• System-Level Algorithm Design for Radionavigation using UWB Waveforms

      Iltis, Ronald A.; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      A radiolocation/navigation system is considered in which mobile nodes use ultra-wideband (UWB) radios to obtain inter-node ranges via round-trip travel time (RTT). Each node is also assumed to contain an inertial measurement unit (IMU) which generates 2D position estimates subject to Gaussian drift and additive noise errors. The key problem in such a system is obtaining 2 or 3-D position estimates from the nonlinear UWB range measurements and fusing the resulting UWB and IMU estimates. The system presented uses a Steepest Descent Random Start (SDRS) algorithm to solve the nonlinear positioning problem. It is shown that SDRS is a stable algorithim under a realistic communications reciprocity assumption. The SDRS estimates are then treated as measurements by the navigation Kalman filter. The navigation filter also processes separate IMU-derived position estimates to update node position/velocity. Simulation results for an urban corridor are given showing < 6 m. rms position errors.
    • Remote-Sensed LIDAR Using Random Impulsive Scans

      Creusere, Charles D.; Castorena, Juan; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Third generation full-waveform (FW) LIDAR systems image an entire scene by emitting laser pulses in particular directions and measuring the echoes. Each of these echoes provides range measurements about the objects intercepted by the laser pulse along a specified direction. By scanning through a specified region using a series of emitted pulses and observing their echoes, connected 1D profiles of 3D scenes can be readily obtained. This extra information has proven helpful in providing additional insight into the scene structure which can be used to construct effective characterizations and classifications. Unfortunately, massive amounts of data are typically collected which impose storage, processing and transmission limitations. To address these problems, a number of compression approaches have been developed in the literature. These, however, generally require the initial acquisition of large amounts of data only to later discard most of it by exploiting redundancies, thus sampling inefficiently. Based on this, our main goal is to apply efficient and effective LIDAR sampling schemes that achieve acceptable reconstruction quality of the 3D scenes. To achieve this goal, we propose on using compressive sampling by emitting pulses only into random locations within the scene and collecting only the corresponding returned FW signals. Under this framework, the number of emissions would typically be much smaller than what traditional LIDAR systems require. Application of this requires, however, that scenes contain many degrees of freedom. Fortunately, such a requirement is satisfied in most natural and man-made scenes. Here, we propose to use a measure of rank as the measure of degrees of freedom. To recover the connected 1D profiles of the 3D scene, matrix completion is applied to the tensor slices. In this paper, we test our approach by showing that recovery of compressively sampled 1D profiles of actual 3D scenes is possible using only a subset of measurements.
    • EELV Incorporates GPS Metric Tracking as a Range Tracking Source

      Broadus, Charles; Siegal, Richard; Kreng, Jack; Moore, Theodore; United Launch Alliance; Microwave Innovations; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Currently, the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) utilizes a communications, tracking, and control system that was developed at the inception of the space launch industry. The current system operation and large ground footprint have driven the United States Air Force (USAF) to embark on an initiative known as the Future Flight Safety System (FFSS) that will lead into a Space Based Range Concept. An important phase of FFSS is the implementation of Global Positioning System Metric Tracking (GPS MT) on all launch vehicles. Working in partnership, United Launch Alliance (ULA) and their USAF EELV customer have developed a common GPS MT solution for both the Atlas V and Delta IV Launch Vehicles.
    • The Process of Implementing a RF Front-End Transceiver for NASA's Space Network

      Thompson, Willie L., II; Wilder, Ali; Pannu, Randeep; Haj-Omar, Amr; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Software defined radio (SDR) introduces endless possibilities for future communication technologies. Instead of being limited to a static segment of the radio spectrum, SDR allows RF front-ends to be more flexible by using digital signal processing (DSP) and cognitive techniques to integrate adaptive hardware with dynamic software. We present the design and implementation of an innovative RF front-end transceiver architecture for application into a SDR test-bed platform. System-level requirements were extracted from the Space Network User Guide (SNUG). Initial system characterization demonstrated image leakage due to poor filtering and mixer isolation issues. Hence, the RF front-end design was re-implemented using the Weaver architecture for improved image rejection performance.
    • The Space Ground Link Subsystem (SGLS) Downlink Detection Improvement

