• EFFECTS OF NON- LINEAR AMPLIFICATION ON N-GMSK AND N-FQPSK SIGNAL STATISTICS

      Gonzalez, Maria C.; Branner, George R.; University of California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Digital modulation schemes that are power and bandwidth efficient are highly desirable. After non-linear amplification has been done, signal modulation schemes having constant or quasi-constant envelopes are not as susceptible to spectral regrowth as those with non-constant envelopes. Since such distortion generates interference in the adjacent channels, the power operation of the amplifier in non-constant envelope modulations is typically backed off, resulting in systems with reduced power efficiency. On the other hand, constant envelope modulation may have different bandwidth spectra. This paper examines the statistical characteristics of N-GMSK and N-FQPSK [1] signals to assess the bandwidth efficiency in the presence of amplifier nonlinearities.
    • EMI AND SOFTWARE IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SOLAR MINER IV TELEMETRY PROCESSOR

      DeConink, Chad; DeConink, Sarah; Dean, James; Martin, Brad; Kosbar, Kurt; University of Missouri (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The UMR Solar Car uses a telemetry processor to collect, compute, and transmit data to the driver of the car and a nearby chase vehicle. The original processor had deteriorated from environmental extremes and vibration. There were also problems with electromagnetic interference from the high efficiency electric motor switching electronics, difficulties with the many unplanned additions made to the processor in the field, and the unstructured software that was becoming difficult to maintain. This project consists of creating a replacement telemetry system that is more robust mechanically, and electrically, substantially improving the EMI performance of the device, and reworking the hardware and software to make it easier to maintain and upgrade.
    • ENERGY-AWARE SENSOR MAC PROTOCOLS

      Balakrishnan, Manikanden; Ramakrishnan, Subah; Huang, Hong; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Sensor network applications typically require continuous monitoring of physical phenomena for extended periods of time under severe energy resource constraints. Accordingly, design considerations for sensor Media Access Control (MAC) protocols depart significantly from those of traditional wireless MAC protocols that largely ignore the energy factor. In this paper, we reexamine the design space of wireless sensor MAC protocols and modify IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) to incorporate energy-adaptive contention mechanisms for prolonging sensor lifetime. Performance of the proposed schemes is evaluated with DCF as a baseline and results indicate the benefits of energy-aware mechanisms for sensor MAC protocols.
    • EVALUATION OF CONSTANT ENVELOPE OFFSET QUADRATURE PHASE SHIFT KEYING TRANSMITTERS WITH A SOFTWARE BASED SIGNAL ANALYZER

      Jefferis, Robert P.; TYBRIN Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Off-line software based signal analysis can be a valuable tool for detailed examination of transmitter signal characteristics. This paper describes the Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) Constant Envelope (CE) offset quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK) modulation analyzer. It was developed expressly for evaluation of FQPSK-B^(1), FQPSK-JR and shaped OQPSK transmitter signals. Rationale for its creation, underlying assumptions, computation methods, and examples of its data products are presented.
    • EXTENSION OF A COMMON DATA FORMAT FOR REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

      Wegener, John A.; Davis, Rodney L.; The Boeing Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The HDF5 (Hierarchical Data Format) data storage family is an industry standard format that allows data to be stored in a common format and retrieved by a wide range of common tools. HDF5 is a widely accepted industry standard container for data storage developed by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The HDF5 data storage family includes HDF-Time History, intended for data processing, and HDF-Packet, intended for real-time data collection; each of these is an extension to the basic HDF5 format, which defines data structures and associated interrelationships, optimized for that particular purpose. HDF-Time History, developed jointly by Boeing and NCSA, is in the process of being adopted throughout the Boeing test community and by its external partners. The Boeing/NCSA team is currently developing HDF-Packet to support real-time streaming applications, such as airborne data collection and recording of received telemetry. The advantages are significant cost reduction resulting from storing the data in its final format, thus avoiding conversion between a myriad of recording and intermediate formats. In addition, by eliminating intermediate file translations and conversions, data integrity is maintained from recording through processing and archival storage. As well, HDF5 is a general-purpose wrapper, into which can be stored processed data and other data documentation information (such as calibrations), thus making the final data file self-documenting. This paper describes the basics of the HDF-Time History, the extensions required to support real-time acquisition with HDF-Packet, and implementation issues unique to real-time acquisition. It also describes potential future implementations for data acquisition systems in different segments of the test data industry.
    • A FEASIBLE ARCHITECTURE FOR LARGE AREA OTH C^2 AND DATA COLLECTION, LEVERAGING DEVELOPED COMMERCIAL TECHNOLOGIES

