• Using Analog Telemetry to Measure Usable Life Invasively on the Air Force's Next Generation Reusable Space Booster Equipment

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Measuring and confirming equipment usable life that passes dynamic environmental factory acceptance testing (ATP) will ensure no equipment will fail prematurely increasing safety and mission assurance on the Air Force's Next Generation Reusable Space Booster (NGRSB). The same analog telemetry generated and analyzed during ATP used to measure and confirm equipment performance per the procurement contract can serve both purposes. Since the NGRSB payload lift requirement is the same as the EELV, the need for exotic combinations of reusable and throwaway components is unnecessary unless they yield new level of reliability, maintainability and supportability. A prognostics and health management (PHM) program exploits the presence of non-repeatable transient events (NRTE) (a.k.a. accelerated aging) that is missed during any engineering analysis in equipment analog telemetry to calculate equipment remaining usable life/mission life. Without an invasive physical measurement of equipment usable life, satellite and launch vehicle equipment reliability is dominated by premature equipment failures. If the Air Force continues to calculate NGRSB equipment mission life on paper, the NGRSB equipment reliability will also be dominated by infant mortality failures just as all expendable launch vehicle equipment is. The Air Force's, Markov-based reliability paradigm used to procure Air Force satellites and launch vehicles, results in space mission infant mortality failure rate as high as 25%/year. According to the Aerospace Corporation, Air Force space vehicle equipment that passes both equipment level and vehicle level ATP has a 70% likelihood of failing prematurely within 45 days after arriving in space. If a PHM is used on the NGRSB, it stops premature failures and lowers life overall cycle cost providing superior reliability, maintainability, supportability and availability for future Air Force space missions that are too important and too expensive to fail prematurely.
    • Multiple-Input Multiple Output System on a Spinning Vehicle with Unknown Channel State Information

      Kosbar, Kurt; Muralidhar, Aditya; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper presents the investigations into the performance of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with its transmitters on a spinning vehicle and no available channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter or the receiver. The linear least squares approach is used to estimate the channel and the estimation error is measured. Spinning gives rise to a periodic component in the channel which can be estimated based on the spin rate relative to the data rate of the system. It is also determined that spinning causes the bit error rate of the system to degrade by a few dB.
    • Estimation and Correction of Quadrature-Receiver Phase Errors of Stepped-Frequency FMCW Systems for High-Resolution Imaging

      Liebling, Michael; Lee, Hua; Lee, Michael; Doonan, Daniel; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper presents an algorithm for the reduction or removal of the quadrature-receiver phase errors of stepped-frequency frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) imaging systems. The algorithm includes the procedures for the phase error estimation and correction process. Theoretical analysis and simulations are included in the paper to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.
    • Spectrum Management Metrics Development

      Jones, Charles H.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      There is a lot of talk about there not being enough spectrum available for use by either government or industry. One would thus suppose that there are clear answers to the questions, "How much spectrum is being used?" and "How much spectrum would be used if it was available?" Unfortunately, clear answers do not exist. In fact, even if you collected data, analyzed it, and generated charts, there is likely to be (and, in fact, have been) long debates about the meaning of those charts. A fundamental problem is that there are no standard metrics for reporting spectrum usage. A well-defined and documented set of metrics would aid in any analysis and discussion of spectrum usage. The Range Commander's Council (RCC) Frequency Management Group (FMG) has initiated a formal Task, FM-37, to develop and standardize a set of spectrum management metrics. These metrics will go beyond simple usage and provide metrics for analysis of spectrum management in general, such as spectrum usage requirements, scheduling efficiencies, and prediction of impacts to spectrum availability. This paper overviews an initial draft of the document being developed under Task FM-37.
    • Resolution Analysis and System Integration of a Dynamically Reconfigurable FMCW Medical Ultrasound Imaging System

      Liebling, Michael; Lee, Hua; Lee, Michael; Doonan, Daniel; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper describes the system performance analysis of the dynamically reconfigurable FMCW medical ultrasound imaging systems. Full-scale resolution analysis, for mono-static, bi-static, and multi-static data-acquisition formats, and laboratory experiment are included in the analysis.
    • Design of a Radio channel Simulator for Aeronautical Communications