      Washburn, Greg; Corman, David; ITT Exelis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The Space Ground Link Subsystem (SGLS) downlink signals are a PM/PSK modulation and have been detected at VAFB by detuning the receivers to the subcarrier frequency or by using cascaded demodulators. A recent demodulator enhancement by SEMCO allows a single box solution by internally routing the signals between FPGAs. This paper discusses the test methods and compares the results of the legacy methods of demodulation with the new demodulators.
    • Minimizing Interference in Simultaneous Operations between GPS and Other Instrumentation Systems

      Kujiraoka, Scott; Troublefield, Robert; Fielder, Russell; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Currently many airborne platforms (missiles, targets, and projectiles) contain multiple instrumentation systems to cover the functions of GPS and either telemetry, beacon tracking and/or flight termination. Most of these platforms are not very large, so mounting of various antennas to support these functions are physically close to each other. As a result, unwanted interference (in the form of RF coupling between them) is unavoidable. This paper will discuss the design considerations involved to minimize this interference as well as some lessons learned with its implementation.
    • Multiple-Input Multiple Output System on a Spinning Vehicle with Unknown Channel State Information

      Kosbar, Kurt; Muralidhar, Aditya; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper presents the investigations into the performance of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with its transmitters on a spinning vehicle and no available channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter or the receiver. The linear least squares approach is used to estimate the channel and the estimation error is measured. Spinning gives rise to a periodic component in the channel which can be estimated based on the spin rate relative to the data rate of the system. It is also determined that spinning causes the bit error rate of the system to degrade by a few dB.
    • Estimation and Correction of Quadrature-Receiver Phase Errors of Stepped-Frequency FMCW Systems for High-Resolution Imaging

      Liebling, Michael; Lee, Hua; Lee, Michael; Doonan, Daniel; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper presents an algorithm for the reduction or removal of the quadrature-receiver phase errors of stepped-frequency frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) imaging systems. The algorithm includes the procedures for the phase error estimation and correction process. Theoretical analysis and simulations are included in the paper to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.
    • UAV Autonomy Research - Challenges and Advantages of a Fully Distributed System Architecture

      Böhm, Florian; Schulte, Axel; Universität der Bundeswehr München (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      A fully distributed system concept solely based on networked sensor and processing subsystem modules, both on-board of an UAV and on the side of the user interface, allows scalable systems, adaptability of the control system hierarchy without hardware changes, and a quick exchange of individual system modules. Reliable results in UAV autonomy research are requiring documentation and detailed reasoning of events and decisions during the flight tests, especially in experiments with real UAV demonstrators. This must also be ensured in the case of not available communication links. The optimal interaction of various modules on the ground and in the air is essential for an efficient overall system. To prove this, a synchronous recording of data from various sensors and automation modules as well as the recording of all user inputs is necessary. This article discusses the challenges and advantages of a fully distributed system approach. The discussion is based on experiences from an open source based implementation and deployment on two research UAV demonstrators of different payload classes (electrical glider and turbine-driven rotorcraft).
    • The Design of a Fully Autonomous RC Racecar

      Archibald, James K.; Wilde, Doran; Rice, Michael D.; Black, Richard A.; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper discusses the design of an autonomous remote-controlled racecar to play a one-on-one match of capture the flag. A competition was held, and the results are presented and conclusions are made.
    • Spectrum Management Metrics Development

      Jones, Charles H.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      There is a lot of talk about there not being enough spectrum available for use by either government or industry. One would thus suppose that there are clear answers to the questions, "How much spectrum is being used?" and "How much spectrum would be used if it was available?" Unfortunately, clear answers do not exist. In fact, even if you collected data, analyzed it, and generated charts, there is likely to be (and, in fact, have been) long debates about the meaning of those charts. A fundamental problem is that there are no standard metrics for reporting spectrum usage. A well-defined and documented set of metrics would aid in any analysis and discussion of spectrum usage. The Range Commander's Council (RCC) Frequency Management Group (FMG) has initiated a formal Task, FM-37, to develop and standardize a set of spectrum management metrics. These metrics will go beyond simple usage and provide metrics for analysis of spectrum management in general, such as spectrum usage requirements, scheduling efficiencies, and prediction of impacts to spectrum availability. This paper overviews an initial draft of the document being developed under Task FM-37.
    • Merging Multiple Telemetry Files from Widely Separated Sources for Improved Data Integrity

