• A Wireless Sensor Network Powered by Microwave Energy

      Adams, Emily; Albagshi, Ayman; Alnatar, Khaleel; Jacob, Gregory; Mogk, Nathan; Sparrold, Alexis; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Systems that monitor environments often rely on cumbersome wires to supply power to the sensing equipment or batteries that require monitoring and replacement. As technologies continue to advance, the use of self-sustaining, wireless powering becomes more essential to satisfy challenging requirements that necessitate continuous measurement and general functionality. This paper focuses on the creation of a wireless sensor network with emphasis on the implementation of wirelessly charged sensing nodes by utilizing microwaves. Three subsystems make up this "proof of concept" wireless sensor system: a power transmitting base station, three sensor nodes, and a communication base station. Interfacing and power regulation are of the utmost importance in order to ensure all of the subsystems are able to communicate with one another and power all necessary functions. The power transmitting base station transmits microwaves to the nodes. A rectenna on each node converts the transmitted microwaves into DC power. Each node contains sensors to monitor the temperature and light of the environment. For the communication aspect of the system, Zigbee protocol, which belongs to IEEE 802.15.4 protocol, is used fore wireless communication between the base station and the nodes. Through the combination of power regulation, microwave energy, and radio transmission, users are able to utilize this system to collect environmental sensor data wirelessly.
    • Achieving High Resolution Measurements Within Limited Bandwidth Via Sensor Data Compression

      Don, Michael; Harkins, Tom; Aberdeen Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is developing an onboard instrument and telemetry system to obtain measurements of the 30mm MK310 projectile's in-flight dynamics. The small size, high launch acceleration, and extremely high rates of this projectile create many design challenges. Particularly challenging is the high spin rate which can reach 1400 Hz at launch. The bandwidth required to continuously transmit solar data using the current method for such a rate would leave no room for data from other sensors. To solve this problem, a data compression scheme is implemented that retains the resolution of the solar sensor data while providing room in the telemetry frame for other measurements.
    • Crypto Key Management for a Network Telemetry System

      Hodack, David; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      In today's global environment of increasing security threats, good practical key management is becoming increasingly important. This paper will discuss what is involved in key management and will explore key management options for a network based telemetry system. Specifically, the management of the keys used for the iNET radio will be addressed.
    • An Autonomous Machine Learning Approach for Global Terrorist Recognition

      Hill, Jerry L.; Mora, Randall P.; Avum, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      A major intelligence challenge we face in today's national security environment is the threat of terrorist attack against our national assets, especially our citizens. This paper addresses global reconnaissance which incorporates an autonomous Intelligent Agent/Data Fusion solution for recognizing potential risk of terrorist attack through identifying and reporting imminent persona-oriented terrorist threats based on data reduction/compression of a large volume of low latency data possibly from hundreds, or even thousands of data points.
    • Autonomous Terrain Mapping Using COTS Hardware

      Kosbar, Kurt; Anderson, James; Honse, Adam; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The paper describes the development of a robotic platform which can autonomously map terrain using a COTS infrared imaging and ranging system. The robotic system is based on an omnidirectional platform, and can navigate typical commercial indoor environments. An on-board processor performs surface reconstruction, and condenses the point clouds generated by the ranging system to mesh models which can be more easily stored and transmitted. The processor then correlates new frames with the existing world model by using sensor odomerty. The robot will autonomously determine the best areas of the environment to map, and gather complete three dimensional color models of arbitrary environments.
    • System-Level Algorithm Design for Radionavigation using UWB Waveforms

      Iltis, Ronald A.; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      A radiolocation/navigation system is considered in which mobile nodes use ultra-wideband (UWB) radios to obtain inter-node ranges via round-trip travel time (RTT). Each node is also assumed to contain an inertial measurement unit (IMU) which generates 2D position estimates subject to Gaussian drift and additive noise errors. The key problem in such a system is obtaining 2 or 3-D position estimates from the nonlinear UWB range measurements and fusing the resulting UWB and IMU estimates. The system presented uses a Steepest Descent Random Start (SDRS) algorithm to solve the nonlinear positioning problem. It is shown that SDRS is a stable algorithim under a realistic communications reciprocity assumption. The SDRS estimates are then treated as measurements by the navigation Kalman filter. The navigation filter also processes separate IMU-derived position estimates to update node position/velocity. Simulation results for an urban corridor are given showing < 6 m. rms position errors.
    • Using Telemetry to Confirm Equipment Performance and mission Life Requirements