      Montaquila, Roberto V.; Iudice, Ivan; Castrillo, Vittorio U.; C.I.R.A. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The goal of this paper is to implement a model of multipath fading in a radio channel simulator for aeronautical applications. When developing a wireless communications system, it is useful to perform simulations of the radio context in which the system has to operate. A radio link is substantially composed by three parts: transmitting segment, transmission channel and receiving segment. We focus our attention on the radio channel propagation. We proposed two geometrical models of a territory corresponding to a determined flight area and, after importing the data needed to estimate our parameters, we compared our results with the channel soundings in literature, obtaining comparable values.
    • UDP Based Wireless Telemetry Network and Data Acquisition System for Rotary Application

      Imay, Murat; Cranley, Nikki; Atman, Ozgur; Turkish Aeroespace Ind.; Curtiss-Wright Avionics and Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper presents an open system architecture with wireless network centric telemetry and data acquisition over UDP/IP. This networked solution was designed and developed for iron bird and helicopter rotor applications which present a significant challenge for data acquisition and telemetry. Traditionally slip rings were used for data transfer however these result in issues with low bandwidth, electrical noise, installation complexity, and high maintenance costs. This paper describes a networked system using standardized technologies and protocols that was used for data acquisition and recording of parameters such as vibration, strain, and video on DAQ installed on the rotating part. The acquired data was transmitted in real-time via the network-centric wireless telemetry link which was synchronized with a ground-based DAQ used for real time processing of the rotor data.
    • Telemetry, Aeronautical and Medical: New Frontiers in Spectrum Sharing

      Keane, William K.; Duane Morris LLP (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
    • A Wireless Sensor Network Powered by Microwave Energy

      Adams, Emily; Albagshi, Ayman; Alnatar, Khaleel; Jacob, Gregory; Mogk, Nathan; Sparrold, Alexis; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Systems that monitor environments often rely on cumbersome wires to supply power to the sensing equipment or batteries that require monitoring and replacement. As technologies continue to advance, the use of self-sustaining, wireless powering becomes more essential to satisfy challenging requirements that necessitate continuous measurement and general functionality. This paper focuses on the creation of a wireless sensor network with emphasis on the implementation of wirelessly charged sensing nodes by utilizing microwaves. Three subsystems make up this "proof of concept" wireless sensor system: a power transmitting base station, three sensor nodes, and a communication base station. Interfacing and power regulation are of the utmost importance in order to ensure all of the subsystems are able to communicate with one another and power all necessary functions. The power transmitting base station transmits microwaves to the nodes. A rectenna on each node converts the transmitted microwaves into DC power. Each node contains sensors to monitor the temperature and light of the environment. For the communication aspect of the system, Zigbee protocol, which belongs to IEEE 802.15.4 protocol, is used fore wireless communication between the base station and the nodes. Through the combination of power regulation, microwave energy, and radio transmission, users are able to utilize this system to collect environmental sensor data wirelessly.
    • A Novel Zigzag Scanning Concept for H.264/AVC

      Hyun, Myung Han; Yu, Jae Taeg; Lee, Sang Bum; Agency for Defense Development (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      In this paper, a novel zigzag scanning concept of quantized coefficients for H.264/AVC is introduced. In order to scan the quantized coefficients efficiently, the statistical occurrence values of the quantized coefficients after the final mode decision are utilized. We develop a zigzag scanning pattern by reordering the statistical occurrence values in descending order. In addition, we consider the temporal and spatial correlation among the frames to classify the zigzag scanning pattern. In particular, we focus on the macroblock level zigzag scanning so that the proposed method will have the different zigzag scanning pattern based on the macroblock. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme reduces the total bits up to 4.05% and 3.67% while introducing either negligible loss of video quality for intra- and inter mode, respectively.
    • Quasi-Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple-Access for Serial Streaming Telemetry

