• Performance Analysis of FQPSK and SOQPSK in Aeronautical Telemetry Frequency Selective Multipath Channel

      Rice, Michael; Dang, Xiaoyu; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The impact of frequency selective multipath fading on the bit error rate performance of ARTM Tier-1 waveforms (FQPSK and SOQPSK) is derived and analyzed. In the presence of a strong specular reflection with relative magnitude |Γ1|, the ARTM Tier-1 waveforms suffer a loss in performance of (1 - |Γ1)^(-4√(|Γ1|)) for |Γ1| < 0:5 and a relatively high error floor at approximately 10^(-2) for |Γ1| ≥ 0.5. The ARTM Tier-1 waveforms possess twice the spectral efficiency of PCM/FM, but exhibit a greater loss and higher error floors than PCM/FM for the same multipath conditions and signal-to-noise ratio.
    • PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ETHERNET LAN BASED DISTRIBUTED TELEMETRY DATA NETWORK AND ITS EXTENSION USING ROUTER AND BRIDGE

      Sadhukhan, Gautam; Vinodia, Deepak; Sandhu, Manmohan; Integrated Test Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper evaluates the performance as well as effectiveness of the High Speed Ethernet LANBased Distributed Telemetry Data Network Architecture. It also attempts to obtain a feasible solution for the Extension of LAN over High Performance Digital Modem via Routers and Bridges. With the advent of highly efficient broadband TCP/IP network and rapid growth of data traffic demand in the area of Telemetry Data Acquisition and Processing, one has to adopt a high bit rate PCM Telemetry Data Stream with the strategy of distributed task scheduling in multiprocessor environment. The proposed Telemetry System Architecture is adopted as a milestone to Modern Telemetry system. It incorporates various value added services for the performance evaluation of various flight vehicles providing authenticated data. This paper shows that by configuring the IP addresses of various nodes and router / bridges with V.35 interfaces, it is possible to extend the Telemetry Data on a local LAN to the remote LAN for display and high speed processing in real time. Necessary comparisons of performance of the existing to the proposed systems are presented.
    • THE RAH-66 COMANCHE NETWORKED BASED DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM

      Dehmelt, Chris; L3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Serial interfaces (RS232, RS422/485) have been the standard method of communications in traditional data acquisition systems. The role of these interfaces has been to supply a simple setup and control path between a host and the data acquisition master and little else. Today’s distributed data acquisition systems (DAS), which are comprised of many types of components including Ground Support Computers (GSC), Pilot Control Units (PCU), Data System Control Units (DSCU), Solid State Recorders (SSR), Data Acquisition Units (DAU) and Cockpit Instrumentation Data Systems (CIDS), are ideally suited to the use of Ethernet for not only setup functions, but for the distribution of acquired data and status to an unlimited number of users. Besides the obvious advantage of higher data rates, Ethernet provides other benefits such as greater data integrity, multi-host capability, and common programming interfaces. This paper details the integration of new L3 Communications - Telemetry East (L3-TE) Ethernet based software and hardware components that are part of the Comanche Data Systems equipment suite.
    • REACTIVE GRASP WITH PATH RELINKING FOR BROADCAST SCHEDULING

      Commander, Clayton W.; Butenko, Sergiy I.; Pardalos, Panos M.; Oliveira, Carlos A.S.; Eglin Air Force Base; Texas A&M University; University of Florida (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The Broadcast Scheduling Problem (BSP) is a well known NP-complete problem that arises in the study of wireless networks. In the BSP, a finite set of stations are to be scheduled in a time division multiple access (TDMA) frame. The objective is a collision free transmission schedule with the minimum number of TDMA slots and maximal slot utilization. Such a schedule will minimize the total system delay. We present variations of a Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) for the BSP. Path-relinking, a post-optimization strategy is applied. Also, a reactivity method is used to balance GRASP parameters. Numerical results of our research are reported and compared with other heuristics from the literature.
    • REAL-TIME GPS ATTITUDE DETERMINATION SYSTEM BASED ON EPOCH-BY-EPOCH™ TECHNOLOGY

