• Achieving High Resolution Measurements Within Limited Bandwidth Via Sensor Data Compression

      Don, Michael; Harkins, Tom; Aberdeen Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is developing an onboard instrument and telemetry system to obtain measurements of the 30mm MK310 projectile's in-flight dynamics. The small size, high launch acceleration, and extremely high rates of this projectile create many design challenges. Particularly challenging is the high spin rate which can reach 1400 Hz at launch. The bandwidth required to continuously transmit solar data using the current method for such a rate would leave no room for data from other sensors. To solve this problem, a data compression scheme is implemented that retains the resolution of the solar sensor data while providing room in the telemetry frame for other measurements.
    • Advances in Non-Foster Circuit Augmented, Broad Bandwidth, Metamaterial-Inspired, Electrically Small Antennas

      Zhu, Ning; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      There are always some intrinsic tradeoffs among the performance characteristics: radiation efficiency, directivity, and bandwidth, of electrically small antennas (ESAs). A non-Foster enhanced, broad bandwidth, metamaterial-inspired, electrically small, Egyptian axe dipole (EAD) antenna has been successfully designed and measured to overcome two of these restrictions. By incorporating a non-Foster circuit internally in the near-field resonant parasitic (NFRP) element, the bandwidth of the resulting electrically small antenna was enhanced significantly. The measured results show that the 10 dB bandwidth (BW10dB) of the non-Foster circuit-augmented EAD antenna is more than 6 times the original BW10dB value of the corresponding passive EAD antenna.
    • Analog Data Acquisition - Flexibility or Performance?

      Buckley, David; Curtiss-Wright Controls Avionics & Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      When acquiring data from analog sources there has always been inherent trade-offs between accuracy, bandwidth, channel count and flexibility. Depending on the sensor type and application one or more of these attributes will be more important than the others. Having a catalog of acquisition cards each one optimized to a particular attribute has allowed the FTI engineer to select the optimal balance for his application. Today, there is increasing pressure on designers and manufacturers to provide a one size fits all approach, with very high accuracy, bandwidth, channel count and flexibility all in one card. This paper discusses the trade-offs between dedicated and generic hardware and concludes that although a generic card can have very high specifications, end users need to be aware that there are significant advantages to using dedicated hardware that may outweigh the flexibility benefits of a generic solution.
    • Analysis of Communication Interconnectedness in the Proximity of Near-Earth Asteroids

      Creusere, Charles D.; Nelson, Evan; Critz, Thomas; Buther, Eric; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      In this paper we analyze fundamental local-area communication issues related to proximity operations around near-earth asteroids. We are motivated by NASA's plan to send robotic spacecraft to numerous such asteroids in the coming years in preparation for an eventual manned mission. We consider here the case where multiple probes are deposited on the surface of an asteroid and must communicate the data they collect to each other and to earth by using the orbiting `mothership' as a relay. With respect to this scenario, we statistically analyze the ability of surface probes in various locations to communicate with the mothership as well as their abilities to network with one another. For the purposes of this analysis, we assume the simplest possible communications scenario: a surface probe can communicate with the mothership only when it has an unobstructed line of sight. At the frequencies of interest here, line of sight is a necessary condition but it is obviously not sufficient - the end-to-end link margins of our communications system must be high enough to support the desired/required data rates. Nonetheless, this simplistic analysis represents the first step in characterizing the communication system requirement for the asteroid-local portion of the system.
    • Application of High Performance Avionics Test and Analysis Software Tools to Chapter 10 Data

      Cavera, Jim; AIM-USA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      For many years, telemetry data has been captured and exchanged in IRIG 106 Chapter 10 format. Traditionally, the emphasis has been on the analysis and display of chapter 10 formatted PCM data. In recent years, avionics bus and network data has become much more widely used. Due to the lack of specialized tools to allow engineers to quickly and efficiently view bus parameters, the manipulation and analysis of this data after it is acquired has been a time consuming process. This paper will present a solution to this problem by the use of commercially available software tools used in conjunction with a common parameter database and a Chapter 10 "translator".
    • Applying Instrumentation & Telemetering Technologies from the DoD Test & Evaluation Arena to Commercial Law Enforcement Applications

