• XML: A GLOBAL STANDARD FOR THE FLIGHT TEST COMMUNITY

      Corry, Diarmuid; Cooke, Alan; ACRA CONTROL (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Much effort has been spent on developing physical layer standards to ease multi-vendor inter-operability. However as anyone familiar with real-life system integration knows a large gap exists in defining system configuration and set-up, not just between vendors but also between different groups on the base. Different solutions to this problem have been attempted (for example TMATS). However, the emergence of XML (eXtensible Markup Language) as a commercial standard presents a new opportunity to define a powerful and extensible tool for data-interchange between different systems. This paper introduces the self-documenting standard for information exchange that is XML. A generic model for flight test data acquisition is presented. Finally, an XML vocabulary (or schema) based on this model is proposed. This schema could form the basis for an industry wide XML standard to simplify the problem of data interchange between vendors, between programs, even between different databases in the same organisation.
    • DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE FOR A SELF-DESCRIBING DATA SYSTEM

      Eccles, Lee H.; Boeing Commercial Airplanes (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Flight Test data systems have in the past been setup by experts using ground based computer systems. In the future it will be possible to give the system a list of parameters to be measured on a given test and have the data acquisition system return the information necessary to process the data. There are several things that are leading systems in this direction. Recorders are beginning to record Meta data along with the data on the same media. IRIG 106 Chapter 10 recorder specification requires that a TMATS file be stored on the media with the data so that the data can be processed by any system. The TMATS file is Meta data. However, the TMATS file still needs to be generated by conventional means. Another factor leading us in this direction is the advent of network based data acquisition systems. This will allow much simpler algorithms to be used to format the data and remove some of the reliance on experts to accomplish this task. What this paper discusses is preliminary work toward using an XML based approach to having the system generate the setup information. The result will be an XML Schema. This can then be used by microprocessors in the data acquisition system to create a record for each measurement that can then be used to process the data.
    • Sensor Array Networking and Data Telemetering System

      Mavros, George; McKearney, Kathleen; Park, Bomi; Ryu, YoungBeom; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona is currently using a data collection system that requires transfer of data with the use of wire connections. To improve the system, wireless technology is utilized to collect and transmit data larger distances to a storage computer. The main goal of this project is to aide RSG in determining if wireless communication is an acceptable and useful means of transferring collected data. In order to fulfill this goal, a wireless system was selected that met specifications defined by RSG. Tests conducted on the system provided significant results of the project, which are a communication distance of 150 feet, download distance of 40 feet, and successfully storing the transmitted data within 3% accuracy.
    • SURVEY OF DETECTION METHODS FOR ARTM CPM

      Perrins, Erik; Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The ARTM Tier-2 waveform, called “ARTM CPM” in IRIG 106-04, has almost three times the spectral efficiency of PCM/FM and approximately the same detection efficiency. The improved spectral efficiency comes at the price of computational complexity in the receiver. The optimum receiver requires 128 real-valued matched filters and keeps track of the waveform state with a trellis of 512 states and 2048 branches. Various complexity reducing techniques are applied and the resulting loss in detection efficiency is quantified. It is shown that the full 512-state trellis is not required to achieve the desired detection efficiency: two different 32-state configurations were found to perform within one tenth of a dB of optimal. Noncoherent techniques are also evaluated. It is shown that the required complexity can be quite large to achieve a respectable detection efficiency. One noncoherent technique performed within 1.9 dB of the optimal with only 64 states, which is significant when considering the additional complexity savings of not having to track the carrier phase.
    • THROUGHPUT AND LATENCY PERFORMANCE OF IEEE 802.11E WITH 802.11A, 802.11B, AND 802.11G PHYSICAL LAYERS

      Shah, Vishal; Cooklev, Todor; IEEE (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      IEEE 802.11e is an amendment of the medium-access control (MAC) layer of the standard for wireless local area networking IEEE 802.11. The goal of 802.11e is to provide 802.11 networks with Quality of Service (QoS). 802.11 has three physical layers (PHY) of practical importance: 802.11b, 802.11a, and 802.11g. 802.11a and 802.11g provide data rates between 6 and 54 Mbps, and 802.11b provides data rates of 5.5 Mbps and 11 Mbps. However these data rates are not the actual throughput. The actual throughput that a user will experience will be lower. The throughput depends on both the PHY and MAC layers. It is important to estimate what exactly is the throughput when the physical layer is 802.11a, 802.11b, or 802.11g, and the MAC layer is 802.11e. In other words, how does providing QoS change the throughput for each of the three physical layers? In this paper we provide answers to this problem. Analytic formulae are derived. The maximum achievable throughput and minimum delay involved in data transfers are determined. The obtained results have further significance for the design of high-throughput wireless protocols.
    • ADVANCED INSTRUMENTATION CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR F/A-18E/F

      Baker, Grady; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The purpose of this paper is to present the use of production aircraft equipment and wiring for control of the onboard instrumentation system. The major advantages and challenges associated with the use of existing production equipment versus dedicated instrumentation wiring and hardware will be explored. Many of the issues raised, including non-interference with existing avionics, are complex. It is the hope of the author that this paper will generate awareness and discussion on these issues.
    • A MULTIFUNCTION SATELLITE BACKHAUL SYSTEM FOR AIRCRAFT FLIGHT TEST APPLICATIONS