      Power, Emilio J.; Reliable System Services Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Reliable System Services Corporation (RSS Corp.) presents the feasibility of a low cost, low power, high capacity, robust RF Communications Network using SATCOM and UAV relays. The developed architecture will be suitable for OTH Large Area Test and Training exercises as well as applications for OTH Digital Battlefield scenarios. A specific application is shown for the planned Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) missions, although the developed architecture will have broader applications for any surface combatant requiring an Over-the-Horizon (OTH) data link to distributed players and sensors. A conceptual design for the IP network radio system will implement RSS Corp. developed secure IRIDIUM global full duplex data links and Harris Corp. developed long range high bandwidth 802.11 full duplex data links. The results will be significant, and the developed system could be a cornerstone of the future digital battlefield combat communications architecture. The developed technology will also have significant use in any application for Test, Evaluation and Training Ranges requiring net centric, command/control and wide bandwidth TLM data collection from distributed remote players and sensors.
    • FIBRE CHANNEL TESTING FOR AVIONICS APPLICATIONS

      Warden, Gary; Fleissner, Bill; AIM-USA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Fibre Channel is being implemented as an avionics communication architecture for a variety of new military aircraft and upgrades to existing aircraft. The Fibre Channel standard (see T11 web site www.t11.org) defines various network topologies and multiple data protocols. Some of the topologies and protocols (ASM, 1553, RDMA) are suited for Avionics applications, where the movement of data between devices must take place in a deterministic fashion and needs to be delivered very reliably. All aircraft flight hardware needs to be tested to be sure that it will communicate information properly in the Fibre Channel network. The airframe manufacture needs to test the integrated network to verify that all flight hardware is communicating properly. Continuous maintenance testing is required to insure that all communication is deterministic and reliable. This paper provides an overview of a Fibre Channel Avionics network and protocols being used for Avionics. The paper also discusses a practical implementation of avionics level testing and testing challenges associated with these applications.
    • A Field Monitor System of Rod-pumped Wells Based on GPRS

      Zhaodong, Xing; Yanhong, Kou; Qishan, Zhang; BeiHang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      To enhance the production management of the rod-pumped wells in the oil field, using a high performance single-chip as the processor, a field monitor system based on GPRS is researched and developed. In the paper the hardware design and software design are expatiated, the sampling frequency and determination rules for the running state are analyzed, the rational communication protocol is designed to ensure the reliable message transmission and reduce the communication fees. In the end the field monitor system is successfully implemented and verified in practice, part of data transmission result is illustrated.
    • FIREWIRE: THE NEW 1553?

      Blott, Michaela; ACRA CONTROL (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      MIL-STD-1553 has served the flight community well. However, in recent years several new high-speed bus standards have emerged that outperform 1553 in various respects such as data throughput and increased address space. During this time, mission requirements - including video and audio - have become more data intensive. Although some of these busses were not initially designed for the avionics industry (such as Ethernet, FireWire, and FibreChannel), they are potentially of interest as high-speed commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) solutions for both set-up and data acquisition. These busses offer not only improved overall system performance, in terms of aggregate sampling rates, but also simplify existing data acquisition system architectures. They require fewer high-bandwidth links which can serve for both set-up and data. This paper examines some of these issues, focusing in particular on IEEE1394, better known as FireWire.
    • FLYING CFDP ON MESSENGER