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The tools, technologies, practices, policies, procedures and procurement process developed and implemented over 50 years to produce highly reliable spacecraft and spacecraft subsystem equipment have yielded spacecraft and launch vehicles whose reliability is dominated by premature equipment failures and surprise equipment failures at yearly rates as high as 25% that increase risk and decrease safety, mission assurance and effectiveness. Large, complex aerospace systems such as aircraft, launch vehicle and satellites are subjected to most exhaustive and comprehensive acceptance-testing program at the factory that is also used in other industries and that also suffer from the high premature failure rates. Desired/required spacecraft equipment performance is measured confirmed during factory testing, however equipment usable/mission life requirement is not measured but calculated manually and so the spacecraft and launch vehicle equipment that will fail prematurely are not identified and replaced before use. Spacecraft equipment mission-life is calculated using stochastic equations from probability reliability analysis engineering standards such as MIL STD 217. The change in the engineering practices used to manufacture and test spacecraft to identify the equipment that will fail prematurely include using a prognostic and health management (PHM) program. The PHM includes using predictive algorithms to convert equipment analog telemetry of any type into a measurement of equipment usable life by demodulating the telemetry behavior in time, amplitude, frequency and phase. The conversion of equipment analog telemetry from performance data to a measurement of usable life is done in a prognostic analysis. A prognostic analysis includes an engineering analysis that is shared with manufacturing and test, but results in premature equipment failures at rates as high as 70% once the equipment gets to space in space, but also includes a scientific analysis of the analog telemetry so that conjecture and speculation is not used to identify the presence as systemic noise.
    • Machine Vision and Autonomous Integration Into an Unmanned Aircraft System

      Dianics, James; Fasel, Hermann F.; Marcellin, Michael W.; Alexander, Josh; Blake, Sam; Clasby, Brendan; Shah, Anshul Jatin; Van Horne, Chris; Van Horne, Justin; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The University of Arizona's Aerial Robotics Club (ARC) sponsored two senior design teams to compete in the 2011 AUVSI Student Unmanned Aerial Systems (SUAS) competition. These teams successfully design and built a UAV platform in-house that was capable of autonomous flight, capturing aerial imagery, and filtering for target recognition but required excessive computational hardware and software bugs that limited the systems capability. A new multi-discipline team of undergrads was recruited to completely redesign and optimize the system in an attempt to reach true autonomous real-time target recognition with reasonable COTS hardware.
    • Standardization of the Instrumentation Hardware Abstraction Language in IRIG 106

      Hamilton, John; Fernandes, Ronald; Darr, Timothy; Jones, Charles H.; Faulstich, Ray; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base; CSC Range and Engineering Services (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Previously, we have presented an approach to achieving standards-based multi-vendor hardware configuration using the Instrumentation Hardware Abstraction Language (IHAL) and an associated Application Programming Interface (API) specification. In this paper we describe the current status of the IHAL standard. Since the first introduction of IHAL at ITC 2006, the language has undergone a number of additions and improvements. Currently, IHAL is nearing the end of a 2-year standardization task with the Range Commanders Council Telemetry Group (RCC TG). This paper describes the standardization process in addition to providing an overview of the current state of IHAL. The standard consists of two key components: (1) the IHAL language, and (2), the IHAL API specification.
    • Implementation of real-time DIS H.264 Encoder for Airborne Recorder

      Nam, Ju-Hun; Kim, Seong-Jong; Kim, Sung-Min; Lee, Nam-Sik; Kim, Jin-Hyung; Danam Systems Inc.; LG Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      When developing a video compression system in black box for aircraft, it is necessary to consider the characteristic of the images and the surrounding environment. The images captured in and out of aircraft have excessive movement-related issues, which make the results difficult to analyze and interpret. Failure to remove the tremors in the video component inevitably leads to poor compression efficiency and degrades the video imaging performance in the airborne black box. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a Compression System which can stabilize the video-image and efficiently utilize high compression recording for aircraft without special hardware. Based on the current situation, we suggest a real-time electronic video stabilization algorithm for airborne recorder which recovers shaky images simply and efficiently to work beside a developed stabilization system based on the H.264 Encoder using DSP.
    • Implementation of the AeroTP Transport Protocol in Python

      Gogi, Santosh Ajith; Zhang, Dongsheng; Çetinkaya, Egemen K.; Rohrer, Justin P.; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The aeronautical transport protocol AeroTP addresses the challenges of end-to-end communication in the highly dynamic airborne telemetry network environment. The protocol has multiple modes: reliable, near-reliable, quasi-reliable, unreliable connection, and unreliable datagram. We present our Python implementation of AeroTP. The results of preliminary experiments conducted on Linux systems using AeroTP quasi-reliable mode are comparable to previous simulation results.
    • Incompatibility of Trellis-Based Noncoherent SOQPSK Demodulators for Use in FEC Applications

      Perrins, Erik; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
    • Quasi-Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple-Access for Serial Streaming Telemetry

      Ponnaluri, Satya Prakash; Azimi-Sadjadi, Babak; Intelligent Automation Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      We propose a spectrally-efficient multiple-access technique that is particularly suitable for aeronautical telemetry applications involving serial streaming of data from multiple test articles to a ground station. Unlike conventional frequency-division multiple access, we assign overlapping frequency bands to different users with a minimum carrier separation corresponding to the symbol rate. We utilize multiuser detection strategies at the ground station to separate the transmissions from different test articles. As shown by the simulation results, the proposed scheme is robust to large frequency offsets due to oscillator offsets and Doppler shifts commonly encounters in aeronautical telemetry applications.
    • Analog Data Acquisition - Flexibility or Performance?

