• THE BASE STATION TELEMETRY DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM FOR UNMANNED HELICOPTERS

      Bin, Xu; XiaoLin, Zhang; Guolei, Lu; Weiwei, Hu; Beihang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper discusses the design and implementation of the base station telemetry data processing system for the unmanned helicopter. The system designed is composed of code synchronizer, decoding and frame synchronizer as well as PCI bus interface. The functions of the system are implemented with very large integrated circuits and a standard PCI inserted card that is compact and easy to install. The result of flight performance tests shows that the system is reliable and can satisfy the requirements of telemetry system for unmanned helicopters.
    • THE BATTLE OF THE BANDS

      Willis, Donald; Federal Aviation Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Exclusive and globally allocated radio spectrum is essential for safe and efficient air travel. This paper will focus on the impact of changes in both U.S. and international radio spectrum policy, describe the issues these changes have raised for the aeronautical community, and examine a few proposed solutions. First, the paper will put the Federal Aviation Administration in the context of the test and evaluation community. Common frequency usage will be examined and the major interactions between the Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Defense, and commercial sector test and evaluation activities. The paper will provide a review of several U.S. spectrum policies from the early-to-mid 90’s which set the stage for the current domestic spectrum policy debates. For example, spectrum auctioning was formally established in the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 and further expanded in the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Both of these Acts directed the transfer of radio spectrum that was allocated solely for Federal Government use to the private sector. These reallocations also set the stage for more recent domestic spectrum policy debates, such as that over ultrawideband devices, broadband service over powerline carrier, third generation wireless, and other new technologies that claim the ability to “share” radio spectrum with other existing users. The paper will also review international spectrum policy changes that were made within the International Telecommunication Union and their impact on aeronautical radio spectrum. These include reallocation of aeronautical radio spectrum for uses such as wireless local area networks and fixed satellite links. Yet another cause of reduction in the amount of aeronautical radio spectrum will be reviewed…that is, the increase in aeronautical requirements with no attendant increase in the overall aeronautical radio spectrum available. These increasing requirements include such critical spectrum needs as Global Navigation Satellite System modernization, growing applications which use very high frequency (VHF) air/ground radio spectrum, new automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast services, increased aeronautical telemetry needs, and use of unmanned aerial vehicles in the national airspace. This growth has resulted in increasing spectrum congestion in bands that support critical safety services for international civil aviation. Finally, the paper will consider potential solutions to the shortage of aeronautical radio spectrum. These solutions include use of new advanced technologies, “splitting” the current channelization, and changes in radio regulations and frequency engineering criteria. Examples of what the Federal Aviation Administration is doing to implement these solutions will also be briefly addressed.
    • Challenges of Optimizing Multiple Modulation Schemes in Transponder Design

      Fairbanks, John S.; L-3 Communications, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Increasing gate counts in FPGA’s create an option of offering multiple waveform demodulation and modulation within a single transponder transceiver. Differing data rates, channel schemes, and network protocols can be addressed with the flexibility of software-based demodulation and modulation. Increased satellite longevity and reliability are benefits of software-based transceiver design. Newer packaging technology offers additional capability in reducing form factor and weight of a transponder. A review of the challenges in combining each of the above to produce the next generation of transponders is the subject of this paper.
    • CHALLENGES TO FUTURE ON-BOARD FTI – SYSTEMS FOR FIGHTER TYPE AIRCRAFT

      Roth, Heinz; EADS Military Aircraft (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The system architecture of an onboard FTI-System is specifically designed to fulfil highly demanding flight test requirements. Since these flight test requirements are steadily increasing with the growing complexity of test aircraft and mission systems, a corresponding improvement in the performance of the FTI-Systems is mandatory to satisfy those flight test demands. In addition, the individual test flights have to provide the maximum of flight test data obtainable in order to improve test efficiency and to cut project costs. Increased performance, miniaturisation, more reduced design and installation costs are the challenges for future system architectures. The developments of commercial and consumer electronics have an increasing influence on the layout of FTI-Systems.
    • COMPARISON OF ALAMOUTI AND DIFFERENTIAL SPACE-TIME CODES FOR AERONAUTICAL TELEMETRY DUAL-ANTENNA TRANSMIT DIVERSITY

      Jensen, Michael A.; Rice, Michael D.; Anderson, Adam L.; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The placement of two antennas on an air vehicle is one possible practice for overcoming signal obstruction created by vehicle maneuvering during air-to-ground transmission. Unfortunately, for vehicle attitudes where both antennas have a clear path to the receiving station, this practice also leads to self-interference nulls, resulting in dramatic degradation in the average signal integrity. This paper discusses application of unitary space-time codes such as the Alamouti transmit diversity scheme and unitary differential space-time codes to overcome the self-interference effect observed in such systems.
    • A COMPARISON OF MMSE AND CMA EQUALIZATION TECHNIQUES FOR ARTM TIER-1 WAVEFORMS