      Endress, William; Raytheon Missile Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Merging telemetry data from multiple data sources into a single file, provides the ability to fill in gaps in the data and reduce noise by taking advantage of the multiple sources. This is desirable when analyzing the data as there is only one file to work from. Also, the analysts will spend less time trying to explain away gaps and spikes in data that are attributable to dropped and noisy telemetry frames, leading to more accurate reports. This paper discusses the issues and solutions for doing the merge.
    • Machine Vision and Autonomous Integration Into an Unmanned Aircraft System

      Dianics, James; Fasel, Hermann F.; Marcellin, Michael W.; Alexander, Josh; Blake, Sam; Clasby, Brendan; Shah, Anshul Jatin; Van Horne, Chris; Van Horne, Justin; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The University of Arizona's Aerial Robotics Club (ARC) sponsored two senior design teams to compete in the 2011 AUVSI Student Unmanned Aerial Systems (SUAS) competition. These teams successfully design and built a UAV platform in-house that was capable of autonomous flight, capturing aerial imagery, and filtering for target recognition but required excessive computational hardware and software bugs that limited the systems capability. A new multi-discipline team of undergrads was recruited to completely redesign and optimize the system in an attempt to reach true autonomous real-time target recognition with reasonable COTS hardware.
    • Using Telemetry to Confirm Equipment Performance and mission Life Requirements

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The tools, technologies, practices, policies, procedures and procurement process developed and implemented over 50 years to produce highly reliable spacecraft and spacecraft subsystem equipment have yielded spacecraft and launch vehicles whose reliability is dominated by premature equipment failures and surprise equipment failures at yearly rates as high as 25% that increase risk and decrease safety, mission assurance and effectiveness. Large, complex aerospace systems such as aircraft, launch vehicle and satellites are subjected to most exhaustive and comprehensive acceptance-testing program at the factory that is also used in other industries and that also suffer from the high premature failure rates. Desired/required spacecraft equipment performance is measured confirmed during factory testing, however equipment usable/mission life requirement is not measured but calculated manually and so the spacecraft and launch vehicle equipment that will fail prematurely are not identified and replaced before use. Spacecraft equipment mission-life is calculated using stochastic equations from probability reliability analysis engineering standards such as MIL STD 217. The change in the engineering practices used to manufacture and test spacecraft to identify the equipment that will fail prematurely include using a prognostic and health management (PHM) program. The PHM includes using predictive algorithms to convert equipment analog telemetry of any type into a measurement of equipment usable life by demodulating the telemetry behavior in time, amplitude, frequency and phase. The conversion of equipment analog telemetry from performance data to a measurement of usable life is done in a prognostic analysis. A prognostic analysis includes an engineering analysis that is shared with manufacturing and test, but results in premature equipment failures at rates as high as 70% once the equipment gets to space in space, but also includes a scientific analysis of the analog telemetry so that conjecture and speculation is not used to identify the presence as systemic noise.
    • UDP Based Wireless Telemetry Network and Data Acquisition System for Rotary Application

      Imay, Murat; Cranley, Nikki; Atman, Ozgur; Turkish Aeroespace Ind.; Curtiss-Wright Avionics and Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper presents an open system architecture with wireless network centric telemetry and data acquisition over UDP/IP. This networked solution was designed and developed for iron bird and helicopter rotor applications which present a significant challenge for data acquisition and telemetry. Traditionally slip rings were used for data transfer however these result in issues with low bandwidth, electrical noise, installation complexity, and high maintenance costs. This paper describes a networked system using standardized technologies and protocols that was used for data acquisition and recording of parameters such as vibration, strain, and video on DAQ installed on the rotating part. The acquired data was transmitted in real-time via the network-centric wireless telemetry link which was synchronized with a ground-based DAQ used for real time processing of the rotor data.
    • Stopping Launch Vehicle Failures Using Telemetry to Measure Equipment Usable Life

