• LDPC-BASED ITERATIVE JOINT SOURCE/CHANNEL DECODING SCHEME FOR JPEG2000

      Pu, Lingling; Wu, Zhenyu; Bilgin, Ali; Marcellin, Michael W.; Vasic, Bane; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper presents a joint source-channel decoding scheme based on a JPEG2000 source coder and an LDPC channel coder. At the encoder, JPEG2000 is used to perform source coding with certain error resilience (ER) modes, and LDPC codes are used to perform channel coding. At the decoder, after one iteration of LDPC decoding, the output codestream is then decoded by JPEG2000. With the error resilience mode switches on, the source decoder detects the position of the first error within each codeblock of the JPEG2000 codestream. This information is fed back to the channel decoder, and incorporated into the calculation of likelihood values of variable nodes for the next iteration of LDPC decoding. Our results indicate that the proposed method has significant gains over conventional separate channel and source decoding.
    • LEGACY SENSORS GO WIRELESS WITH IEEE P1451.5

      Sinclair, Robert; Beech, Russell; Jones, Kevin; Jones, Charles H.; NVE Corporation; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The wireless sensor concept has been hindered in the past by the large number of components needed to add the wireless transceiver feature and the additional power consumption needed for that feature. This has been resolved by incorporating all the wireless components into a single, low power modular circuit. Intelligence is being added to legacy sensors to make them Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1451.4 compatible with an element called a Sensor Identification Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (SITEDS), which contains the Transducer Electronics Data Sheet (TEDS) for that sensor. All the sensor interface parameters are automatically configured by a module called the Universal Smart Transducer Interface Module (USTIM) using the TEDS input from the respective sensor’s SITEDS. An IEEE P1451.5 compatible wireless interface can be incorporated into the SITEDS with the transceiver module giving the legacy sensor full wireless capability.
    • LIDAR OUTGOING LASER ENERGY MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

      Reagan, John; Gibbons, Jasper; Moss, David; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      A flexible system has been designed to accurately measure and average the outgoing laser energy of a micro-pulse LIDAR unit (MPL). This system incorporates specifically designed analog measurement circuitry interfaced with a microcontroller, allowing researchers to manage experiments from a personal computer. The final system produces a linearly proportional response between an incident laser energy input and the analog and digital circuitry’s output, accurate to within 0.1%. Custom designed algorithms allow the system to average the energy measured in a series of pulses. Each series can range on the order of tens of thousands of pulses.
    • MAINTAINING SIGNAL FIDELITY WHILE USING A PACKETIZED TRANSPORT SYSTEM

      Hankey, Robert L.; Krasinski, Kevin; Apogee Labs, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Packetizing data for transport over a networked system corrupts embedded information such as absolute and relative timing from the data. Without this information, it is difficult to reproduce the data with its original timing restored. Absolute timing is the time between data points within a given channel of data. Relative timing is the time relationship between data points from two or more channels of data. Having this restored timing allows the use of existing equipment for analysis and eliminates the need for expensive custom designed equipment to analyze the recovered data. Using a packetizing solution that transports information about the data stream and transport packets that are broken up by system wide timing allows us to accomplish this.
    • MERGING TELEMETRY DATA FROM MULTIPLE RECEIVERS

      Wilson, Michael J.; US Army Research Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Multiple receiver telemetry systems are common in the aeroballistics test and evaluation community. These systems typically record telemetry data independently, requiring post-flight data processing to produce the most accurate combination of the available data. This paper addresses the issues of time synchronization between multiple data sources and determination of the best choice for each data word. Additional filtering is also developed for the case when all available data are corrupted. The performance of the proposed algorithms is presented.
    • MIMO CHANNEL TIME VARIATION AS A FUNCTION OF MOBILE USER VELOCITY

      Panagos, Adam G.; Kosbar, Kurt; University of Missouri – Rolla (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The analysis of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems often assumes a static, or quasi-static, environment. Platform motion and changes in the environment makes this an unreasonable assumption for many telemetry applications. This paper uses computer simulations to characterize the time variation of MIMO channel parameters when there is relative motion between the transmitter and receiver. These simulation results yield explicit time intervals over which a MIMO channel can be considered static for a given relative velocity and propagation environment. These results can be used to predict the practical limitations of proposed MIMO system algorithms.
    • MINIATURE TELEMETRY SYSTEM FOR THE COMPACT KINETIC ENERGY MISSILE