      Bell, John J. (Jack); Mileshko, James; Payne, Edward L.; Wagler, Paul; ViaSat, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper will present the design of a network used to receive and record sensor data and provide voice communications between a flight controller and the pilot of an aircraft undergoing flight testing in remote areas. The network utilizes a completely self-contained mobile tracking subsystem to receive and relay the sensor data and cockpit voice in real-time over a geostationary satellite. In addition to the aircraft tracking and data/voice relay functions, the system also provides local data recording at the mobile station, telephone and intercom connectivity between the mobile station and the control center, and remote equipment setup via the satellite link.
    • Integrating a Limiter/Filter/Amplifier into a Conformal Wraparound GPS/TM Antenna Substrate

      Ryken, Marv; Davis, Rick; Kujiraoka, Scott; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Missile instrumentation systems designers are constantly striving to achieve better performance out of their systems. Optimizing the antenna coverage and decreasing the noise figure are constantly strived for in order to improve system performance. At the same time, weapon systems are becoming smaller with the resulting reduced area for instrumentation. One way to achieve a lower system noise figure is to have the limiter, filter, and amplifier (LFA) located as close to the antenna as possible. This can be achieved by integrating the LFA into the substrate of a conformal wraparound antenna. Not only does this decrease the system noise, but it also saves space in an already crowded missile instrumentation section. This paper details the latest efforts in accomplishing this integration.
    • INTEGRATION OF S-BAND FQPSK TELEMETRY TRANSMITTERS AND GPS-BASED TSPI SYSTEMS WITH CLOSELY SPACED ANTENNAE – A SUCCESS STORY

      Selbrede, Robert W.; Pozmantier, Ronald; JT3 LLC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Modern spectrally efficient telemetry transmitters are beginning to find their way on a variety of airborne test platforms. Many of these platforms also include Global Positioning System (GPS)-based Time-Space-Position-Information (TSPI) instrumentation systems. Due to space and other limitations, many of these platforms have demanding antenna placement limitations requiring closely spaced antennas. This paper describes steps taken to identify and mitigate potential interference to GPS-based TSPI instrumentation systems by these new technology transmitters. Equipment characterization was accomplished to determine interference potential of the proposed new transmitters and susceptibility of several GPS TSPI receivers. Several filtering techniques were identified as possible solutions to the anticipated interference problems. Telemetry (TM)/GPS system mockups and laboratory tests of the same were accomplished. Open-air testing was then accomplished to validate laboratory results. Finally, on aircraft tests were accomplished prior to performing any aircraft system modifications. Results of these test efforts are presented for others to consider when planning similar modifications to other platforms.
    • COMPARISON OF ALAMOUTI AND DIFFERENTIAL SPACE-TIME CODES FOR AERONAUTICAL TELEMETRY DUAL-ANTENNA TRANSMIT DIVERSITY

      Jensen, Michael A.; Rice, Michael D.; Anderson, Adam L.; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The placement of two antennas on an air vehicle is one possible practice for overcoming signal obstruction created by vehicle maneuvering during air-to-ground transmission. Unfortunately, for vehicle attitudes where both antennas have a clear path to the receiving station, this practice also leads to self-interference nulls, resulting in dramatic degradation in the average signal integrity. This paper discusses application of unitary space-time codes such as the Alamouti transmit diversity scheme and unitary differential space-time codes to overcome the self-interference effect observed in such systems.
    • ORTHOGONAL DUAL-ANTENNA TRANSMIT DIVERSITY FOR SOQPSK IN AERONAUTICAL TELEMETRY CHANNELS

      Jensen, Michael A.; Rice, Michael D.; Nelson, Thomas; Anderson, Adam L.; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Transmit diversity schemes such as the Alamouti space-time code have been shown to be viable candidates to enable robust dual-antenna transmission from maneuvering air vehicles. However, due to the complicated structure of shaped offset quadrature phase shift keying (SOQPSK) modulation, the Alamouti approach has not been applicable to SOQPSK systems. This paper develops a precoding and detection algorithm which allows implementation of dual-antenna Alamouti signaling for SOQPSK modulation. Performance simulations demonstrate the performance of the scheme for a realistic flight scenario.
    • SOFT SEAMLESS SWITCHING IN DUAL-LOOP DSP-FLL FOR RAPID ACQUISITION AND TRACKING

      Weigang, Zhao; Tingyan, Yao; Jinpei, Wu; Qishan, Zhang; BeiHang University; Wuyi University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      FLL’s are extensively used for fast carrier synchronization. A common approach to meet the wide acquisition range and sufficiently small tracking error requirements is to adopt the wide or narrow band FLL loop in the acquisition and tracking modes and direct switching the loop. The paper analyze the influence of direct switching on performance, including the narrow band loop convergence, transition time etc. and propose applying the Kalman filtering theory to realize the seamless switching (SS) with time-varying loop gains between the two different loop tracking state. The SS control gains for the high dynamic digital spread spectrum receiver is derived. Simulation results for the SS compared to the direct switching demonstrate the improved performance.
    • DESIGN OF A SOFTWARE GPS RECEIVER AND ITS MATLAB IMPLEMENTATION

