• Using Telemetry Front-end Equipment and Network Attached Storage Connected to Form a Real-time Data Recording and Playback System

      Gatton, Tim; General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The use of traditional telemetry decommutation equipment can be easily expanded to create a real-time pulse code modulation (PCM) telemetry data recorder. However, there are two areas that create unique demands where architectural investment is required: the PCM output stage and the storage stage. This paper details the efforts to define the requirements and limits of a traditional telemetry system when used as a real-time, multistream PCM data recorder with time tagging.
    • XML: A GLOBAL STANDARD FOR THE FLIGHT TEST COMMUNITY

      Corry, Diarmuid; Cooke, Alan; ACRA CONTROL (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Much effort has been spent on developing physical layer standards to ease multi-vendor inter-operability. However as anyone familiar with real-life system integration knows a large gap exists in defining system configuration and set-up, not just between vendors but also between different groups on the base. Different solutions to this problem have been attempted (for example TMATS). However, the emergence of XML (eXtensible Markup Language) as a commercial standard presents a new opportunity to define a powerful and extensible tool for data-interchange between different systems. This paper introduces the self-documenting standard for information exchange that is XML. A generic model for flight test data acquisition is presented. Finally, an XML vocabulary (or schema) based on this model is proposed. This schema could form the basis for an industry wide XML standard to simplify the problem of data interchange between vendors, between programs, even between different databases in the same organisation.
    • Using the CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) on the Global Precipitation Measurement mission

      Ray, Tim; NASA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) developed the CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) to provide reliable delivery of files across space links. Space links are typically intermittent, requiring flexibility on the part of CFDP. Some aspects of that flexibility will be highlighted in this paper, which discusses the planned use of CFDP on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. The operational scenario for GPM involves reliable downlink of science data files at a high datarate (approximately 4 megabits per second) over a space link that is not only intermittent, but also one-way most of the time. This paper will describe how that scenario is easily handled by CFDP, despite the fact that reliable delivery requires a feedback loop.
    • HARDWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OFA MULTI-CHANNEL GPS SIMULATOR

      Yuhong, Zhu; Yanhong, Kou; Qing, Chang; Qishan, Zhang; BeiHang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Hardware architecture and design details of a multi-channel GPS signal simulator with highly flexibility is presented, while the dynamic performance objectives and the requirements on the hardware architecture are discussed. The IF part of the simulator is implemented almost entirely in the digital domain by use of a field programmable gate array (FPGA), which mainly include C/A code generators, carrier generators, spreaders, and BPSK modulators. The results of testing the proposed simulator hardware architecture at IF with the help of a GPS receiver are presented.
    • THE BASE STATION TELEMETRY DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM FOR UNMANNED HELICOPTERS

      Bin, Xu; XiaoLin, Zhang; Guolei, Lu; Weiwei, Hu; Beihang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper discusses the design and implementation of the base station telemetry data processing system for the unmanned helicopter. The system designed is composed of code synchronizer, decoding and frame synchronizer as well as PCI bus interface. The functions of the system are implemented with very large integrated circuits and a standard PCI inserted card that is compact and easy to install. The result of flight performance tests shows that the system is reliable and can satisfy the requirements of telemetry system for unmanned helicopters.
    • EFFECTS OF NON- LINEAR AMPLIFICATION ON N-GMSK AND N-FQPSK SIGNAL STATISTICS

      Gonzalez, Maria C.; Branner, George R.; University of California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Digital modulation schemes that are power and bandwidth efficient are highly desirable. After non-linear amplification has been done, signal modulation schemes having constant or quasi-constant envelopes are not as susceptible to spectral regrowth as those with non-constant envelopes. Since such distortion generates interference in the adjacent channels, the power operation of the amplifier in non-constant envelope modulations is typically backed off, resulting in systems with reduced power efficiency. On the other hand, constant envelope modulation may have different bandwidth spectra. This paper examines the statistical characteristics of N-GMSK and N-FQPSK [1] signals to assess the bandwidth efficiency in the presence of amplifier nonlinearities.
    • A FEASIBLE ARCHITECTURE FOR LARGE AREA OTH C^2 AND DATA COLLECTION, LEVERAGING DEVELOPED COMMERCIAL TECHNOLOGIES