      Haataja, M. Shannon; Ambrose, Mark; Redstone Arsenal; ERC, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The Compact Kinetic Energy Missile (CKEM) is currently being developed as the Army’s newest hypervelocity anti-tank missile. The project has recently transitioned from the Science and Technology Objective phase to the Advanced Technology Demonstration phase. Science and technology phase flight testing required the development of a miniature telemetry system for measuring the super sonic flight dynamics of the airframe, as well as, monitoring of the on board flight computer. Design challenges included a small mechanical envelope, limited power budget, numerous analog measurements, computer serial stream processing, and harsh launch and flight dynamics. Two versions of the system were developed in support of the partnership effort between the Army Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) and industry. This paper will focus on the successful design, development, and flight tests of the CKEM telemetry system.
    • THE MODULAR RANGE INTERFACE (MODRI) DATA ACQUISITION CAPABILITIES AND STRATEGIES

      Marler, Thomas M.; TYBRIN Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The Modular Range Interface (ModRI) is a reliable networked data acquisition system used to acquire and disseminate dissimilar data. ModRI’s purpose is to connect TSPI systems to a central computer network. The modular hardware design consists of an SBC, COTS network interfaces, and other COTS interfaces in a VME form factor. The modular software design uses C++ and OO patterns running under an RTOS. Current capabilities of ModRI include acquisition of Ethernet, PCM data, RS-422/232 serial data, and IRIG-B time. Future strategies might include stand-alone data acquisition, acquisition of digital video, and migration to other architectures and operating systems.
    • A MULTIFUNCTION SATELLITE BACKHAUL SYSTEM FOR AIRCRAFT FLIGHT TEST APPLICATIONS

      Bell, John J. (Jack); Mileshko, James; Payne, Edward L.; Wagler, Paul; ViaSat, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper will present the design of a network used to receive and record sensor data and provide voice communications between a flight controller and the pilot of an aircraft undergoing flight testing in remote areas. The network utilizes a completely self-contained mobile tracking subsystem to receive and relay the sensor data and cockpit voice in real-time over a geostationary satellite. In addition to the aircraft tracking and data/voice relay functions, the system also provides local data recording at the mobile station, telephone and intercom connectivity between the mobile station and the control center, and remote equipment setup via the satellite link.
    • NETWORK CONNECTIONS BEYOND IEEE 802.11

      Zettwoch, Robert N.; The Boeing Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      More and more aircraft system designs are incorporating a local-area-network (LAN) using either Fibre Channel (FC) or Ethernet. To date there hasn’t been a means for creating a FC node connection between an airborne network and a ground based FC network or for creating a reliable high-speed Ethernet connection between air and ground. Ethernet connections have had some success by using the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN for these types of connections; however, these connections suffer from many inherent problems using this standard. Problems include the lack of telemetry spectrum control, security validation, high-speed data transfer efficiency, and channel acquisition time. This paper will describe a methodology that utilizes the IRIG-106 PCM standard for communicating between aircraft and ground-based networks. PCM can solve the aforementioned problems and it enables the user to take advantage of the many ARTM advances in PCM telemetry technology [1]. One such advance in technology has been the use of SOQPSK (Tier 1) or Multi-h CPM (Tier 2) to enable the user to effectively double or more their bandwidth efficiency compared to PCM/FM (or CPFSK) (Tier 0).
    • NETWORK TELEMETRY: A NEW DIGITAL ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR AIRBUS A380 AIRCRAFT

      Delarue, Xavier; IN-SNEC company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Based on a fourty year experience in Telemetry, acquired on the European Space Program, IN-SNEC company (Zodiac group) has designed a versatile, modular and customable telemetry system for Airbus A380 aircraft program. This Aircraft Telemetry System (TMA-2000) comes with a large set of acquisition boards allowing numerous digital and analog inputs. The major innovation of this system lies in its modularity which allows the user to configure his acquisition chain in function of his monitoring needs and the use of an Ethernet link for its configuration as well as for telemetry output data flow.
    • A NEW CLASS OF PRECISION UTC AND FREQUENCY REFERENCE USING IS-95 CDMA BASE STATION TRANSMISSIONS