      Krupiarz, Christopher J.; Heggestad, Brian K.; Carper, Richard D.; The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory; Space Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The MESSENGER mission to Mercury will downlink data files via a protocol defined by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) called the CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP). A reduced implementation of the protocol was developed for the spacecraft due to various system constraints and operational requirements. The software operates in conjunction with the playback features of the MESSENGER flight software allowing for the autonomous downlinking of files as well as providing for the management of the file system by the mission operations team. This paper presents the software implementation, metrics, and the lessons learned.
    • FROM 0.5% TO 0.05%: ACHIEVING NEW LEVELS OF SENSOR ACCURACY IN AN AIRBORNE ENVIRONMENT

      Sweeney, Paul; ACRA CONTROL Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      With recent improvements in data acquisition technology, it is now possible to use an FTI data acquisition system to measure analog signals with a total error from all sources of less than 0.05% - over an extended temperature range - and at high sample rates. This accuracy is better than one count of an old 10-bit system and includes non-linearities, initial errors (in gain, offset and excitation) and drift errors, simplifying the task of interpreting data acquisition system performance specifications. This paper looks at some practical steps taken to achieve this accuracy, from a hardware design and signal processing perspective. This leads to a discussion of implications for the FTI system designer, including: sensor and wiring specifications, sample rate, filtering specifications, and a discussion of implications for the data processing engineers.
    • THE FUTURE OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAPH TELEMETRY SYSTEMS

      Burkhardt, Brian; Redstone Technical Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The Electrocardiograph (EKG or ECG) measures electrical changes of tissue surrounding the heart to create a time-based representation of the physical operation of the heart. The purpose of this paper is to explore the future of ECG telemetry systems and how they are used in health care. The initial goal is to develop an inexpensive, efficient, and robust real-time ECG telemetry system. The future goal is to create a wireless network of miniature body sensors capable of measuring ECG data and other vital signs.
    • A GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE MIMO CHANNEL SIMULATOR

      Panagos, Adam G.; Kosbar, Kurt; University of Missouri – Rolla (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems are attracting attention because their channel capacity can exceed single-input single-output systems, with no increase in bandwidth. While MIMO systems offer substantial capacity improvements, it can be challenging to characterize and verify their channel models. This paper describes a software MIMO channel simulator with a graphical user interface that allows the user to easily investigate a number of MIMO channel characteristics for a channel recently proposed by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).
    • HARDWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OFA MULTI-CHANNEL GPS SIMULATOR

      Yuhong, Zhu; Yanhong, Kou; Qing, Chang; Qishan, Zhang; BeiHang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Hardware architecture and design details of a multi-channel GPS signal simulator with highly flexibility is presented, while the dynamic performance objectives and the requirements on the hardware architecture are discussed. The IF part of the simulator is implemented almost entirely in the digital domain by use of a field programmable gate array (FPGA), which mainly include C/A code generators, carrier generators, spreaders, and BPSK modulators. The results of testing the proposed simulator hardware architecture at IF with the help of a GPS receiver are presented.
    • HIGH ALTITUDE TRANSMITTER FLIGHT TESTING

      Brown, K. D.; Sorensen, Trevor; NNSA ’s Kansas City Plant; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper describes a high altitude experimental flight test platform developed by the University of Kansas (KU) and the National Nuclear Security Administration’s Kansas City Plant (NNSA’s Kansas City Plant) for high altitude payload flight testing. This platform is called the Kansas University Balloon Experiment Satellite (KUBESat). The paper describes the flight test platform and experimental flight test results captured at Fort Riley, KS from characterization of the KCP developed Distributed Transmitter (DTX).
    • HOW WELL DOES A BLIND, ADAPTIVE CMA EQUALIZER WORK IN A SIMULATED TELEMETRY MULTIPATH ENVIRONMENT