      Ponnaluri, Satya Prakash; Azimi-Sadjadi, Babak; Intelligent Automation Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      We propose a spectrally-efficient multiple-access technique that is particularly suitable for aeronautical telemetry applications involving serial streaming of data from multiple test articles to a ground station. Unlike conventional frequency-division multiple access, we assign overlapping frequency bands to different users with a minimum carrier separation corresponding to the symbol rate. We utilize multiuser detection strategies at the ground station to separate the transmissions from different test articles. As shown by the simulation results, the proposed scheme is robust to large frequency offsets due to oscillator offsets and Doppler shifts commonly encounters in aeronautical telemetry applications.
    • Performance Evaluation of the AeroTP Protocol in Comparison to TCP NewReno, TCP Westwood, and SCPS-TP

      Nguyen, Truc Anh N.; Gangadhar, Siddharth; Umapathi, Greeshma; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Due to the unique characteristics of highly dynamic airborne telemetry environments, TCP when deployed in such networks suffers significant performance degradation. Given the limitations of TCP, the AeroTP opportunistic transport protocol with multiple reliability modes has been developed to specifically address the issues posed by telemetry networks. In our previous work, the different modes of AeroTP have been simulated and tested using the open source ns-3 network simulator. In this paper, we use ns-3 to evaluate the overall performance of AeroTP by comparing it with well-studied TCP variants: the widely-deployed TCP NewReno and TCP Westwood designed for wireless environments. Since space networks share many similar characteristics with telemetry environments, we also compare AeroTP with SCPS-TP.
    • System Design for FEC in Aeronautical Telemetry

      Perrins, Erik; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper contains a description of two types of forward error correction (FEC) codes for shaped offset quadrature phase shift keying, telemetry group version (SOQPSK-TG). The FEC codes are a low-density parity check (LDPC) code and a serially concatenated convolutional code (SCCC). The contributions of this paper are on the system-design level. One major contribution is to design a SCCC code word format that is as compatible as possible with the LDPC code word, which simplifies other aspects of the system design. Another major contribution is to show exactly how demodulators and decoders can be decoupled from each other at the receiver. This simplifies the demodulation process because receiver synchronization is no longer intertwined with FEC decoding. Furthermore, this enables a mix-and-match design, where demods can be chosen based on their performance and complexity tradeoffs. In fact, for the first time, we show how symbol-by-symbol demods can be used with all FEC coding/decoding options, and we also show that these demods have very attractive BER performance given their simplicity.
    • Implementation of the AeroTP Transport Protocol in Python

      Gogi, Santosh Ajith; Zhang, Dongsheng; Çetinkaya, Egemen K.; Rohrer, Justin P.; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The aeronautical transport protocol AeroTP addresses the challenges of end-to-end communication in the highly dynamic airborne telemetry network environment. The protocol has multiple modes: reliable, near-reliable, quasi-reliable, unreliable connection, and unreliable datagram. We present our Python implementation of AeroTP. The results of preliminary experiments conducted on Linux systems using AeroTP quasi-reliable mode are comparable to previous simulation results.
    • System-Level Algorithm Design for Radionavigation using UWB Waveforms

      Iltis, Ronald A.; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      A radiolocation/navigation system is considered in which mobile nodes use ultra-wideband (UWB) radios to obtain inter-node ranges via round-trip travel time (RTT). Each node is also assumed to contain an inertial measurement unit (IMU) which generates 2D position estimates subject to Gaussian drift and additive noise errors. The key problem in such a system is obtaining 2 or 3-D position estimates from the nonlinear UWB range measurements and fusing the resulting UWB and IMU estimates. The system presented uses a Steepest Descent Random Start (SDRS) algorithm to solve the nonlinear positioning problem. It is shown that SDRS is a stable algorithim under a realistic communications reciprocity assumption. The SDRS estimates are then treated as measurements by the navigation Kalman filter. The navigation filter also processes separate IMU-derived position estimates to update node position/velocity. Simulation results for an urban corridor are given showing < 6 m. rms position errors.
    • The Design of Dynamic Calibration Procedure