      Buckley, David; Curtiss-Wright Controls Avionics & Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      When acquiring data from analog sources there has always been inherent trade-offs between accuracy, bandwidth, channel count and flexibility. Depending on the sensor type and application one or more of these attributes will be more important than the others. Having a catalog of acquisition cards each one optimized to a particular attribute has allowed the FTI engineer to select the optimal balance for his application. Today, there is increasing pressure on designers and manufacturers to provide a one size fits all approach, with very high accuracy, bandwidth, channel count and flexibility all in one card. This paper discusses the trade-offs between dedicated and generic hardware and concludes that although a generic card can have very high specifications, end users need to be aware that there are significant advantages to using dedicated hardware that may outweigh the flexibility benefits of a generic solution.
    • An Open Systems Architecture for Telemetry Receivers

      Parker, Peter; Nelson, John; Pippitt, Mark; MIT Lincoln Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      An open systems architecture (OSA) is one in which all of the interfaces are fully defined, available to the public, and maintained according to a group consensus. One approach to achieve this is to use modular hardware and software and to buy commercial, off-the-shelf and commodity hardware. Benefits of an OSA include providing easy access to the latest technological advances in both hardware and software, enabling net-centric operations, and allowing a flexible design that can easily change as the needs of customers may change. This paper will provide details of an OSA system designed for a telemetry receiver and list the benefits of OSA for the telemetry community.
    • Minimizing Interference in Simultaneous Operations between GPS and Other Instrumentation Systems

      Kujiraoka, Scott; Troublefield, Robert; Fielder, Russell; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Currently many airborne platforms (missiles, targets, and projectiles) contain multiple instrumentation systems to cover the functions of GPS and either telemetry, beacon tracking and/or flight termination. Most of these platforms are not very large, so mounting of various antennas to support these functions are physically close to each other. As a result, unwanted interference (in the form of RF coupling between them) is unavoidable. This paper will discuss the design considerations involved to minimize this interference as well as some lessons learned with its implementation.
    • Implementation of the AeroRP and AeroNP Protocols in Python

      Alenazi, Mohammed J. F.; Çetinkaya, Egemen K.; Rohrer, Justin P.; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The domain-specific ANTP protocol suite consisting of AeroTP, AeroRP, and AeroNP has been developed to cope with the challenges in highly-dynamic airborne telemetry networks. These protocols have been designed and modelled through simulation methodology. In this paper, we present an implementation of the AeroRP and AeroNP components in Python. Initially, we implement and test through an emulated wireless environment on the PlanetLab testbed. Further, we present our prototype implementation that is deployed in a real-world wireless environment using radio-controlled vehicles.
    • A Runlength Coded LDPC Scheme for Insertion/Deletion Correction in Multimedia Watermarking

      Vasic, Bata; Vasic, Bane; University of Nis; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      We describe a simple and effective coding scheme for insertion/deletion channels. It is based on runlength coding which converts a class of insertion/deletion channels that have infinite memory into memoryless channels, which are much easier to handle. Runlength coding is then combined with powerful error correction low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes designed for memoryless channels. We consider a novel applications of this technique in multimedia watermarking using quantization index modulation operating on the three dimensional mesh vertices. The runlength LDPC coding recovers the data hidden in the vertices removed by the process of mesh simplification.
    • Design of Basic Receiving Functions for an SDR Based Communication System

      Manco, Angelo; Castrillo, Vittorio U.; C.I.R.A. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The paper focuses on the design and implementation of the base-band basic receiving functions, for a binary CP-FSK demodulator pilot study, as independent modules of a complete Reconfigurable Data-Link (RDL). A model-based approach and Software Defined Radio (SDR) paradigm are used for the design. The implementation will be executed on Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based hardware.
    • UDP Based Wireless Telemetry Network and Data Acquisition System for Rotary Application

      Imay, Murat; Cranley, Nikki; Atman, Ozgur; Turkish Aeroespace Ind.; Curtiss-Wright Avionics and Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper presents an open system architecture with wireless network centric telemetry and data acquisition over UDP/IP. This networked solution was designed and developed for iron bird and helicopter rotor applications which present a significant challenge for data acquisition and telemetry. Traditionally slip rings were used for data transfer however these result in issues with low bandwidth, electrical noise, installation complexity, and high maintenance costs. This paper describes a networked system using standardized technologies and protocols that was used for data acquisition and recording of parameters such as vibration, strain, and video on DAQ installed on the rotating part. The acquired data was transmitted in real-time via the network-centric wireless telemetry link which was synchronized with a ground-based DAQ used for real time processing of the rotor data.