      Rice, Michael; Satorius, Ed; Brigham Young University; Jet Propulsion Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The performance of two adaptive equalization techniques applicable to ARTM Tier-1 waveforms over a frequency selective multipath channel is summarized. Adaptive equalization based on the constant modulus algorithm (CMA) and the decision-directed minimum mean squared error (DF-MMSE) concept are shown to be effective in reducing the bit error rate in the presence of frequency selective multipath interference. The performance of the DF-MMSE equalizer is slightly better than the CMA equalizer. Implementation trade-offs between the two types of equalizers are also discussed.
    • Comparison of Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks

      Spinden, David; Jasper, Jeffrey; Kosbar, Kurt; University of Missouri – Rolla (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      There are a number of telemetry applications where it would be helpful to have networks of sensors that could autonomously discover their connectivity, and dynamically reconfigure themselves during use. A number of research groups have developed wireless ad-hoc sensor network systems. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in wireless ad-hoc networks, examining the features, assumptions, limitations and unique attributes of some of the more popular solutions to this problem.
    • CURRENT STATUS OF DATA COMPRESSION IN TELEMETRY

      Horan, Sheila B.; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Reduction of bandwidth for signal transmission is of paramount concern to many in the telemetry and wireless industry. One way to reduce bandwidth is to reduce the amount data being sent. There are several techniques available to reduce the amount of data. This paper will review the various types of data compression currently in use for telemetry data and how much compression is achieved.
    • CVSD MODULATOR USING VHDL

      Hicks, William T.; Yantorno, Robert E.; Temple University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      IRIG-106 Chapter 5 describes a method for encoding voice using a simple circuit to reduce the overall bit rate and still achieve good quality voice. This well described Continuously Variable Slope Delta Modulation (CVSD) circuit can be obtained using analog parts. A more stable implementation of CVSD can be obtained by designing an anti-aliasing input filter, an A/D converter, and logic. This paper describes one implementation of the CVSD using a standard A/D converter and logic.
    • DATA STORAGE SUITED TO FLIGHT DATA RECORDERS

      Fitzgerald, Alan; Adtron Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
    • DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE FOR A SELF-DESCRIBING DATA SYSTEM

      Eccles, Lee H.; Boeing Commercial Airplanes (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Flight Test data systems have in the past been setup by experts using ground based computer systems. In the future it will be possible to give the system a list of parameters to be measured on a given test and have the data acquisition system return the information necessary to process the data. There are several things that are leading systems in this direction. Recorders are beginning to record Meta data along with the data on the same media. IRIG 106 Chapter 10 recorder specification requires that a TMATS file be stored on the media with the data so that the data can be processed by any system. The TMATS file is Meta data. However, the TMATS file still needs to be generated by conventional means. Another factor leading us in this direction is the advent of network based data acquisition systems. This will allow much simpler algorithms to be used to format the data and remove some of the reliance on experts to accomplish this task. What this paper discusses is preliminary work toward using an XML based approach to having the system generate the setup information. The result will be an XML Schema. This can then be used by microprocessors in the data acquisition system to create a record for each measurement that can then be used to process the data.
    • DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF WIRELESS FLUOROMETRY NETWORKS

      Doonan, Daniel J.; Wu, Mei-Su; Lee, Michael; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper presents the design and development of a fluorometry sensor network with LED excitation. The design of the electronics in junction with the capability of LED excitation will significantly reduce the size and costs of the flrorometer units. The coverage and effectiveness of the sensing and monitoring capability will also be greatly enhanced by the addition of the wireless networks.
    • THE DESIGN OF A SINGLE CARD TELEMETRY MODULE FOR SMART MUNITION TESTING

      Oder, Stephen; Dearstine, Christina; Webb, Amy; Muir, John; Bahl, Inder; Burke, Larry; Stone, Weyant; M/A-COM, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      M/A-COM, Inc. has developed a miniature Tactical Telemetry Module (TTM) for medium power (500 mW and 1 W) telemetry applications. The TTM demonstrates system integration of a multi-channel PCM encoder, lower S-band transmitter, and power regulation onto a single printed wiring board (PWB). The module is smaller than a standard business card and utilizes both COTS and M/A-COM proprietary technologies. The PCM encoder is designed for eight (8) analog inputs, eight (8) discrete inputs, and one (1) synchronous RS-422 serial interface. Data rates of 300 kbps to 6 Mbps are supported. The module incorporates a frequency programmable, phase-locked FM S-band transmitter. The transmitter utilizes M/A-COM’s new dual port VCO and high efficiency 500 mW and 1 W power amplifier MMIC’s. Additionally, switching power regulation circuits were implemented within the module to provide maximum operating efficiency. This paper reviews the design and manufacturing of the Tactical Telemetry Module (TTM) and its major components, and presents system performance data.
    • DESIGN OF A SOFTWARE GPS RECEIVER AND ITS MATLAB IMPLEMENTATION

      Zhao, Yun; Zhang, Qishan; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The embedded system related hardware technology has experienced rapid development, and it provided the software technology with a huge space for growth. Therefore using software approaches to perform GPS receiver functions in a powerful and generic hardware platform is becoming more feasible. In this paper, the software GPS receiver technology and the design basics of the software receiver are discussed. Further in the Matlab simulation environment, the implementation of a software receiver for replacing the processing functions of ASIC in traditional GPS receivers, i.e. RF front end and multi-channel correlator, is presented. Some simulation results and implementation details are included.
    • DYNAMIC TRACKING PHASED ARRAY DATA LINKS

