• NETWORK CONNECTIONS BEYOND IEEE 802.11

      Zettwoch, Robert N.; The Boeing Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      More and more aircraft system designs are incorporating a local-area-network (LAN) using either Fibre Channel (FC) or Ethernet. To date there hasn’t been a means for creating a FC node connection between an airborne network and a ground based FC network or for creating a reliable high-speed Ethernet connection between air and ground. Ethernet connections have had some success by using the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN for these types of connections; however, these connections suffer from many inherent problems using this standard. Problems include the lack of telemetry spectrum control, security validation, high-speed data transfer efficiency, and channel acquisition time. This paper will describe a methodology that utilizes the IRIG-106 PCM standard for communicating between aircraft and ground-based networks. PCM can solve the aforementioned problems and it enables the user to take advantage of the many ARTM advances in PCM telemetry technology [1]. One such advance in technology has been the use of SOQPSK (Tier 1) or Multi-h CPM (Tier 2) to enable the user to effectively double or more their bandwidth efficiency compared to PCM/FM (or CPFSK) (Tier 0).
    • NETWORK TELEMETRY: A NEW DIGITAL ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR AIRBUS A380 AIRCRAFT

      Delarue, Xavier; IN-SNEC company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Based on a fourty year experience in Telemetry, acquired on the European Space Program, IN-SNEC company (Zodiac group) has designed a versatile, modular and customable telemetry system for Airbus A380 aircraft program. This Aircraft Telemetry System (TMA-2000) comes with a large set of acquisition boards allowing numerous digital and analog inputs. The major innovation of this system lies in its modularity which allows the user to configure his acquisition chain in function of his monitoring needs and the use of an Ethernet link for its configuration as well as for telemetry output data flow.
    • A NEW CLASS OF PRECISION UTC AND FREQUENCY REFERENCE USING IS-95 CDMA BASE STATION TRANSMISSIONS

      Penrod, Bruce M.; EndRun Technologies (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      A new class of precision timing and frequency reference is introduced that indirectly receives GPS timing and frequency information via TIA/EIA Standard IS-95 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) mobile telecommunications base station transmissions. Like cell phones, these products operate indoors without external antennas and provide accuracy, low cost and ease of installation. The technology fits particularly well in IP network synchronization and quality-of-service monitoring applications where rooftop antenna installation is often impossible. The salient characteristics of the IS-95 CDMA signals that make them suitable for this purpose and a general CDMA timing receiver architecture are described. Performance data versus similar references that use conventional GPS reception are also presented.
    • OBJECT RECOGNITION BY GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR IMAGING SYSTEMS WITH TEMPORAL SPECTRAL STATISTICS

      Ono, Sashi; Lee, Hua; University of California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper describes a new approach to object recognition by using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) imaging systems. The recognition procedure utilizes the spectral content instead of the object shape in traditional methods. To produce the identification feature of an object, the most common spectral component is obtained by singular value decomposition (SVD) of the training sets. The identification process is then integrated into the backward propagation image reconstruction algorithm, which is implemented on the FMCW GPR imaging systems.
    • ONTOLOGY-DRIVEN TRANSLATOR GENERATOR FOR DATA DISPLAY CONFIGURATIONS

      Fernandes, Ronald; Graul, Michael; Meric, Burak; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper presents a new approach for the effective generation of translator scripts that can be used to automate the translation of data display configurations from one vendor format to another. Our approach uses the IDEF5 ontology description method to capture the ontology of each vendor format and provides simple rules for performing mappings. In addition, the method includes the specification of mappings between a language-specific ontology and its corresponding syntax specification, that is, either an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) Schema or Document Type Description (DTD). Finally, we provide an algorithm for automatically generating eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT) scripts that transform XML documents from one language to another. The method is implemented in a graphical tool called the Data Display Translator Generator (DDTG) that supports both inter-language (ontology-to-ontology) and intra-language (syntax-to-ontology) mappings and generates the XSLT scripts. The tool renders the XML Schema or DTD as trees, provides intuitive, user-friendly interfaces for performing the mappings, and provides a report of completed mappings. It also generates data type conversion code when both the source and target syntaxes are XML Schema-based. Our approach has the advantage of performing language mappings at an abstract, ontology level, and facilitates the mapping of tool ontologies to a common domain ontology (in our case, Data Display Markup Language or DDML), thereby eliminating the O(n^2) mapping problem that involves a number of data formats in the same domain.
    • AN OPEN ARCHITECTURE AND MIDDLEWARE FOR COLLECTIVE ROBOT TEAMS