      Power, Emilio J.; Reliable System Services Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Reliable System Services Corporation (RSS Corp.) presents the feasibility of a low cost, low power, high capacity, robust RF Communications Network using SATCOM and UAV relays. The developed architecture will be suitable for OTH Large Area Test and Training exercises as well as applications for OTH Digital Battlefield scenarios. A specific application is shown for the planned Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) missions, although the developed architecture will have broader applications for any surface combatant requiring an Over-the-Horizon (OTH) data link to distributed players and sensors. A conceptual design for the IP network radio system will implement RSS Corp. developed secure IRIDIUM global full duplex data links and Harris Corp. developed long range high bandwidth 802.11 full duplex data links. The results will be significant, and the developed system could be a cornerstone of the future digital battlefield combat communications architecture. The developed technology will also have significant use in any application for Test, Evaluation and Training Ranges requiring net centric, command/control and wide bandwidth TLM data collection from distributed remote players and sensors.
    • THROUGHPUT AND LATENCY PERFORMANCE OF IEEE 802.11E WITH 802.11A, 802.11B, AND 802.11G PHYSICAL LAYERS

      Shah, Vishal; Cooklev, Todor; IEEE (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      IEEE 802.11e is an amendment of the medium-access control (MAC) layer of the standard for wireless local area networking IEEE 802.11. The goal of 802.11e is to provide 802.11 networks with Quality of Service (QoS). 802.11 has three physical layers (PHY) of practical importance: 802.11b, 802.11a, and 802.11g. 802.11a and 802.11g provide data rates between 6 and 54 Mbps, and 802.11b provides data rates of 5.5 Mbps and 11 Mbps. However these data rates are not the actual throughput. The actual throughput that a user will experience will be lower. The throughput depends on both the PHY and MAC layers. It is important to estimate what exactly is the throughput when the physical layer is 802.11a, 802.11b, or 802.11g, and the MAC layer is 802.11e. In other words, how does providing QoS change the throughput for each of the three physical layers? In this paper we provide answers to this problem. Analytic formulae are derived. The maximum achievable throughput and minimum delay involved in data transfers are determined. The obtained results have further significance for the design of high-throughput wireless protocols.
    • CVSD MODULATOR USING VHDL

      Hicks, William T.; Yantorno, Robert E.; Temple University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      IRIG-106 Chapter 5 describes a method for encoding voice using a simple circuit to reduce the overall bit rate and still achieve good quality voice. This well described Continuously Variable Slope Delta Modulation (CVSD) circuit can be obtained using analog parts. A more stable implementation of CVSD can be obtained by designing an anti-aliasing input filter, an A/D converter, and logic. This paper describes one implementation of the CVSD using a standard A/D converter and logic.
    • A NEW CLASS OF PRECISION UTC AND FREQUENCY REFERENCE USING IS-95 CDMA BASE STATION TRANSMISSIONS

      Penrod, Bruce M.; EndRun Technologies (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      A new class of precision timing and frequency reference is introduced that indirectly receives GPS timing and frequency information via TIA/EIA Standard IS-95 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) mobile telecommunications base station transmissions. Like cell phones, these products operate indoors without external antennas and provide accuracy, low cost and ease of installation. The technology fits particularly well in IP network synchronization and quality-of-service monitoring applications where rooftop antenna installation is often impossible. The salient characteristics of the IS-95 CDMA signals that make them suitable for this purpose and a general CDMA timing receiver architecture are described. Performance data versus similar references that use conventional GPS reception are also presented.
    • A STATUS REPORT OF THE JOINT ADVANCED MISSILE INSTRUMENTATION PROJECT JAMI SYSTEM INTEGRATION