      Scardello, Michael A.; Gretlein, Raymond; Comperini, Robert G.; Moore, Archie; Spiral Technology; Aero-View, LLC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The Law Enforcement Aerial Platform System (LEAPS), designed and integrated by Spiral Technology, Inc., was architected to marry airborne sensors and ground-based instrumentation in support of and to augment the Law Enforcement and/or Disaster Response and Recovery agencies of counties and municipalities. The mission of LEAPS is to provide an affordable reliable manned or unmanned aerial surveillance system that readily integrates with existing Law Enforcement's and Local Government's infrastructures. The initial sensors being integrated into the LEAPS concept include both Visible Spectrum and Infrared Imager. Salient requirements for LEAPS include: Ground Control of Airborne Sensors; Sensor Data captured and archived on the ground with time-tag and geographic location data; and Controlled Custody and Preservation of Sensor Data as Evidentiary Material This paper describes the LEAPS System Development Effort.
    • ARTM Telemetry Waveforms Demodulator Analysis

      Dourbal, Paul; L-3 Telemetry East (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper shows how the potential performance of ARTM signal [1] demodulator is related to its aperture and digital quantization noise. The first parameter (aperture) is a function of the architecture, while the second (quantization noise), depends on the digital implementation [2] of demodulator. Unified representation of the demodulator architecture as a matrix to vector product with the subsequent choice of maximum energy term was used in this paper to model performance of the demodulator for constant-envelope signals such as Tier-0 (PCM/FM), Tier-I (BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, SOQPSK), and Tier-II (multi-h CPM). We will demonstrate how, when given a level of quantization noise and aperture width defined by the demodulator implementation, we can predict demodulator performance. Matlab/Simulink models demonstrating the performance of some demodulators will be presented and discussed.
    • Automation of Generalized Measurement Extraction from Telemetric Network Systems

      Seegmiller, Ray D.; Willden, Greg C.; Araujo, Maria S.; Newton, Todd A.; Abbott, Ben A.; Malatesta, William A.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      In telemetric network systems, data extraction is often an after-thought. The data description frequently changes throughout the program so that last minute modifications of the data extraction approach are often required. This paper presents an alternative approach in which automation of measurement extraction is supported. The central key is a formal declarative language that can be used to configure instrumentation devices as well as measurement extraction devices. The Metadata Description Language (MDL) defined by the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) program, augmented with a generalized measurement extraction approach, addresses this issue. This paper describes the TmNS Data Extractor Tool, as well as lessons learned from commercial systems, the iNET program and TMATS.
    • An Autonomous Machine Learning Approach for Global Terrorist Recognition

      Hill, Jerry L.; Mora, Randall P.; Avum, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      A major intelligence challenge we face in today's national security environment is the threat of terrorist attack against our national assets, especially our citizens. This paper addresses global reconnaissance which incorporates an autonomous Intelligent Agent/Data Fusion solution for recognizing potential risk of terrorist attack through identifying and reporting imminent persona-oriented terrorist threats based on data reduction/compression of a large volume of low latency data possibly from hundreds, or even thousands of data points.
    • Autonomous Terrain Mapping Using COTS Hardware

      Kosbar, Kurt; Anderson, James; Honse, Adam; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The paper describes the development of a robotic platform which can autonomously map terrain using a COTS infrared imaging and ranging system. The robotic system is based on an omnidirectional platform, and can navigate typical commercial indoor environments. An on-board processor performs surface reconstruction, and condenses the point clouds generated by the ranging system to mesh models which can be more easily stored and transmitted. The processor then correlates new frames with the existing world model by using sensor odomerty. The robot will autonomously determine the best areas of the environment to map, and gather complete three dimensional color models of arbitrary environments.
    • Bridging Legacy Avionics Data Busses to Ethernet Based Networks