      Bock, Yehuda; Macdonald, Thomas J.; Merts, John H.; Spires, William H., III; Bock, Lydia; Fayman, Jeffrey A.; Geodetics Inc.; MacroVision; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      There are many civilian and military applications requiring precise attitude determination. Geodetics Inc. has demonstrated high-accuracy GPS attitude solutions using their Epoch-by- Epoch™ (EBE) technology. EBE technology provides computational algorithms for instantaneous differential GPS processing of raw GPS measurement data (pseudorange and carrier phase). One of the most significant advantages of EBE technology over conventional GPS Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) algorithms is in its instantaneous initialization and reinitialization capability. This capability eliminates re-initialization delays due to losses-oflock, such as occur during high-dynamic maneuvers. This paper provides empirical data that was gathered during a test program, sponsored by Eglin Air Force Base, to assess the performance in real time of EBE technology as it applies to attitude determination. Using simulated data from a high-dynamic (9’g) maneuver, EBE yielded real-time attitude with accuracy better than one tenth of a degree (0.038 - 0.083 degrees, one standard deviation), utilizing geodetic quality GPS receivers operating in dual- or single-frequency mode with antenna separation of 2 meters. GPS geodetic receivers with only single frequency capability yielded attitude with accuracy of between 0.044 - 0.176 degrees after 1.3% - 2.5% of the solutions were rejected as data outliers.
    • REAL-TIME TENA-ENABLED DATA GATEWAY

      Achtzehnter, Joachim; Hauck, Preston; NetAcquire Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper describes the TENA architecture, which has been proposed by the Foundation Initiative 2010 (FI 2010) project as the basis for future US Test Range software systems. The benefits of this new architecture are explained by comparing the future TENA-enabled range infrastructure with the current situation of largely non-interoperable range resources. Legacy equipment and newly acquired off-the-shelf equipment that does not directly support TENA can be integrated into a TENA environment using TENA Gateways. This paper focuses on issues related to the construction of such gateways, including the important issue of real-time requirements when dealing with real-world data acquisition instruments. The benefits of leveraging commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) Data Acquisition Systems that are based on true real-time operating systems are discussed in the context of TENA Gateway construction.
    • THE RESEARCH OF A NEW MULTIUSER DETECTION SCHEME COMBINING DECORRELATING DETECTOR AND PARTIAL PARALLEL INTERFERENCE CANCELLER

      Wang, Yongjian; Zhou, Tingxian; Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The decorrelating detector can afford good data estimates because it does not need to know many parameters of the received signal. However, it shows great performance deprivation when the background noise is high. On the other hand, partial parallel interference canceller(PPIC) has the potential to combat the near-far problem and have much lower computation complexity. But its performance depends on the initial data estimate. An improved PPIC scheme is proposed in this paper to combat the near-far problem. It utilizes the advantages of the two detectors by combining them. The focus of this paper is on the BER performance and the near-far resistance capability of the proposed scheme. Computer simulations demonstrate that the proposed detector has good BER performance and near-far resistance capability.
    • THE RESEARCH ON THE HSP50214 PDC CHIP APPLYING TO FDM TELEMETRY SYSTEM

      Peng, Song; XiaoLin, Zhang; Wei, Zhang; North China University of Technology; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The content of this paper is putting forward an idea that applies the software radio technique to the subcarrier demodulation of frequency divided multiplexing telemetry system. Firstly, the article explains the basic thought and application of the software radio. It introduces the main function and the use of the programmable downconverter in HSP50214/ HSP50216. Secondly, it discusses the merit and shortcoming about the method of the subcarrier demodulation of frequency divided multiplexing telemetry system in common use. Finally, the article aims at ± 7.5% proportion bandwidth FM subcarrier channels that in common use in the military standard, introducing HSP50214/HSP50216 programmable downconverter in achievement of design and simulation result. The main problems in the design are discussed and a conclusion obtained.
    • RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN SENSOR NETWORKS USING DISTRIBUTED CONSTRAINT OPTIMIZATION

      Marefat, Michael; Reagan, John; Chachra, Sumit; Elhourani, Theodore; The University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Several algorithms have been proposed for solving constraint satisfaction and the more general constraint optimization problem in a distributed manner. In this paper we apply two such algorithms to the task of dynamic resource allocation in the sensor network domain using appropriate abstractions. The aim is to effectively track multiple targets by making the sensors coordinate with each other in a distributed manner, given a probabilistic representation of tasks (targets). We present simulation results and compare the performance of the DBA and DSA algorithms under varying experimental settings.
    • Securing Telemetry Post Processing Applications with Hardware Based Security

