• Incompatibility of Trellis-Based Noncoherent SOQPSK Demodulators for Use in FEC Applications

      Perrins, Erik; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
    • Telemetry, Aeronautical and Medical: New Frontiers in Spectrum Sharing

      Keane, William K.; Duane Morris LLP (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
    • C-Band TM Smart Antenna

      Ryken, Marv; Microwave Subsystems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper addresses the system requirements of the C-Band TM antenna that will take the place of the S-Band TM antenna used in applications on munitions and targets that require a quasi-omni directional antenna pattern. For these applications, the C-Band TM effective radiated power (ERP) must be approximately 3 dB higher than the S-Band TM ERP to achieve the same system performance due mainly to weather and environmental differences. From a systems stand-point, this will be a problem for the following reasons: power amplification at higher frequencies is usually less efficient, there is a limit on prime power due to battery capabilities, and a more complex corporate feed at C-Band as compared to S-Band will produce more loss. This means that a more fruitful approach would be to use smart antenna ideas to achieve the required higher ERP as compared to current approaches of using higher power transistors and more battery power. Several smart antenna ideas are introduced in this paper, switchable driven element antenna is described including active amplification at each element.
    • High Speed Target C-Band Feed Upgrade for Autotracking High Dynamic Targets

      Lewis, Ray; ViaSat Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      A new common aperture autotracking C-band feed, specifically designed to accurately track fast moving targets such as the Lance missile, is reviewed. Measured data demonstrates exceptional tracking modulation required for good tracking performance while simultaneously providing excellent data channel performance for high G/T over the entire 4.40-5.25 GHz band. The new patent applied for feed design allows users to maintain existing L/S-band capability with a cost effective field upgrade which adds high performance C-band capability to an existing telemetry tracking system.
    • The Challenges of C-Band Missile Telemetry

      Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The differences between S-band and C-band systems are summarized in the context of missile telemetry. The most important challenges of C-band operation are identified: for air-to-air and airto- surface systems, the relative small size of these missiles limits their ability to source additional DC power and handle increased heat loading due to potentially less-efficient C-band telemetry transmitters. For surface-to-air systems, the prospect of reduced link margin and potential tracking problems associated with narrower beamwidth antennas are the dominant issues for interceptor type systems whereas the power and heat issues associated with less-than-unity telemetry transmitters are the dominant issues for anti-air warfare systems. The potential problems for C-band telemetry of surface-to-surface systems appear to be more like the fixed-wing aircraft issues, many of which have been resolved.
    • Analog Data Acquisition - Flexibility or Performance?

      Buckley, David; Curtiss-Wright Controls Avionics & Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      When acquiring data from analog sources there has always been inherent trade-offs between accuracy, bandwidth, channel count and flexibility. Depending on the sensor type and application one or more of these attributes will be more important than the others. Having a catalog of acquisition cards each one optimized to a particular attribute has allowed the FTI engineer to select the optimal balance for his application. Today, there is increasing pressure on designers and manufacturers to provide a one size fits all approach, with very high accuracy, bandwidth, channel count and flexibility all in one card. This paper discusses the trade-offs between dedicated and generic hardware and concludes that although a generic card can have very high specifications, end users need to be aware that there are significant advantages to using dedicated hardware that may outweigh the flexibility benefits of a generic solution.
    • Achieving High Resolution Measurements Within Limited Bandwidth Via Sensor Data Compression

      Don, Michael; Harkins, Tom; Aberdeen Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is developing an onboard instrument and telemetry system to obtain measurements of the 30mm MK310 projectile's in-flight dynamics. The small size, high launch acceleration, and extremely high rates of this projectile create many design challenges. Particularly challenging is the high spin rate which can reach 1400 Hz at launch. The bandwidth required to continuously transmit solar data using the current method for such a rate would leave no room for data from other sensors. To solve this problem, a data compression scheme is implemented that retains the resolution of the solar sensor data while providing room in the telemetry frame for other measurements.
    • Bridging Legacy Avionics Data Busses to Ethernet Based Networks