      Penrod, Bruce M.; EndRun Technologies (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      A new class of precision timing and frequency reference is introduced that indirectly receives GPS timing and frequency information via TIA/EIA Standard IS-95 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) mobile telecommunications base station transmissions. Like cell phones, these products operate indoors without external antennas and provide accuracy, low cost and ease of installation. The technology fits particularly well in IP network synchronization and quality-of-service monitoring applications where rooftop antenna installation is often impossible. The salient characteristics of the IS-95 CDMA signals that make them suitable for this purpose and a general CDMA timing receiver architecture are described. Performance data versus similar references that use conventional GPS reception are also presented.
    • OBJECT RECOGNITION BY GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR IMAGING SYSTEMS WITH TEMPORAL SPECTRAL STATISTICS

      Ono, Sashi; Lee, Hua; University of California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper describes a new approach to object recognition by using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) imaging systems. The recognition procedure utilizes the spectral content instead of the object shape in traditional methods. To produce the identification feature of an object, the most common spectral component is obtained by singular value decomposition (SVD) of the training sets. The identification process is then integrated into the backward propagation image reconstruction algorithm, which is implemented on the FMCW GPR imaging systems.
    • ONTOLOGY-DRIVEN TRANSLATOR GENERATOR FOR DATA DISPLAY CONFIGURATIONS

      Fernandes, Ronald; Graul, Michael; Meric, Burak; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper presents a new approach for the effective generation of translator scripts that can be used to automate the translation of data display configurations from one vendor format to another. Our approach uses the IDEF5 ontology description method to capture the ontology of each vendor format and provides simple rules for performing mappings. In addition, the method includes the specification of mappings between a language-specific ontology and its corresponding syntax specification, that is, either an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) Schema or Document Type Description (DTD). Finally, we provide an algorithm for automatically generating eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT) scripts that transform XML documents from one language to another. The method is implemented in a graphical tool called the Data Display Translator Generator (DDTG) that supports both inter-language (ontology-to-ontology) and intra-language (syntax-to-ontology) mappings and generates the XSLT scripts. The tool renders the XML Schema or DTD as trees, provides intuitive, user-friendly interfaces for performing the mappings, and provides a report of completed mappings. It also generates data type conversion code when both the source and target syntaxes are XML Schema-based. Our approach has the advantage of performing language mappings at an abstract, ontology level, and facilitates the mapping of tool ontologies to a common domain ontology (in our case, Data Display Markup Language or DDML), thereby eliminating the O(n^2) mapping problem that involves a number of data formats in the same domain.
    • AN OPEN ARCHITECTURE AND MIDDLEWARE FOR COLLECTIVE ROBOT TEAMS

      Marefat, Michael; Reagan, John; Lesmeister, Micah; Elhourani, Theodore; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      In this paper we propose an open multi-robot architecture that dramatically reduces the time to deployment and increases the utility value to the mainstream non-technical user. We describe a multi-robot behavior-based coordination architecture and argue its suitability in the context of general-purpose robot teams operating in dynamic and unpredictable environments. We then formalize and describe a command fusion module for the coordination of high-level behaviors of the system. The command fusion module is interfaced to our middle-ware/compiler that generates behavior selection tips from a user specified abstract description of a scenario. Finally, we utilize an example search and rescue scenario to illustrate the overall process and give preliminary results of the experiments performed on actual robots.
    • ORTHOGONAL DUAL-ANTENNA TRANSMIT DIVERSITY FOR SOQPSK IN AERONAUTICAL TELEMETRY CHANNELS

      Jensen, Michael A.; Rice, Michael D.; Nelson, Thomas; Anderson, Adam L.; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Transmit diversity schemes such as the Alamouti space-time code have been shown to be viable candidates to enable robust dual-antenna transmission from maneuvering air vehicles. However, due to the complicated structure of shaped offset quadrature phase shift keying (SOQPSK) modulation, the Alamouti approach has not been applicable to SOQPSK systems. This paper develops a precoding and detection algorithm which allows implementation of dual-antenna Alamouti signaling for SOQPSK modulation. Performance simulations demonstrate the performance of the scheme for a realistic flight scenario.
    • Performance Analysis of FQPSK and SOQPSK in Aeronautical Telemetry Frequency Selective Multipath Channel