      Kalibjian, Jeff; Hewlett Packard Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The use of hardware security for telemetry in satellites utilized for intelligence and defense applications is well known. Less common is the use of hardware security in ground-based computers hosting applications that post process telemetry data. Analysis reveals vulnerabilities in software only security solutions that can result in the compromise of telemetry data housed on ground-based computer systems. Such systems maybe made less susceptible to compromise with the use of hardware based security.
    • Sensor Array Networking and Data Telemetering System

      Mavros, George; McKearney, Kathleen; Park, Bomi; Ryu, YoungBeom; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona is currently using a data collection system that requires transfer of data with the use of wire connections. To improve the system, wireless technology is utilized to collect and transmit data larger distances to a storage computer. The main goal of this project is to aide RSG in determining if wireless communication is an acceptable and useful means of transferring collected data. In order to fulfill this goal, a wireless system was selected that met specifications defined by RSG. Tests conducted on the system provided significant results of the project, which are a communication distance of 150 feet, download distance of 40 feet, and successfully storing the transmitted data within 3% accuracy.
    • SIGNAL PROCESSING ALGORITHMS FOR HIGH-PRECISION NAVIGATION AND GUIDANCE FOR UNDERWATER AUTONOMOUS SENSING SYSTEMS

      Doonan, Daniel; Utley, Chris; Lee, Hua; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper presents an alternative approach to high-precision bearing estimation for navigation and guidance in homing and docking of underwater vehicles. This new technique is significantly simpler than the conventional methods in terms of computation complexity and yet produces results of superior precision and consistency.
    • SOFT SEAMLESS SWITCHING IN DUAL-LOOP DSP-FLL FOR RAPID ACQUISITION AND TRACKING

      Weigang, Zhao; Tingyan, Yao; Jinpei, Wu; Qishan, Zhang; BeiHang University; Wuyi University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      FLL’s are extensively used for fast carrier synchronization. A common approach to meet the wide acquisition range and sufficiently small tracking error requirements is to adopt the wide or narrow band FLL loop in the acquisition and tracking modes and direct switching the loop. The paper analyze the influence of direct switching on performance, including the narrow band loop convergence, transition time etc. and propose applying the Kalman filtering theory to realize the seamless switching (SS) with time-varying loop gains between the two different loop tracking state. The SS control gains for the high dynamic digital spread spectrum receiver is derived. Simulation results for the SS compared to the direct switching demonstrate the improved performance.
    • SPACE-TIME CODED SOQPSK IN THE PRESENCE OF DIFFERENTIAL DELAYS

      Rice, Michael; Nelson, Tom; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper presents a method of detecting the Tier I modulation SOQPSK when it is used in a space-time coded (STC) system in which there is a non-negligible differential delay between the received signals. Space-time codes are useful to eliminate data dropouts which occur on aeronautical telemetry channels in which transmit diversity is employed. The proposed detection algorithm employs a trellis to detect the data while accounting for the offset between the in-phase and quadrature-phase components of the signals as well as the differential delay. The performance of the system is simulated and presented and it is shown that the STC eliminates the BER floor which results from the data dropouts.
    • A STATUS REPORT OF THE JOINT ADVANCED MISSILE INSTRUMENTATION PROJECT JAMI SYSTEM INTEGRATION

      Powell, Dave; Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Joint Advanced Missile Instrumentation (JAMI), a Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) initiative, is developing advanced telemetry system components that can be used in an integrated instrumentation package for tri-service small missile test and training applications. JAMI demonstrated significant improvement in the performance of low-cost Global Positioning System (GPS) based Time-Space-Position Information (TSPI) tracking hardware that can be used for world-wide test and training. Acquisition times of less than 3 seconds from a cold start and tracking dynamics to over 60 Gs were demonstrated. The design of a programmable Flight Termination Safe and Arm device has been completed. High dynamic testing results of GPS and Inertial measurement Unit (IMU) devices and problems encountered are discussed. Actual testing data will be compared with the original system design requirements. Integration of the JAMI components into weapon systems is now underway. This paper discusses the progress of the program during the past year and the efforts planned for the final year of 2005.
    • SURVEY OF DETECTION METHODS FOR ARTM CPM