      Troshynski, Troy; Avionics Interface Technologies (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Ethernet is becoming more widely used as the network backbone in Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) architectures. The advantages provided by Ethernet solutions include higher data throughput rates, ubiquitous use, lower costs, and high availability of components. Because of these advantages, new aircraft system designs and technology updates to existing system designs are considering Ethernet to replace legacy data bus technologies including MIL-STD-1553, ARINC-429, and CANbus based networks. Despite the advantages of Ethernet over these legacy technologies, latencies in standard IEEE 802.3 Ethernet networks is unpredictable. Defining when a data packet leaves a node and is received by another in absolute terms, and guaranteeing that the data will be received at its intended destination cannot be accurately predicted or guaranteed. Enhancements to IEEE 802.3 such as ARINC-664, and AS6802 enable determinism and guaranteed quality of service that the legacy data bus technologies provided. This paper provides an overview of deterministic Ethernet technologies such as ARINC-664 and AS6802 (TTEthernet) that define deterministic, guaranteed quality of service networks. It also considers the advantages, disadvantages, and possible applications utilizing bridges between MIL-STD-1553 data busses and these Ethernet protocols and considers other related protocols such as IRIG 106 Chapter 10.
    • C-Band TM Smart Antenna

      Ryken, Marv; Microwave Subsystems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper addresses the system requirements of the C-Band TM antenna that will take the place of the S-Band TM antenna used in applications on munitions and targets that require a quasi-omni directional antenna pattern. For these applications, the C-Band TM effective radiated power (ERP) must be approximately 3 dB higher than the S-Band TM ERP to achieve the same system performance due mainly to weather and environmental differences. From a systems stand-point, this will be a problem for the following reasons: power amplification at higher frequencies is usually less efficient, there is a limit on prime power due to battery capabilities, and a more complex corporate feed at C-Band as compared to S-Band will produce more loss. This means that a more fruitful approach would be to use smart antenna ideas to achieve the required higher ERP as compared to current approaches of using higher power transistors and more battery power. Several smart antenna ideas are introduced in this paper, switchable driven element antenna is described including active amplification at each element.
    • CCSDS Telemetry over DVB-S2: Characteristics, Receiver Implementation and Performances

      Guérin, A.; Millerious, J.-P.; Deplancq, X.; Lesthievent, G.; Llauro, M.; Pasternak, N.; Baissac, S.; Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES); Zodiac Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The CNES (French Space Agency) has recently proposed to apply the ETSI DVB-S2 telecom standard onto the CCSDS ones (currently "red book") to cope with the high data rate requirement of Telemetry for Earth Observation Satellites. A very high data rate implementation (up to 400 MBauds) of this recommended standard has been achieved by Zodiac Data Systems onto their Cortex HDR XXL receiver. This paper presents the latest version of that recommended standard as well as results obtained with the Cortex demodulator. A specific focus is done on the extremely low degradation performed at high rate, even with 32APSK modulation.
    • The Challenges of C-Band Missile Telemetry

      Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The differences between S-band and C-band systems are summarized in the context of missile telemetry. The most important challenges of C-band operation are identified: for air-to-air and airto- surface systems, the relative small size of these missiles limits their ability to source additional DC power and handle increased heat loading due to potentially less-efficient C-band telemetry transmitters. For surface-to-air systems, the prospect of reduced link margin and potential tracking problems associated with narrower beamwidth antennas are the dominant issues for interceptor type systems whereas the power and heat issues associated with less-than-unity telemetry transmitters are the dominant issues for anti-air warfare systems. The potential problems for C-band telemetry of surface-to-surface systems appear to be more like the fixed-wing aircraft issues, many of which have been resolved.
    • Channel Modeling Based on Bidirectional Analytic Ray Tracing and Radiative Transfer (RT²)

      Xu, Feng; Hue, Yik-Kiong; Ponnaluri, Satya P.; Intelligent Automation Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The extremely large electrical-size and complexity of terrain scene poses great challenge in channel modeling of aeronautic telemetry. It becomes even more difficult if severe multipath and fading present due to scattering and attenuation of ground, terrain objects and precipitation [Rice, 2004]. This is critical in more sophisticated test scenarios involving low flying unmanned air vehicles and helicopters tested over water at high sea states, in hilly terrain, or even over urban environment. Conventional ray tracing and simple Fresnel reflection are not sufficient to characterize such complex channels. Hence, the novel bidirectional analytic ray tracing and radiative transfer (RT²) is proposed for advanced telemetry channel modeling.
    • Characterizing Test Range Network Infrastructure in Anticipation of iNET Deployment and Design