      Powell, Dave; Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Joint Advanced Missile Instrumentation (JAMI), a Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) initiative, is developing advanced telemetry system components that can be used in an integrated instrumentation package for tri-service small missile test and training applications. JAMI demonstrated significant improvement in the performance of low-cost Global Positioning System (GPS) based Time-Space-Position Information (TSPI) tracking hardware that can be used for world-wide test and training. Acquisition times of less than 3 seconds from a cold start and tracking dynamics to over 60 Gs were demonstrated. The design of a programmable Flight Termination Safe and Arm device has been completed. High dynamic testing results of GPS and Inertial measurement Unit (IMU) devices and problems encountered are discussed. Actual testing data will be compared with the original system design requirements. Integration of the JAMI components into weapon systems is now underway. This paper discusses the progress of the program during the past year and the efforts planned for the final year of 2005.
    • A GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE MIMO CHANNEL SIMULATOR

      Panagos, Adam G.; Kosbar, Kurt; University of Missouri – Rolla (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems are attracting attention because their channel capacity can exceed single-input single-output systems, with no increase in bandwidth. While MIMO systems offer substantial capacity improvements, it can be challenging to characterize and verify their channel models. This paper describes a software MIMO channel simulator with a graphical user interface that allows the user to easily investigate a number of MIMO channel characteristics for a channel recently proposed by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).
    • FROM 0.5% TO 0.05%: ACHIEVING NEW LEVELS OF SENSOR ACCURACY IN AN AIRBORNE ENVIRONMENT

      Sweeney, Paul; ACRA CONTROL Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      With recent improvements in data acquisition technology, it is now possible to use an FTI data acquisition system to measure analog signals with a total error from all sources of less than 0.05% - over an extended temperature range - and at high sample rates. This accuracy is better than one count of an old 10-bit system and includes non-linearities, initial errors (in gain, offset and excitation) and drift errors, simplifying the task of interpreting data acquisition system performance specifications. This paper looks at some practical steps taken to achieve this accuracy, from a hardware design and signal processing perspective. This leads to a discussion of implications for the FTI system designer, including: sensor and wiring specifications, sample rate, filtering specifications, and a discussion of implications for the data processing engineers.
    • REACTIVE GRASP WITH PATH RELINKING FOR BROADCAST SCHEDULING

      Commander, Clayton W.; Butenko, Sergiy I.; Pardalos, Panos M.; Oliveira, Carlos A.S.; Eglin Air Force Base; Texas A&M University; University of Florida (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The Broadcast Scheduling Problem (BSP) is a well known NP-complete problem that arises in the study of wireless networks. In the BSP, a finite set of stations are to be scheduled in a time division multiple access (TDMA) frame. The objective is a collision free transmission schedule with the minimum number of TDMA slots and maximal slot utilization. Such a schedule will minimize the total system delay. We present variations of a Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) for the BSP. Path-relinking, a post-optimization strategy is applied. Also, a reactivity method is used to balance GRASP parameters. Numerical results of our research are reported and compared with other heuristics from the literature.
    • ENERGY-AWARE SENSOR MAC PROTOCOLS

      Balakrishnan, Manikanden; Ramakrishnan, Subah; Huang, Hong; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Sensor network applications typically require continuous monitoring of physical phenomena for extended periods of time under severe energy resource constraints. Accordingly, design considerations for sensor Media Access Control (MAC) protocols depart significantly from those of traditional wireless MAC protocols that largely ignore the energy factor. In this paper, we reexamine the design space of wireless sensor MAC protocols and modify IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) to incorporate energy-adaptive contention mechanisms for prolonging sensor lifetime. Performance of the proposed schemes is evaluated with DCF as a baseline and results indicate the benefits of energy-aware mechanisms for sensor MAC protocols.
    • IEEE P1451.0 CORE TEDS AND COMMON COMMAND SET