      Marefat, Michael; Reagan, John; Lesmeister, Micah; Elhourani, Theodore; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      In this paper we propose an open multi-robot architecture that dramatically reduces the time to deployment and increases the utility value to the mainstream non-technical user. We describe a multi-robot behavior-based coordination architecture and argue its suitability in the context of general-purpose robot teams operating in dynamic and unpredictable environments. We then formalize and describe a command fusion module for the coordination of high-level behaviors of the system. The command fusion module is interfaced to our middle-ware/compiler that generates behavior selection tips from a user specified abstract description of a scenario. Finally, we utilize an example search and rescue scenario to illustrate the overall process and give preliminary results of the experiments performed on actual robots.
    • ORTHOGONAL DUAL-ANTENNA TRANSMIT DIVERSITY FOR SOQPSK IN AERONAUTICAL TELEMETRY CHANNELS

      Jensen, Michael A.; Rice, Michael D.; Nelson, Thomas; Anderson, Adam L.; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Transmit diversity schemes such as the Alamouti space-time code have been shown to be viable candidates to enable robust dual-antenna transmission from maneuvering air vehicles. However, due to the complicated structure of shaped offset quadrature phase shift keying (SOQPSK) modulation, the Alamouti approach has not been applicable to SOQPSK systems. This paper develops a precoding and detection algorithm which allows implementation of dual-antenna Alamouti signaling for SOQPSK modulation. Performance simulations demonstrate the performance of the scheme for a realistic flight scenario.
    • Performance Analysis of FQPSK and SOQPSK in Aeronautical Telemetry Frequency Selective Multipath Channel

      Rice, Michael; Dang, Xiaoyu; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The impact of frequency selective multipath fading on the bit error rate performance of ARTM Tier-1 waveforms (FQPSK and SOQPSK) is derived and analyzed. In the presence of a strong specular reflection with relative magnitude |Γ1|, the ARTM Tier-1 waveforms suffer a loss in performance of (1 - |Γ1)^(-4√(|Γ1|)) for |Γ1| < 0:5 and a relatively high error floor at approximately 10^(-2) for |Γ1| ≥ 0.5. The ARTM Tier-1 waveforms possess twice the spectral efficiency of PCM/FM, but exhibit a greater loss and higher error floors than PCM/FM for the same multipath conditions and signal-to-noise ratio.
    • PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ETHERNET LAN BASED DISTRIBUTED TELEMETRY DATA NETWORK AND ITS EXTENSION USING ROUTER AND BRIDGE

      Sadhukhan, Gautam; Vinodia, Deepak; Sandhu, Manmohan; Integrated Test Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper evaluates the performance as well as effectiveness of the High Speed Ethernet LANBased Distributed Telemetry Data Network Architecture. It also attempts to obtain a feasible solution for the Extension of LAN over High Performance Digital Modem via Routers and Bridges. With the advent of highly efficient broadband TCP/IP network and rapid growth of data traffic demand in the area of Telemetry Data Acquisition and Processing, one has to adopt a high bit rate PCM Telemetry Data Stream with the strategy of distributed task scheduling in multiprocessor environment. The proposed Telemetry System Architecture is adopted as a milestone to Modern Telemetry system. It incorporates various value added services for the performance evaluation of various flight vehicles providing authenticated data. This paper shows that by configuring the IP addresses of various nodes and router / bridges with V.35 interfaces, it is possible to extend the Telemetry Data on a local LAN to the remote LAN for display and high speed processing in real time. Necessary comparisons of performance of the existing to the proposed systems are presented.
    • THE RAH-66 COMANCHE NETWORKED BASED DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM

      Dehmelt, Chris; L3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Serial interfaces (RS232, RS422/485) have been the standard method of communications in traditional data acquisition systems. The role of these interfaces has been to supply a simple setup and control path between a host and the data acquisition master and little else. Today’s distributed data acquisition systems (DAS), which are comprised of many types of components including Ground Support Computers (GSC), Pilot Control Units (PCU), Data System Control Units (DSCU), Solid State Recorders (SSR), Data Acquisition Units (DAU) and Cockpit Instrumentation Data Systems (CIDS), are ideally suited to the use of Ethernet for not only setup functions, but for the distribution of acquired data and status to an unlimited number of users. Besides the obvious advantage of higher data rates, Ethernet provides other benefits such as greater data integrity, multi-host capability, and common programming interfaces. This paper details the integration of new L3 Communications - Telemetry East (L3-TE) Ethernet based software and hardware components that are part of the Comanche Data Systems equipment suite.
    • REACTIVE GRASP WITH PATH RELINKING FOR BROADCAST SCHEDULING

      Commander, Clayton W.; Butenko, Sergiy I.; Pardalos, Panos M.; Oliveira, Carlos A.S.; Eglin Air Force Base; Texas A&M University; University of Florida (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The Broadcast Scheduling Problem (BSP) is a well known NP-complete problem that arises in the study of wireless networks. In the BSP, a finite set of stations are to be scheduled in a time division multiple access (TDMA) frame. The objective is a collision free transmission schedule with the minimum number of TDMA slots and maximal slot utilization. Such a schedule will minimize the total system delay. We present variations of a Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) for the BSP. Path-relinking, a post-optimization strategy is applied. Also, a reactivity method is used to balance GRASP parameters. Numerical results of our research are reported and compared with other heuristics from the literature.
    • REAL-TIME GPS ATTITUDE DETERMINATION SYSTEM BASED ON EPOCH-BY-EPOCH™ TECHNOLOGY

      Bock, Yehuda; Macdonald, Thomas J.; Merts, John H.; Spires, William H., III; Bock, Lydia; Fayman, Jeffrey A.; Geodetics Inc.; MacroVision; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      There are many civilian and military applications requiring precise attitude determination. Geodetics Inc. has demonstrated high-accuracy GPS attitude solutions using their Epoch-by- Epoch™ (EBE) technology. EBE technology provides computational algorithms for instantaneous differential GPS processing of raw GPS measurement data (pseudorange and carrier phase). One of the most significant advantages of EBE technology over conventional GPS Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) algorithms is in its instantaneous initialization and reinitialization capability. This capability eliminates re-initialization delays due to losses-oflock, such as occur during high-dynamic maneuvers. This paper provides empirical data that was gathered during a test program, sponsored by Eglin Air Force Base, to assess the performance in real time of EBE technology as it applies to attitude determination. Using simulated data from a high-dynamic (9’g) maneuver, EBE yielded real-time attitude with accuracy better than one tenth of a degree (0.038 - 0.083 degrees, one standard deviation), utilizing geodetic quality GPS receivers operating in dual- or single-frequency mode with antenna separation of 2 meters. GPS geodetic receivers with only single frequency capability yielded attitude with accuracy of between 0.044 - 0.176 degrees after 1.3% - 2.5% of the solutions were rejected as data outliers.
    • REAL-TIME TENA-ENABLED DATA GATEWAY

      Achtzehnter, Joachim; Hauck, Preston; NetAcquire Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper describes the TENA architecture, which has been proposed by the Foundation Initiative 2010 (FI 2010) project as the basis for future US Test Range software systems. The benefits of this new architecture are explained by comparing the future TENA-enabled range infrastructure with the current situation of largely non-interoperable range resources. Legacy equipment and newly acquired off-the-shelf equipment that does not directly support TENA can be integrated into a TENA environment using TENA Gateways. This paper focuses on issues related to the construction of such gateways, including the important issue of real-time requirements when dealing with real-world data acquisition instruments. The benefits of leveraging commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) Data Acquisition Systems that are based on true real-time operating systems are discussed in the context of TENA Gateway construction.
    • THE RESEARCH OF A NEW MULTIUSER DETECTION SCHEME COMBINING DECORRELATING DETECTOR AND PARTIAL PARALLEL INTERFERENCE CANCELLER