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Launch vehicle equipment reliability is driven by infant mortality failures, which can be eliminated using a prognostic analysis prior, during and/or after the exhaustive and comprehensive dynamic environmental factory acceptance testing. Measuring and confirming equipment performance is completed to increase equipment reliability by identifying equipment that fails during test for repair/replacement. To move to the 100% reliability domain, equipment dynamic environmental factory testing should be followed by a prognostic analysis to measure equipment usable life and identify the equipment that will fail prematurely. During equipment testing, only equipment performance is measured and equipment performance is unrelated to equipment reliability making testing alone inadequate to produce equipment with 100% reliability. A prognostic analysis converts performance measurements into an invasive usable life measurement by sharing test data used to measure equipment performance. Performance data is converted to usable life data provides a time-to-failure (TTF) in minutes/hours/days/months for equipment that will fail within the first year of use, allowing the production of equipment with 100% reliability.
    • PCM to Ethernet: A Hybrid System Used to Certify the Next Generation of Data Transfer Technology

      de Souza, Luiz Fernando; Rios, Domingos Henrique Beolchi; Willis, Stephen; Embraer S. A.; Curtiss-Wright Controls Avionics & Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The last few years has witnessed the adoption of Ethernet technology in an increasing number of FTI applications. This is a result of both the growing acceptance within the community of the application of the technology, the availability of suitable hardware and the desire for increased parameters/higher data rates that PCM is unable to accommodate. However, migrating from an existing PCM based networked system to Ethernet is not typically just a case of exchanging the necessary hardware. There can be a range of other issues that require addressing such as ensuring determinism and realizing previous investment in hardware - this paper highlights and discusses several of these. This paper presents a case study of an FTI application on the Embraer Legacy 500 where a hybrid PCM and Ethernet configuration was implemented. One reason for this configuration was that it was necessary to prove to the Brazilian Aeronautical Agency that the data acquired using an Ethernet system was as reliable as that acquired using PCM. An additional reason was that such a system was seen as a safe stepping stone to a full Ethernet system for programs in the near future which are planning to fully migrate to an Ethernet architecture.
    • ITC TENA-Enabled Range Roadmap Paper

      Schoberg, Paul; Beatty, Harry; McKinley, Robert A.; PMRF CIO; PMRF Technical POC; TRAX-International (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper discusses the Department of Defense (DoD) direction to provide an environment for realistic Test & Evaluation in a Joint operational context and enhance interoperability and reuse with other test ranges and facilities though the use of the Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA) and connectivity to the Joint Mission Environment Test Capability (JMETC) joint test infrastructure. The intent of the "TENA-Enabled Range Roadmap" is to describe how TENA would be incorporated into PMRF's range infrastructure through both near-term upgrades and long-term system replacement. While details of this implementation plan are specific to PMRF, this roadmap can serve as a blueprint for TENA implementation at other ranges throughout the DoD.
    • TENA Software Decommutation System

      Wigent, Mark A.; Mazzario, Andrea M.; SAIC; Kauai Software Solutions (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA) is implemented within the TENA Software Decommutation System (TSDS) in order to bring TENA as close as possible to the sensor interface. Key attributes of TSDS include: • TSDS is a software-based approach to telemetry stream decommutation implemented within Java. This offers technical advantages such as platform independence and portability. • TSDS uses auto code generation technologies to further reduce the effort associated with updating decommutation systems to support new telemetry stream definitions. Users of TSDS within the range are not required to have detailed knowledge of proprietary protocols, nor are they required to have an understanding of how to implement decommutation within software. The use of code generation in software decommutation offers potential cost savings throughout the entire T&E community. • TSDA offers a native TENA interface so that telemetry data can be published directly into TENA object models.
    • TENA and JMETC, Enabling Integrated Testing in Joint Distributed LVC Environments

      Hudgins, Gene; Poch, Keith; Secondine, Juana; TENA Software Development Activity (SDA) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The TENA SDA has developed and validated a common architecture called TENA, which provides for real-time software system interoperability using the TENA Middleware, as well as interfaces to existing range assets, C4ISR systems, and simulations. The TENA Middleware, currently at Release 6.0.3, has been used by the range community for testing, evaluation, and feedback in many major exercises since 2002 and has been selected as the interoperability solution in JMETC's distributed testing. Through investment in TRMC's T&E/S&T Program and innovative use by Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) and White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), TENA is expanding to the Telemetry community.