standard PCI inserted card that is compact and easy to install. The result of flight performance tests shows that the system is reliable and can satisfy the requirements of telemetry system for unmanned helicopters.

      Hicks, William T.; Yantorno, Robert E.; Temple University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      IRIG-106 Chapter 5 describes a method for encoding voice using a simple circuit to reduce the overall bit rate and still achieve good quality voice. This well described Continuously Variable Slope Delta Modulation (CVSD) circuit can be obtained using analog parts. A more stable implementation of CVSD can be obtained by designing an anti-aliasing input filter, an A/D converter, and logic. This paper describes one implementation of the CVSD using a standard A/D converter and logic.
    • Challenges of Optimizing Multiple Modulation Schemes in Transponder Design

      Fairbanks, John S.; L-3 Communications, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Increasing gate counts in FPGA’s create an option of offering multiple waveform demodulation and modulation within a single transponder transceiver. Differing data rates, channel schemes, and network protocols can be addressed with the flexibility of software-based demodulation and modulation. Increased satellite longevity and reliability are benefits of software-based transceiver design. Newer packaging technology offers additional capability in reducing form factor and weight of a transponder. A review of the challenges in combining each of the above to produce the next generation of transponders is the subject of this paper.

      Brown, K. D.; Allen, Chris; NNSA-KCP; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper describes a flexible telemetry data link developed by National Nuclear Safety Administration’s Kansas City Plant (NNSA-KCP) and the University of Kansas (KU) in support of NNSA’s Remote Sensing Laboratory (NNSA-RSL) located at the Nevada Test Site. This data link is based on a beam steerable phased array antenna (PAA). The paper describes the PAA and the Airborne Measurement System (AMS) application requiring signal source tracking. It highlights flight test data collected during recent flight testing on the Nevada Test Site for the AMS.

      Zettwoch, Robert N.; The Boeing Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      More and more aircraft system designs are incorporating a local-area-network (LAN) using either Fibre Channel (FC) or Ethernet. To date there hasn’t been a means for creating a FC node connection between an airborne network and a ground based FC network or for creating a reliable high-speed Ethernet connection between air and ground. Ethernet connections have had some success by using the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN for these types of connections; however, these connections suffer from many inherent problems using this standard. Problems include the lack of telemetry spectrum control, security validation, high-speed data transfer efficiency, and channel acquisition time. This paper will describe a methodology that utilizes the IRIG-106 PCM standard for communicating between aircraft and ground-based networks. PCM can solve the aforementioned problems and it enables the user to take advantage of the many ARTM advances in PCM telemetry technology [1]. One such advance in technology has been the use of SOQPSK (Tier 1) or Multi-h CPM (Tier 2) to enable the user to effectively double or more their bandwidth efficiency compared to PCM/FM (or CPFSK) (Tier 0).

      Shah, Vishal; Cooklev, Todor; IEEE (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      IEEE 802.11e is an amendment of the medium-access control (MAC) layer of the standard for wireless local area networking IEEE 802.11. The goal of 802.11e is to provide 802.11 networks with Quality of Service (QoS). 802.11 has three physical layers (PHY) of practical importance: 802.11b, 802.11a, and 802.11g. 802.11a and 802.11g provide data rates between 6 and 54 Mbps, and 802.11b provides data rates of 5.5 Mbps and 11 Mbps. However these data rates are not the actual throughput. The actual throughput that a user will experience will be lower. The throughput depends on both the PHY and MAC layers. It is important to estimate what exactly is the throughput when the physical layer is 802.11a, 802.11b, or 802.11g, and the MAC layer is 802.11e. In other words, how does providing QoS change the throughput for each of the three physical layers? In this paper we provide answers to this problem. Analytic formulae are derived. The maximum achievable throughput and minimum delay involved in data transfers are determined. The obtained results have further significance for the design of high-throughput wireless protocols.

      Baker, Grady; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The purpose of this paper is to present the use of production aircraft equipment and wiring for control of the onboard instrumentation system. The major advantages and challenges associated with the use of existing production equipment versus dedicated instrumentation wiring and hardware will be explored. Many of the issues raised, including non-interference with existing avionics, are complex. It is the hope of the author that this paper will generate awareness and discussion on these issues.

      Perrins, Erik; Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The ARTM Tier-2 waveform, called “ARTM CPM” in IRIG 106-04, has almost three times the spectral efficiency of PCM/FM and approximately the same detection efficiency. The improved spectral efficiency comes at the price of computational complexity in the receiver. The optimum receiver requires 128 real-valued matched filters and keeps track of the waveform state with a trellis of 512 states and 2048 branches. Various complexity reducing techniques are applied and the resulting loss in detection efficiency is quantified. It is shown that the full 512-state trellis is not required to achieve the desired detection efficiency: two different 32-state configurations were found to perform within one tenth of a dB of optimal. Noncoherent techniques are also evaluated. It is shown that the required complexity can be quite large to achieve a respectable detection efficiency. One noncoherent technique performed within 1.9 dB of the optimal with only 64 states, which is significant when considering the additional complexity savings of not having to track the carrier phase.