      Brown, K. D.; Allen, Chris; NNSA-KCP; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper describes a flexible telemetry data link developed by National Nuclear Safety Administration’s Kansas City Plant (NNSA-KCP) and the University of Kansas (KU) in support of NNSA’s Remote Sensing Laboratory (NNSA-RSL) located at the Nevada Test Site. This data link is based on a beam steerable phased array antenna (PAA). The paper describes the PAA and the Airborne Measurement System (AMS) application requiring signal source tracking. It highlights flight test data collected during recent flight testing on the Nevada Test Site for the AMS.
    • EFFECTS OF NON- LINEAR AMPLIFICATION ON N-GMSK AND N-FQPSK SIGNAL STATISTICS

      Gonzalez, Maria C.; Branner, George R.; University of California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Digital modulation schemes that are power and bandwidth efficient are highly desirable. After non-linear amplification has been done, signal modulation schemes having constant or quasi-constant envelopes are not as susceptible to spectral regrowth as those with non-constant envelopes. Since such distortion generates interference in the adjacent channels, the power operation of the amplifier in non-constant envelope modulations is typically backed off, resulting in systems with reduced power efficiency. On the other hand, constant envelope modulation may have different bandwidth spectra. This paper examines the statistical characteristics of N-GMSK and N-FQPSK [1] signals to assess the bandwidth efficiency in the presence of amplifier nonlinearities.
    • EMI AND SOFTWARE IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SOLAR MINER IV TELEMETRY PROCESSOR

      DeConink, Chad; DeConink, Sarah; Dean, James; Martin, Brad; Kosbar, Kurt; University of Missouri (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The UMR Solar Car uses a telemetry processor to collect, compute, and transmit data to the driver of the car and a nearby chase vehicle. The original processor had deteriorated from environmental extremes and vibration. There were also problems with electromagnetic interference from the high efficiency electric motor switching electronics, difficulties with the many unplanned additions made to the processor in the field, and the unstructured software that was becoming difficult to maintain. This project consists of creating a replacement telemetry system that is more robust mechanically, and electrically, substantially improving the EMI performance of the device, and reworking the hardware and software to make it easier to maintain and upgrade.
    • ENERGY-AWARE SENSOR MAC PROTOCOLS

      Balakrishnan, Manikanden; Ramakrishnan, Subah; Huang, Hong; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Sensor network applications typically require continuous monitoring of physical phenomena for extended periods of time under severe energy resource constraints. Accordingly, design considerations for sensor Media Access Control (MAC) protocols depart significantly from those of traditional wireless MAC protocols that largely ignore the energy factor. In this paper, we reexamine the design space of wireless sensor MAC protocols and modify IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) to incorporate energy-adaptive contention mechanisms for prolonging sensor lifetime. Performance of the proposed schemes is evaluated with DCF as a baseline and results indicate the benefits of energy-aware mechanisms for sensor MAC protocols.
    • EVALUATION OF CONSTANT ENVELOPE OFFSET QUADRATURE PHASE SHIFT KEYING TRANSMITTERS WITH A SOFTWARE BASED SIGNAL ANALYZER

      Jefferis, Robert P.; TYBRIN Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Off-line software based signal analysis can be a valuable tool for detailed examination of transmitter signal characteristics. This paper describes the Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) Constant Envelope (CE) offset quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK) modulation analyzer. It was developed expressly for evaluation of FQPSK-B^(1), FQPSK-JR and shaped OQPSK transmitter signals. Rationale for its creation, underlying assumptions, computation methods, and examples of its data products are presented.
    • EXTENSION OF A COMMON DATA FORMAT FOR REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

      Wegener, John A.; Davis, Rodney L.; The Boeing Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The HDF5 (Hierarchical Data Format) data storage family is an industry standard format that allows data to be stored in a common format and retrieved by a wide range of common tools. HDF5 is a widely accepted industry standard container for data storage developed by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The HDF5 data storage family includes HDF-Time History, intended for data processing, and HDF-Packet, intended for real-time data collection; each of these is an extension to the basic HDF5 format, which defines data structures and associated interrelationships, optimized for that particular purpose. HDF-Time History, developed jointly by Boeing and NCSA, is in the process of being adopted throughout the Boeing test community and by its external partners. The Boeing/NCSA team is currently developing HDF-Packet to support real-time streaming applications, such as airborne data collection and recording of received telemetry. The advantages are significant cost reduction resulting from storing the data in its final format, thus avoiding conversion between a myriad of recording and intermediate formats. In addition, by eliminating intermediate file translations and conversions, data integrity is maintained from recording through processing and archival storage. As well, HDF5 is a general-purpose wrapper, into which can be stored processed data and other data documentation information (such as calibrations), thus making the final data file self-documenting. This paper describes the basics of the HDF-Time History, the extensions required to support real-time acquisition with HDF-Packet, and implementation issues unique to real-time acquisition. It also describes potential future implementations for data acquisition systems in different segments of the test data industry.