      Law, Eugene; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper will present the results of experiments to characterize the performance of a blind, adaptive constant modulus algorithm (CMA) equalizer in simulated telemetry multipath environments. The variables included modulation method, bit rate, received signal-to-noise ratio, delay of the indirect path relative to the direct path, amplitude of the indirect path relative to the direct path, and fade rate. The main measured parameter was bit error probability (BEP). The tests showed that the equalizer usually improved the data quality in the presence of multipath.
    • IEEE 1451 SMART TRANSDUCER STANDARDS: STATUS, GOING WIRELESS, AND PULLING IT ALL TOGETHER

      Jones, Charles H.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      There are seven parts of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1451 Smart Transducer family of standards either approved, in work, or in review. These documents are providing a nonproprietary set of standards for the implementation of smart transducers (i.e., sensors and actuators). This paper overviews these standards and their status. In particular, the IEEE P1451.5, which addresses wireless transducers, and the IEEE P1451.0, which will provide a common high level architecture for the entire family, will be discussed. A reference model, which is being used as a focus for the IEEE P1451.0, will be introduced to help show the relation between all the members of the family.
    • IEEE P1451.0 CORE TEDS AND COMMON COMMAND SET

      Eccles, Lee H.; Jones, Charles H.; Boeing Commercial Airplane Company; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The Technical Committee 9 (TC-9) of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Instrument and Measurement Society wants to ensure that all members of the IEEE 1451 family of standards conform to a common set of basic functionality and have, at some level, a common interface. To this end, the IEEE p1451.0 working group has been chartered to prepare an overarching standard that will define the operation of the other members of the family while still leaving the physical interface up to the various other standards working groups. The IEEE p1451.0 will define the general functionality required of an IEEE 1451 transducer, a common command set that is appropriate to all family members, and the core set of transducer electronic data sheets (TEDS). This paper gives a brief overview of the overall functionality and follows that with a description of the commands and the TEDS.
    • Implementation of A 30-Channel PCM Telemetry Encoder

      Kim, Jung Sup; Jang, Myung Jin; Agency for Defense Development (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The function of a PCM telemetry encoder, installed in moving vehicles such as automobiles, aircraft, missiles, and artillery projectiles, is to transform many physical variables, such as velocity, shock, temperature, vibration and pressure, into digital data. Also, the encoder is required to make a data frame composed of digital input signals and frame synchronous data. The framed data is supplied to the input of a transmitter. There are three critical considerations in developing a PCM telemetry encoder to be installed in an artillery projectile. The first is the performance consideration, such as sampling rate, data receiving rate and data transmission rate. The second is the size consideration due to the severely limited installation space in an artillery projectile and the last is the power consumption consideration due to limitations of the munition’s power supply. To meet these three considerations, the best alternative is a one-chip solution. Using a commercially available TMS320F2812 DSP chip, we have implemented a 30-channel PCM telemetry encoder to process randomized data frames, composed of 16-channel analog data, 14-channel digital data and 2 frame synchronization data per data frame, at 10Mbps transmission baud rate. This paper describes the structure of the 30-channel PCM telemetry encoder and its performance.
    • IMPLEMENTING A TACTICAL TELEMETRY STYSTEM FOR MULTIPLE LAUNCH ROCKET SYSTEM (MLRS) STOCKPILE RELIABILITY TESTING

      Cox, Corry; Redstone Technical Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The Precision Fires Rocket and Missile Systems (PFRMS) Program Office continually undertakes Stockpile Reliability Testing (SRP) to ensure the validity of the accumulated weapons and increase the she lf life of these weapon systems. MLRS is a legacy weapon system that has been undergoing SRP testing for over 20 years. The PFRMS Program Office has a need for a miniature Tactical Telemetry System that will monitor the fuze performance of the MLRS Rocket during SRP testing. This paper will address a technical approach of how a small Tactical Telemetry System could be built to meet this requirement. The Tactical Telemetry system proposed in this paper will monitor fuze functions, operate across the wide environmental spectrum of the SRP tests, and physically fit in the nose area without altering the overall tactical rocket appearance or operation.