      Troshynski, Troy; Avionics Interface Technologies (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Ethernet is becoming more widely used as the network backbone in Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) architectures. The advantages provided by Ethernet solutions include higher data throughput rates, ubiquitous use, lower costs, and high availability of components. Because of these advantages, new aircraft system designs and technology updates to existing system designs are considering Ethernet to replace legacy data bus technologies including MIL-STD-1553, ARINC-429, and CANbus based networks. Despite the advantages of Ethernet over these legacy technologies, latencies in standard IEEE 802.3 Ethernet networks is unpredictable. Defining when a data packet leaves a node and is received by another in absolute terms, and guaranteeing that the data will be received at its intended destination cannot be accurately predicted or guaranteed. Enhancements to IEEE 802.3 such as ARINC-664, and AS6802 enable determinism and guaranteed quality of service that the legacy data bus technologies provided. This paper provides an overview of deterministic Ethernet technologies such as ARINC-664 and AS6802 (TTEthernet) that define deterministic, guaranteed quality of service networks. It also considers the advantages, disadvantages, and possible applications utilizing bridges between MIL-STD-1553 data busses and these Ethernet protocols and considers other related protocols such as IRIG 106 Chapter 10.
    • DTN Gateway Architecture for Partially Disconnected Telemetry Environments

      Rohrer, Justin; Xie, Geoffrey G.; Naval Postgraduate School (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Telemetry networks often operate in challenged wireless environments, resulting in periods of disconnection. Our delay tolerant networking (DTN) gateway dynamically detects disruptions in connectivity and buffers telemetry data until connectivity is reestablished. When the connection is resumed, all buffered data is transmitted automatically in order to backfill any gaps in the telemetry stream. A DTN gateway may operate as a standalone device with multiple DTN client applications, or as a network of mobile DTN gateways which will perform multi-hop ad-hoc routing to deliver telemetry data across the telemetry network system (TmNS). Our DTN gateway also provides conventional IP routing and forwarding capabilities, including support for standard dynamic routing protocols, eliminating the need for a stand-alone IP router on the test article (TA). This paper presents the system architecture of our DTN gateway, along with several deployment scenarios for telemetry environments.
    • An Opportunistic Relaying Scheme for Optimal Communications and Source Localization

      Perez-Ramirez, Javier; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The selection of relay nodes (RNs) for optimal communication and source location estimation is studied. The RNs are randomly placed at fixed and known locations over a geographical area. A mobile source senses and collects data at various locations over the area and transmits the data to a destination node with the help of the RNs. The destination node not only needs to collect the sensed data but also the location of the source where the data is collected. Hence, both high quality data collection and the correct location of the source are needed. Using the measured distances between the relays and the source, the destination estimates the location of the source. The selected RNs must be optimal for joint communication and source location estimation. We show in this paper how this joint optimization can be achieved. For practical decentralized selection, an opportunistic RN selection algorithm is used. Bit error rate performance as well as mean squared error in location estimation are presented and compared to the optimal relay selection results.
    • Crypto Key Management for a Network Telemetry System

      Hodack, David; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      In today's global environment of increasing security threats, good practical key management is becoming increasingly important. This paper will discuss what is involved in key management and will explore key management options for a network based telemetry system. Specifically, the management of the keys used for the iNET radio will be addressed.
    • Control and Status of Telemetric Network Systems

      Araujo, Maria S.; Newton, Todd A.; Samiadji-Benthin, Christopher S.; Seegmiller, Ray D.; Moodie, Myron L.; Abbott, Ben A.; Grace, Thomas B.; Malatesta, William A.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Network-based telemetry systems have unprecedented amounts of flexibility due to the ability to manipulate configuration during a test. As a result of this flexibility, multiple tests can be conducted in a single flight; all it takes is reconfiguration of instrumentation. However, configuration of devices can be a complex task, and dynamic configuration can be even more daunting. As such, device configuration, control, and status must be managed in a coordinated fashion. A system manager implementation that performs coordinated status and control of instrumentation in the Test Article as well as test configuration authoring is presented in this paper, the Ground Test Article Manager (GTAM), which is being developed by the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) program.
    • Characterizing Test Range Network Infrastructure in Anticipation of iNET Deployment and Design