      Martin, Joseph D.; Naval Air Systems Command (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The iNET program uses network technology and infrastructure to enhance traditional telemetry systems. The program's components were designed with an eye to existing and emerging technology and infrastructure, requiring the program to gather data about these systems. The methods used in this design effort can be used to characterize existing network infrastructure to determine what upgrades and changes are necessary to deploy a TmNS. This paper describes the methods used for characterizing a range network infrastructure and explores network capacity and policy issues effecting a TmNS deployment. This effort includes making estimates and taking measurements of network capacity, surveying and analyzing network routing/management policies, and proposes a system for evaluating networks for future TmNS deployments.
    • Comparative Analysis of H.264 and Motion-JPEG2000 Compression for Video Telemetry

      Hallamasek, Kurt; Hallamasek, Karen; Schwagler, Brad; Oxley, Les; Ampex Data Systems Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The H.264/AVC standard, popular in commercial video recording and distribution, has also been widely adopted for high-definition video compression in Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance and for Flight Test applications. H.264/AVC is the most modern and bandwidth-efficient compression algorithm specified for video recording in the Digital Recording IRIG Standard 106-11, Chapter 10. This bandwidth efficiency is largely derived from the inter-frame compression component of the standard. Motion JPEG-2000 compression is often considered for cockpit display recording, due to the concern that details in the symbols and graphics suffer excessively from artifacts of inter-frame compression and that critical information might be lost. In this paper, we report on a quantitative comparison of H.264/AVC and Motion JPEG-2000 encoding for HD video telemetry. Actual encoder implementations in video recorder products are used for the comparison.
    • Comparison of Adaptive Transport Layer Error-Control Mechanisms for Highly-Dynamic Airborne Telemetry Networks

      Pathapati, Kamakshi Sirisha; Rohrer, Justin P.; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Transport protocols in highly-dynamic airborne networks call for adaptive error-control mechanisms to provide efficient error detection and recovery. Due to the highly dynamic nature of these networks and short contact durations between the nodes, the AeroTP protocol uses an adaptive multi-mode mechanism to provide a varying degree of reliable services to the application data. The two fundamental error-control mechanisms include an end-to-end ARQ mechanism to provide complete reliability in the AeroTP reliable mode and an end-to-end FEC mechanism to provide statistical reliability in the AeroTP quasi-reliable mode. In this paper, we present our implementation of the hybrid-ARQ mechanism in ns-3 to improve the throughput and delay performance of the AeroTP protocol. We also compare and analyze the performance of hybrid-ARQ against the different AeroTP modes, TCP, and UDP protocols.
    • Control and Status of Telemetric Network Systems

      Araujo, Maria S.; Newton, Todd A.; Samiadji-Benthin, Christopher S.; Seegmiller, Ray D.; Moodie, Myron L.; Abbott, Ben A.; Grace, Thomas B.; Malatesta, William A.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Network-based telemetry systems have unprecedented amounts of flexibility due to the ability to manipulate configuration during a test. As a result of this flexibility, multiple tests can be conducted in a single flight; all it takes is reconfiguration of instrumentation. However, configuration of devices can be a complex task, and dynamic configuration can be even more daunting. As such, device configuration, control, and status must be managed in a coordinated fashion. A system manager implementation that performs coordinated status and control of instrumentation in the Test Article as well as test configuration authoring is presented in this paper, the Ground Test Article Manager (GTAM), which is being developed by the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) program.
    • Crypto Key Management for a Network Telemetry System

      Hodack, David; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      In today's global environment of increasing security threats, good practical key management is becoming increasingly important. This paper will discuss what is involved in key management and will explore key management options for a network based telemetry system. Specifically, the management of the keys used for the iNET radio will be addressed.