      Wang, Yongjian; Zhou, Tingxian; Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The decorrelating detector can afford good data estimates because it does not need to know many parameters of the received signal. However, it shows great performance deprivation when the background noise is high. On the other hand, partial parallel interference canceller(PPIC) has the potential to combat the near-far problem and have much lower computation complexity. But its performance depends on the initial data estimate. An improved PPIC scheme is proposed in this paper to combat the near-far problem. It utilizes the advantages of the two detectors by combining them. The focus of this paper is on the BER performance and the near-far resistance capability of the proposed scheme. Computer simulations demonstrate that the proposed detector has good BER performance and near-far resistance capability.
    • THE RESEARCH ON THE HSP50214 PDC CHIP APPLYING TO FDM TELEMETRY SYSTEM

      Peng, Song; XiaoLin, Zhang; Wei, Zhang; North China University of Technology; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The content of this paper is putting forward an idea that applies the software radio technique to the subcarrier demodulation of frequency divided multiplexing telemetry system. Firstly, the article explains the basic thought and application of the software radio. It introduces the main function and the use of the programmable downconverter in HSP50214/ HSP50216. Secondly, it discusses the merit and shortcoming about the method of the subcarrier demodulation of frequency divided multiplexing telemetry system in common use. Finally, the article aims at ± 7.5% proportion bandwidth FM subcarrier channels that in common use in the military standard, introducing HSP50214/HSP50216 programmable downconverter in achievement of design and simulation result. The main problems in the design are discussed and a conclusion obtained.
    • RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN SENSOR NETWORKS USING DISTRIBUTED CONSTRAINT OPTIMIZATION

      Marefat, Michael; Reagan, John; Chachra, Sumit; Elhourani, Theodore; The University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Several algorithms have been proposed for solving constraint satisfaction and the more general constraint optimization problem in a distributed manner. In this paper we apply two such algorithms to the task of dynamic resource allocation in the sensor network domain using appropriate abstractions. The aim is to effectively track multiple targets by making the sensors coordinate with each other in a distributed manner, given a probabilistic representation of tasks (targets). We present simulation results and compare the performance of the DBA and DSA algorithms under varying experimental settings.
    • Securing Telemetry Post Processing Applications with Hardware Based Security

      Kalibjian, Jeff; Hewlett Packard Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The use of hardware security for telemetry in satellites utilized for intelligence and defense applications is well known. Less common is the use of hardware security in ground-based computers hosting applications that post process telemetry data. Analysis reveals vulnerabilities in software only security solutions that can result in the compromise of telemetry data housed on ground-based computer systems. Such systems maybe made less susceptible to compromise with the use of hardware based security.
    • Sensor Array Networking and Data Telemetering System

      Mavros, George; McKearney, Kathleen; Park, Bomi; Ryu, YoungBeom; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona is currently using a data collection system that requires transfer of data with the use of wire connections. To improve the system, wireless technology is utilized to collect and transmit data larger distances to a storage computer. The main goal of this project is to aide RSG in determining if wireless communication is an acceptable and useful means of transferring collected data. In order to fulfill this goal, a wireless system was selected that met specifications defined by RSG. Tests conducted on the system provided significant results of the project, which are a communication distance of 150 feet, download distance of 40 feet, and successfully storing the transmitted data within 3% accuracy.
    • SIGNAL PROCESSING ALGORITHMS FOR HIGH-PRECISION NAVIGATION AND GUIDANCE FOR UNDERWATER AUTONOMOUS SENSING SYSTEMS

      Doonan, Daniel; Utley, Chris; Lee, Hua; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper presents an alternative approach to high-precision bearing estimation for navigation and guidance in homing and docking of underwater vehicles. This new technique is significantly simpler than the conventional methods in terms of computation complexity and yet produces results of superior precision and consistency.
    • SOFT SEAMLESS SWITCHING IN DUAL-LOOP DSP-FLL FOR RAPID ACQUISITION AND TRACKING

      Weigang, Zhao; Tingyan, Yao; Jinpei, Wu; Qishan, Zhang; BeiHang University; Wuyi University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      FLL’s are extensively used for fast carrier synchronization. A common approach to meet the wide acquisition range and sufficiently small tracking error requirements is to adopt the wide or narrow band FLL loop in the acquisition and tracking modes and direct switching the loop. The paper analyze the influence of direct switching on performance, including the narrow band loop convergence, transition time etc. and propose applying the Kalman filtering theory to realize the seamless switching (SS) with time-varying loop gains between the two different loop tracking state. The SS control gains for the high dynamic digital spread spectrum receiver is derived. Simulation results for the SS compared to the direct switching demonstrate the improved performance.