      Martin, Joseph D.; Naval Air Systems Command (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The iNET program uses network technology and infrastructure to enhance traditional telemetry systems. The program's components were designed with an eye to existing and emerging technology and infrastructure, requiring the program to gather data about these systems. The methods used in this design effort can be used to characterize existing network infrastructure to determine what upgrades and changes are necessary to deploy a TmNS. This paper describes the methods used for characterizing a range network infrastructure and explores network capacity and policy issues effecting a TmNS deployment. This effort includes making estimates and taking measurements of network capacity, surveying and analyzing network routing/management policies, and proposes a system for evaluating networks for future TmNS deployments.
    • Overview of the Telemetry Network System (TMNS) RF Data Link Layer

      Kaba, James; Connolly, Barbara; SRI International (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      As the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) program prepares for developmental flights tests, refinements are being made to the Radio Access Network Standard that ensures interoperability of networked radio components. One key aspect of this interoperability is the definition of Telemetry Network System (TmNS) RF Data Link Layer functionality for conducting efficient communications between radios in a TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) channel sharing scheme. This paper examines the overall structure of the TmNS RF Data Link Layer and provides an overview of its operation. Specific topics include Medium Access Control (MAC) scheduling and framing in the context of a burst-oriented TDMA structure, link layer encryption, the priority-enabled Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) protocol, high-level network packet and link control message encapsulation, payload segmentation and reassembly, and radio Link Layer Control Messaging.
    • Telemetry Network Systems (TMNS) RF Link Management Quality of Service

      O'Connell, Ray; Webster, Lyle; Kaba, James; RoboComAI LLC; SRI International Sarnoff (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      In the Telemetry Network System (TmNS) the prioritization of mission traffic is performed by internal radio queuing disciplines and the Link Manager performing adjustments to each radio transmit window in the TDMA network. These processes combine to provide the QoS traffic handling across the range. The radios provide the transmit packet prioritization using queuing disciplines which can be assigned to mission traffic flows. The Link Manager on the ground receives periodic reports of queue levels from each radio and performs transmit capacity adjustments based on internal radio and network wide conditions. Presented in this paper is the design of this TmNS RF Link Management QoS process with OPNET modeling and simulation results.
    • iPCM Telemetry System

      Leite, Nelson Paiva Oliveira; Carvalho, Marco Aurélio; Instituto de Pesquisas e Ensaios em Voo (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The execution of experimental Flight Test Campaign (FTC) provides all information required for the aircraft development, operation and certification. Typically the execution of a FTC encompasses three major systems as follows: Flight Test Instrumentation System (FTI) that is basically a measurement system; Real-Time Telemetry Link (RTL); and Ground Telemetry System (GTS). At the early days, for the development of small aircrafts (i.e. Fighter), the primary source for FTI data was provided by the RTL due to inherent limitations of the open reel airborne data recorders (i.e. media and size), operating under high-dynamics condition. Nowadays with the introduction of solid-state data recording devices, data integrity and reliability is no longer an issue. At the ITC 2010 Blue Ribbon Panel, Mr. Thomas Beard, the executive Director of the Air Force Flight Test Center in Edwards Air Force Base emphasized the need to reduce refly and to improve FTC efficiency. Such statement imposes a new paradigm in Telemetry, which is to improve RTL integrity and reliability level equivalent to the solid-state data recording devices. Therefore the Telemetry community will be able to execute test point validation for refly reduction and quasi realtime data reduction analysis for efficiency improvement. The major solutions that address such issue are Spatial Diversity (SD) architectures and the iNet. The SD solution requires multiple antenna system (which is very expensive) that could still produce ineffective results at high-dynamics test points (e.g. Spin). At the beginning the iNet consortium proposed the usage of TCP protocol for data transmission. Problems associated with TCP limitations such as data latency and overhead lead to the usage of UDP protocol that does not guarantee the packet delivery. To properly address these issues the IPEV R&D group proposes the iPCM Telemetry architecture to be used as RTL. The iPCM uses hybrid architecture for data transmission taking the advantage of legacy digital transmitters combined with iNet-based transceivers to retrieve missing data. The development and the evaluation of iPCM architecture will be executed as a PhD Thesis in ITA University. The expected performance and benefits of iPCM are presented and discussed.
    • Experimental Investigation of Wireless Technologies for Data Acquisition