      Perrins, Erik; Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The ARTM Tier-2 waveform, called “ARTM CPM” in IRIG 106-04, has almost three times the spectral efficiency of PCM/FM and approximately the same detection efficiency. The improved spectral efficiency comes at the price of computational complexity in the receiver. The optimum receiver requires 128 real-valued matched filters and keeps track of the waveform state with a trellis of 512 states and 2048 branches. Various complexity reducing techniques are applied and the resulting loss in detection efficiency is quantified. It is shown that the full 512-state trellis is not required to achieve the desired detection efficiency: two different 32-state configurations were found to perform within one tenth of a dB of optimal. Noncoherent techniques are also evaluated. It is shown that the required complexity can be quite large to achieve a respectable detection efficiency. One noncoherent technique performed within 1.9 dB of the optimal with only 64 states, which is significant when considering the additional complexity savings of not having to track the carrier phase.
    • TELEMETRY AND SERVICE CONVERGENCE IN MIXED PROTOCOL TEST RANGE NETWORKS

      Kovach, Bob; Terawave Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      In the past few years, an evolution has been occurring in test range network topologies. With the proliferation of IP-based networks at the desktop, range officers are seeking ways to extend IP-based networks to the test range, to derive the cost and operational benefits offered with IP technology. This transition is not without its own set of problems. The operational transition from the traditional, ATM-based ranges to IP-based ranges must be addressed. In many cases, it is desired to maintain the ATM range, and add IP capabilities as time and budget permits. The net result is that frequently a mixed protocol network emerges. Terawave Communications has been developing telemetry transport solutions for both ATM and IP-based networks, along with technology to enable convergence of additional services such as video, voice, and data across test ranges. Terawave has developed a solution for various network topologies from ATM-only and IP-only to mixed protocol implementations, which supports end-to-end interworking of telemetry, video, and additional services over mixed protocol networks. In this paper, Terawave will detail the implementation decisions made in the course of application development, and share a framework for enabling seamless intra- and inter- range communication of telemetry and mixed services.
    • Telemetry Best Source Selection at White Sands Missile Range

      Engler, Richard (Ray); Kirby, Johanna; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Over the last year, the Telemetry Data Center at White Sands Missile Range has conducted extensive comparative testing between its’ 20 year old Best Source Selector and several “off the shelf” selectors currently available. This paper explores the concerns involved in the process of selecting a new Best Source Selector and examines the inherent problems and differences associated with the old and new selectors.
    • TELEMETRY LINK RELIABILITY IMPROVEMENT VIA “NO-HIT” DIVERSITY BRANCH SELECTION

      Jefferis, Robert P.; TYBRIN Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Multipath propagation consisting largely of specular reflection components is known to be the major channel impairment in many aeronautical mobile telemetry (AMT) applications. Adaptive equalizers are not effective against flat fading commonly created by strong power delay profile components representing small fractions of the transmitted symbol period. Avoidance and diversity techniques are the only practical means of combating this problem. A new post-detection, no-hit diversity branch selector is described in this paper. Laboratory and limited flight test data comparing non-diversity, selection diversity and intermediate frequency (IF) combining techniques are presented.
    • TESTING OF A DTN PROTOCOL - CCSDS FILE DELIVERY PROTOCOL INTER-IMPLEMENTATION TESTING FINAL REPORT

      Carper, Richard D.; Ciccone, Massimiliano; Rockwell, Kathy Bryan; Space Data Systems; European Space Agency; California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The CCSDS has developed the “CCSDS File Delivery Protocol” (CFDP), as a disruption/delay tolerant file transfer protocol. CFDP allows an automatic, reliable file transfer between spacecraft and ground (in both directions) designed to support the operation of spacecraft by means of file transfer and remote file system management. To support the development and fielding of the protocol in an international and cross-supporting environment, an international, inter-operability test program has been developed and successfully executed. First phase testing involved five independent implementations of the Core Procedures of the protocol. The second phase tests involve multi-hop transferring of files using the Extended Procedures. The third phase involves the testing of the SFO Procedures. The latter two phases involved two independent protocol implementations, namely, those of ESA and JPL. This paper constitutes a final report on the process of testing, the test results, the experience gained, and the resulting plans to extend this methodology to other areas within the CCSDS.