      Leite, Nelson Paiva Oliveira; Sousa, Lucas Benedito dos Reis; Instituto de Pesquisas e Ensaios em Voo (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The execution of experimental Flight Test Campaign (FTC) provides all information required for the aircraft operation and certification. Nowadays all information gathered during a FTC is provided by the Flight Test Instrumentation System (FTI) that is basically a measurement system. Typically for all FTI parameters, the estimation of the calibration coefficients that minimizes most of systematic errors and its associated uncertainty is carried out by a Static Calibration Process. To execute this task the Brazilian Institute of Research and Flight Test (Instituto de Pesquisa e Ensaios em Voo - IPEV) developed the Sistema de Automação do Laboratório de Ensaios em Voo (SALEV©) which is fully compliant with the calibration and uncertainty expression standards. For some parameters (i.e. Static Pressure) the sensor installation particularities (i.e. Pressure tapping) introduces low pass filtering characteristics into the measurement chain. In this case the measurement accuracy will be jeopardized when executing high-dynamic test points (i.e. Spin Tests). To overcome this issue the IPEV research and development group introduced a dynamic calibration process for flight test parameters that requires the knowledge of the actual Transfer Function (TF). The problem now is to simulate an impulsive input for the TF characterization which is too complex. To solve this issue a new calibration procedure was developed and evaluated for the determination of the FTI dynamic response. SALEV© was used to simulate a step input instead of an impulse. Then filtered and unfiltered data was properly compared for the determination of the TF. Preliminary test results show satisfactory performance.
    • Relying on Telemetry for Mission Critical Decisions: Lessons Learned from NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle for Use on the Air Force's Next Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The U.S. Air Force's next generation reusable booster (NGRSB) offers the opportunity for the Space Command to use intelligent equipment for decision making replacing personnel, increasing safety and mission assurance by removing decisions from program management personnel who may not have had any flight-test experience. Adding intelligence to launch vehicle and spacecraft equipment may include requiring the builder to use a prognostic and health management (PHM) program. The PHM was added to NASA's aircraft programs in 2009 and we have requested NASA HQ and NASA Marshal Space Flight Center adopt the NASA PHM in the procurement contracts used on the new Space Launch Systems, NASA's congressionally mandated replacement for the Space Shuttle. Space Vehicle Program managers often make decisions for on-orbit spacecraft without ever having on-orbit space flight experience. Intelligent equipment would have eliminated the catastrophic failures on the NASA Space Shuttle Challenger and Columbia. These accidents occurred due to the lack of space vehicle subsystem engineering personnel analyzing real-time equipment telemetry presented on strip chart and video data prior to lift off during pre-launch checkout for the Space Shuttle Challenger and the lack of space vehicle real-time equipment telemetry for Columbia. The PHM requires all equipment to include analog telemetry for measuring the equipment performance and usable life determination in real-time and a prognostic analysis completed manually will identify the equipment that will fail prematurely for replacement before launch preventing catastrophic equipment failures that may cause loss of life.
    • A Runlength Coded LDPC Scheme for Insertion/Deletion Correction in Multimedia Watermarking

      Vasic, Bata; Vasic, Bane; University of Nis; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      We describe a simple and effective coding scheme for insertion/deletion channels. It is based on runlength coding which converts a class of insertion/deletion channels that have infinite memory into memoryless channels, which are much easier to handle. Runlength coding is then combined with powerful error correction low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes designed for memoryless channels. We consider a novel applications of this technique in multimedia watermarking using quantization index modulation operating on the three dimensional mesh vertices. The runlength LDPC coding recovers the data hidden in the vertices removed by the process of mesh simplification.
    • Design of Basic Receiving Functions for an SDR Based Communication System

      Manco, Angelo; Castrillo, Vittorio U.; C.I.R.A. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The paper focuses on the design and implementation of the base-band basic receiving functions, for a binary CP-FSK demodulator pilot study, as independent modules of a complete Reconfigurable Data-Link (RDL). A model-based approach and Software Defined Radio (SDR) paradigm are used for the design. The implementation will be executed on Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based hardware.
    • Measurement of Visibility Thresholds for Compression of Stereo Images

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Bilgin, Ali; Feng, Hsin-Chang; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper proposes a method of measuring visibility thresholds for quantization distortion in JPEG2000 for compression of stereoscopic 3D images. The crosstalk effect is carefully considered to ensure that quantization errors in each channel of stereoscopic images are imperceptible to both eyes. A model for visibility thresholds is developed to reduce the daunting number of measurements required for subjective experiments.