      Cranley, Nikki; Curtiss-Wright Controls Avionics & Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Now, more than ever, there is significant demand to reduce the weight of Flight Test Instrumentation (FTI) which in turn translates to cost savings. Moreover, there is the on-going requirement to improve the ease of installation, simplify wiring, and reduce power. Wireless technologies provide the ideal solution to overcome these issues by effectively eliminating the need for wiring which in turn reduces weight and simplifies the architecture. Wireless sensors are typically small, low-cost, low weight, and low-power devices that can be used to facilitate remote data acquisition in hard-to-reach and harsh locations in the aircraft. This paper discusses wireless sensor technologies and presents a prototype wireless sensor data acquisition module that was developed to investigate the feasibility of this technology for FTI data acquisition systems.
    • Applying Instrumentation & Telemetering Technologies from the DoD Test & Evaluation Arena to Commercial Law Enforcement Applications

      Scardello, Michael A.; Gretlein, Raymond; Comperini, Robert G.; Moore, Archie; Spiral Technology; Aero-View, LLC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The Law Enforcement Aerial Platform System (LEAPS), designed and integrated by Spiral Technology, Inc., was architected to marry airborne sensors and ground-based instrumentation in support of and to augment the Law Enforcement and/or Disaster Response and Recovery agencies of counties and municipalities. The mission of LEAPS is to provide an affordable reliable manned or unmanned aerial surveillance system that readily integrates with existing Law Enforcement's and Local Government's infrastructures. The initial sensors being integrated into the LEAPS concept include both Visible Spectrum and Infrared Imager. Salient requirements for LEAPS include: Ground Control of Airborne Sensors; Sensor Data captured and archived on the ground with time-tag and geographic location data; and Controlled Custody and Preservation of Sensor Data as Evidentiary Material This paper describes the LEAPS System Development Effort.
    • Spectrum Savings from High Performance Network Recording and Playback Onboard the Test Article

      Wigent, Mark A.; Mazzario, Andrea M.; SAIC; Kauai Software Solutions (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The Test Resource Management Center's (TRMC) Spectrum Efficient Technologies (SET) S&T program is sponsoring development of the Enhanced Query Data Recorder (EQDR), a network flight recorder that is intended to meet the future needs of the networked telemetry environment. EQDR is designed to support the "fetch" of recorded test data during a test without interrupting the ongoing recording of data from the test article vehicle network. The key benefits of the network data recorder as implemented in EQDR are increased flexibility and efficiency of test in an environment with increasing demands on spectrum available for telemetered data. EQDR enables retrieval of individual recorded parameters on an as-needed basis. Having the flexibility to send data only when it is required rather than throughout the duration of the test significantly increases the efficiency with which limited spectrum resources are used. EQDR enables parametric-level data retrieval, based not only on time interval and data source, but also on the content of the recorded data messages. EQDR enables selective, efficient retrieval of individual parameters using indexes derived from the actual values of recorded data. This paper describes the design of EQDR and the benefits of selective data storage and retrieval in the application of networked telemetry. In addition it describes the performance of the EQDR in terms of data recording and data retrieval rates when implemented on single board computers designed for use in the aeronautical test environment with size, weight, and power constraints.
    • A Low Cost, High Density Reconfigurable Recording Subsystem

      Berchuk, Vitaliy; Grozalis, Ed; Yin, Jennifer; Dehmelt, Chris; L-3 Communications Telemetry East (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Modern test programs require an increase in sensor and bus data while at the same time seeking a decrease in the size and price of data acquisition components. Data archiving, which has been traditionally supplied via dedicated standalone hardware, is not exempt to this demand, but in many ways has not kept up with other instrumentation components in terms of flexibility, size, density and price. The archiving capabilities of a data acquisition system must be able to meet the changing needs of the customer. This paper presents a Solid State Drive (SSD) based data recorder implementation that can be easily reconfigured to address the requirements of different applications, including traditional PCM based systems and contemporary network based systems. The paper identifies the requirements, design challenges, trade-offs and risks in creating a low-cost, flexible data archiving subsystem that can be used in a standalone configuration or be directly integrated with a host data acquisition system.