      Zhao, Yun; Zhang, Qishan; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The embedded system related hardware technology has experienced rapid development, and it provided the software technology with a huge space for growth. Therefore using software approaches to perform GPS receiver functions in a powerful and generic hardware platform is becoming more feasible. In this paper, the software GPS receiver technology and the design basics of the software receiver are discussed. Further in the Matlab simulation environment, the implementation of a software receiver for replacing the processing functions of ASIC in traditional GPS receivers, i.e. RF front end and multi-channel correlator, is presented. Some simulation results and implementation details are included.
    • REAL-TIME TENA-ENABLED DATA GATEWAY

      Achtzehnter, Joachim; Hauck, Preston; NetAcquire Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper describes the TENA architecture, which has been proposed by the Foundation Initiative 2010 (FI 2010) project as the basis for future US Test Range software systems. The benefits of this new architecture are explained by comparing the future TENA-enabled range infrastructure with the current situation of largely non-interoperable range resources. Legacy equipment and newly acquired off-the-shelf equipment that does not directly support TENA can be integrated into a TENA environment using TENA Gateways. This paper focuses on issues related to the construction of such gateways, including the important issue of real-time requirements when dealing with real-world data acquisition instruments. The benefits of leveraging commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) Data Acquisition Systems that are based on true real-time operating systems are discussed in the context of TENA Gateway construction.
    • CVSD MODULATOR USING VHDL

      Hicks, William T.; Yantorno, Robert E.; Temple University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      IRIG-106 Chapter 5 describes a method for encoding voice using a simple circuit to reduce the overall bit rate and still achieve good quality voice. This well described Continuously Variable Slope Delta Modulation (CVSD) circuit can be obtained using analog parts. A more stable implementation of CVSD can be obtained by designing an anti-aliasing input filter, an A/D converter, and logic. This paper describes one implementation of the CVSD using a standard A/D converter and logic.
    • THE BASE STATION TELEMETRY DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM FOR UNMANNED HELICOPTERS

      Bin, Xu; XiaoLin, Zhang; Guolei, Lu; Weiwei, Hu; Beihang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      This paper discusses the design and implementation of the base station telemetry data processing system for the unmanned helicopter. The system designed is composed of code synchronizer, decoding and frame synchronizer as well as PCI bus interface. The functions of the system are implemented with very large integrated circuits and a standard PCI inserted card that is compact and easy to install. The result of flight performance tests shows that the system is reliable and can satisfy the requirements of telemetry system for unmanned helicopters.
    • EMI AND SOFTWARE IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SOLAR MINER IV TELEMETRY PROCESSOR

      DeConink, Chad; DeConink, Sarah; Dean, James; Martin, Brad; Kosbar, Kurt; University of Missouri (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The UMR Solar Car uses a telemetry processor to collect, compute, and transmit data to the driver of the car and a nearby chase vehicle. The original processor had deteriorated from environmental extremes and vibration. There were also problems with electromagnetic interference from the high efficiency electric motor switching electronics, difficulties with the many unplanned additions made to the processor in the field, and the unstructured software that was becoming difficult to maintain. This project consists of creating a replacement telemetry system that is more robust mechanically, and electrically, substantially improving the EMI performance of the device, and reworking the hardware and software to make it easier to maintain and upgrade.
    • Using Telemetry Front-end Equipment and Network Attached Storage Connected to Form a Real-time Data Recording and Playback System

      Gatton, Tim; General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The use of traditional telemetry decommutation equipment can be easily expanded to create a real-time pulse code modulation (PCM) telemetry data recorder. However, there are two areas that create unique demands where architectural investment is required: the PCM output stage and the storage stage. This paper details the efforts to define the requirements and limits of a traditional telemetry system when used as a real-time, multistream PCM data recorder with time tagging.
    • THE MODULAR RANGE INTERFACE (MODRI) DATA ACQUISITION CAPABILITIES AND STRATEGIES

      Marler, Thomas M.; TYBRIN Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      The Modular Range Interface (ModRI) is a reliable networked data acquisition system used to acquire and disseminate dissimilar data. ModRI’s purpose is to connect TSPI systems to a central computer network. The modular hardware design consists of an SBC, COTS network interfaces, and other COTS interfaces in a VME form factor. The modular software design uses C++ and OO patterns running under an RTOS. Current capabilities of ModRI include acquisition of Ethernet, PCM data, RS-422/232 serial data, and IRIG-B time. Future strategies might include stand-alone data acquisition, acquisition of digital video, and migration to other architectures and operating systems.
    • Telemetry Best Source Selection at White Sands Missile Range

      Engler, Richard (Ray); Kirby, Johanna; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2004-10)
      Over the last year, the Telemetry Data Center at White Sands Missile Range has conducted extensive comparative testing between its’ 20 year old Best Source Selector and several “off the shelf” selectors currently available. This paper explores the concerns involved in the process of selecting a new Best Source Selector and examines the inherent problems and differences associated with the old and new selectors.