      Rice, Michael; Dang, Xiaoyu; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The impact of frequency selective multipath fading on the bit error rate performance of ARTM Tier-1 waveforms (FQPSK and SOQPSK) is derived and analyzed. In the presence of a strong specular reflection with relative magnitude |Γ1|, the ARTM Tier-1 waveforms suffer a loss in performance of (1 - |Γ1)^(-4√(|Γ1|)) for |Γ1| < 0:5 and a relatively high error floor at approximately 10^(-2) for |Γ1| ≥ 0.5. The ARTM Tier-1 waveforms possess twice the spectral efficiency of PCM/FM, but exhibit a greater loss and higher error floors than PCM/FM for the same multipath conditions and signal-to-noise ratio.
    • PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ETHERNET LAN BASED DISTRIBUTED TELEMETRY DATA NETWORK AND ITS EXTENSION USING ROUTER AND BRIDGE

      Sadhukhan, Gautam; Vinodia, Deepak; Sandhu, Manmohan; Integrated Test Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper evaluates the performance as well as effectiveness of the High Speed Ethernet LANBased Distributed Telemetry Data Network Architecture. It also attempts to obtain a feasible solution for the Extension of LAN over High Performance Digital Modem via Routers and Bridges. With the advent of highly efficient broadband TCP/IP network and rapid growth of data traffic demand in the area of Telemetry Data Acquisition and Processing, one has to adopt a high bit rate PCM Telemetry Data Stream with the strategy of distributed task scheduling in multiprocessor environment. The proposed Telemetry System Architecture is adopted as a milestone to Modern Telemetry system. It incorporates various value added services for the performance evaluation of various flight vehicles providing authenticated data. This paper shows that by configuring the IP addresses of various nodes and router / bridges with V.35 interfaces, it is possible to extend the Telemetry Data on a local LAN to the remote LAN for display and high speed processing in real time. Necessary comparisons of performance of the existing to the proposed systems are presented.
    • THE RAH-66 COMANCHE NETWORKED BASED DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM

      Dehmelt, Chris; L3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Serial interfaces (RS232, RS422/485) have been the standard method of communications in traditional data acquisition systems. The role of these interfaces has been to supply a simple setup and control path between a host and the data acquisition master and little else. Today’s distributed data acquisition systems (DAS), which are comprised of many types of components including Ground Support Computers (GSC), Pilot Control Units (PCU), Data System Control Units (DSCU), Solid State Recorders (SSR), Data Acquisition Units (DAU) and Cockpit Instrumentation Data Systems (CIDS), are ideally suited to the use of Ethernet for not only setup functions, but for the distribution of acquired data and status to an unlimited number of users. Besides the obvious advantage of higher data rates, Ethernet provides other benefits such as greater data integrity, multi-host capability, and common programming interfaces. This paper details the integration of new L3 Communications - Telemetry East (L3-TE) Ethernet based software and hardware components that are part of the Comanche Data Systems equipment suite.
    • REACTIVE GRASP WITH PATH RELINKING FOR BROADCAST SCHEDULING

      Commander, Clayton W.; Butenko, Sergiy I.; Pardalos, Panos M.; Oliveira, Carlos A.S.; Eglin Air Force Base; Texas A&M University; University of Florida (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The Broadcast Scheduling Problem (BSP) is a well known NP-complete problem that arises in the study of wireless networks. In the BSP, a finite set of stations are to be scheduled in a time division multiple access (TDMA) frame. The objective is a collision free transmission schedule with the minimum number of TDMA slots and maximal slot utilization. Such a schedule will minimize the total system delay. We present variations of a Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) for the BSP. Path-relinking, a post-optimization strategy is applied. Also, a reactivity method is used to balance GRASP parameters. Numerical results of our research are reported and compared with other heuristics from the literature.