      Eccles, Lee H.; Jones, Charles H.; Boeing Commercial Airplane Company; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The Technical Committee 9 (TC-9) of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Instrument and Measurement Society wants to ensure that all members of the IEEE 1451 family of standards conform to a common set of basic functionality and have, at some level, a common interface. To this end, the IEEE p1451.0 working group has been chartered to prepare an overarching standard that will define the operation of the other members of the family while still leaving the physical interface up to the various other standards working groups. The IEEE p1451.0 will define the general functionality required of an IEEE 1451 transducer, a common command set that is appropriate to all family members, and the core set of transducer electronic data sheets (TEDS). This paper gives a brief overview of the overall functionality and follows that with a description of the commands and the TEDS.
    • SIGNAL PROCESSING ALGORITHMS FOR HIGH-PRECISION NAVIGATION AND GUIDANCE FOR UNDERWATER AUTONOMOUS SENSING SYSTEMS

      Doonan, Daniel; Utley, Chris; Lee, Hua; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper presents an alternative approach to high-precision bearing estimation for navigation and guidance in homing and docking of underwater vehicles. This new technique is significantly simpler than the conventional methods in terms of computation complexity and yet produces results of superior precision and consistency.
    • AN ALTERNATE PROPOSAL FOR ARTM CPM

      Rice, Michael; Perrins, Erik; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Since the Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) program first proposed the use of multi-h continuous phase modulation (ARTM CPM), there has been much work done to characterize the performance of this waveform. The ideal performance of ARTM CPM is well understood and has been shown to be close to that of PCM/FM and the Tier I modulations (FQPSK-B and SOQPSK). In practice, however, ARTM CPM is very sensitive to phase noise at the receiver and also requires very long synchronization times. These difficulties can be addressed with additional link margin. In this paper we propose an alternate set of modulation indexes which are approximately 2 dB superior in performance with respect to the original set (we use minimum distance concepts to characterize the performance of each set). Brief consideration is also given to frequency pulses other than the existing raised cosine (RC) pulse. We also characterize the effect these new parameters have on the signal spectrum. This 2 dB gain gives ARTM CPM some of the system flexibility currently enjoyed by PCM/FM and the Tier I modulations. One such option is to realize this 2 dB gain using low-complexity coherent detection schemes, which we demonstrate; we also show a noncoherent detection scheme that performs within 2 dB of optimum (or in other words, it has the same performance as the existing coherent detector for ARTM CPM). This is significant since noncoherent detection avoids some of the synchronization burdens that have plagued ARTM CPM thus far.
    • PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ETHERNET LAN BASED DISTRIBUTED TELEMETRY DATA NETWORK AND ITS EXTENSION USING ROUTER AND BRIDGE

      Sadhukhan, Gautam; Vinodia, Deepak; Sandhu, Manmohan; Integrated Test Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper evaluates the performance as well as effectiveness of the High Speed Ethernet LANBased Distributed Telemetry Data Network Architecture. It also attempts to obtain a feasible solution for the Extension of LAN over High Performance Digital Modem via Routers and Bridges. With the advent of highly efficient broadband TCP/IP network and rapid growth of data traffic demand in the area of Telemetry Data Acquisition and Processing, one has to adopt a high bit rate PCM Telemetry Data Stream with the strategy of distributed task scheduling in multiprocessor environment. The proposed Telemetry System Architecture is adopted as a milestone to Modern Telemetry system. It incorporates various value added services for the performance evaluation of various flight vehicles providing authenticated data. This paper shows that by configuring the IP addresses of various nodes and router / bridges with V.35 interfaces, it is possible to extend the Telemetry Data on a local LAN to the remote LAN for display and high speed processing in real time. Necessary comparisons of performance of the existing to the proposed systems are presented.
    • IEEE 1451 SMART TRANSDUCER STANDARDS: STATUS, GOING WIRELESS, AND PULLING IT ALL TOGETHER

      Jones, Charles H.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      There are seven parts of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1451 Smart Transducer family of standards either approved, in work, or in review. These documents are providing a nonproprietary set of standards for the implementation of smart transducers (i.e., sensors and actuators). This paper overviews these standards and their status. In particular, the IEEE P1451.5, which addresses wireless transducers, and the IEEE P1451.0, which will provide a common high level architecture for the entire family, will be discussed. A reference model, which is being used as a focus for the IEEE P1451.0, will be introduced to help show the relation between all the members of the family.