• Bridging Legacy Avionics Data Busses to Ethernet Based Networks

      Troshynski, Troy; Avionics Interface Technologies (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Ethernet is becoming more widely used as the network backbone in Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) architectures. The advantages provided by Ethernet solutions include higher data throughput rates, ubiquitous use, lower costs, and high availability of components. Because of these advantages, new aircraft system designs and technology updates to existing system designs are considering Ethernet to replace legacy data bus technologies including MIL-STD-1553, ARINC-429, and CANbus based networks. Despite the advantages of Ethernet over these legacy technologies, latencies in standard IEEE 802.3 Ethernet networks is unpredictable. Defining when a data packet leaves a node and is received by another in absolute terms, and guaranteeing that the data will be received at its intended destination cannot be accurately predicted or guaranteed. Enhancements to IEEE 802.3 such as ARINC-664, and AS6802 enable determinism and guaranteed quality of service that the legacy data bus technologies provided. This paper provides an overview of deterministic Ethernet technologies such as ARINC-664 and AS6802 (TTEthernet) that define deterministic, guaranteed quality of service networks. It also considers the advantages, disadvantages, and possible applications utilizing bridges between MIL-STD-1553 data busses and these Ethernet protocols and considers other related protocols such as IRIG 106 Chapter 10.
    • C-Band TM Smart Antenna

      Ryken, Marv; Microwave Subsystems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper addresses the system requirements of the C-Band TM antenna that will take the place of the S-Band TM antenna used in applications on munitions and targets that require a quasi-omni directional antenna pattern. For these applications, the C-Band TM effective radiated power (ERP) must be approximately 3 dB higher than the S-Band TM ERP to achieve the same system performance due mainly to weather and environmental differences. From a systems stand-point, this will be a problem for the following reasons: power amplification at higher frequencies is usually less efficient, there is a limit on prime power due to battery capabilities, and a more complex corporate feed at C-Band as compared to S-Band will produce more loss. This means that a more fruitful approach would be to use smart antenna ideas to achieve the required higher ERP as compared to current approaches of using higher power transistors and more battery power. Several smart antenna ideas are introduced in this paper, switchable driven element antenna is described including active amplification at each element.
    • CCSDS Telemetry over DVB-S2: Characteristics, Receiver Implementation and Performances

      Guérin, A.; Millerious, J.-P.; Deplancq, X.; Lesthievent, G.; Llauro, M.; Pasternak, N.; Baissac, S.; Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES); Zodiac Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The CNES (French Space Agency) has recently proposed to apply the ETSI DVB-S2 telecom standard onto the CCSDS ones (currently "red book") to cope with the high data rate requirement of Telemetry for Earth Observation Satellites. A very high data rate implementation (up to 400 MBauds) of this recommended standard has been achieved by Zodiac Data Systems onto their Cortex HDR XXL receiver. This paper presents the latest version of that recommended standard as well as results obtained with the Cortex demodulator. A specific focus is done on the extremely low degradation performed at high rate, even with 32APSK modulation.
    • The Challenges of C-Band Missile Telemetry

      Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The differences between S-band and C-band systems are summarized in the context of missile telemetry. The most important challenges of C-band operation are identified: for air-to-air and airto- surface systems, the relative small size of these missiles limits their ability to source additional DC power and handle increased heat loading due to potentially less-efficient C-band telemetry transmitters. For surface-to-air systems, the prospect of reduced link margin and potential tracking problems associated with narrower beamwidth antennas are the dominant issues for interceptor type systems whereas the power and heat issues associated with less-than-unity telemetry transmitters are the dominant issues for anti-air warfare systems. The potential problems for C-band telemetry of surface-to-surface systems appear to be more like the fixed-wing aircraft issues, many of which have been resolved.
    • Channel Modeling Based on Bidirectional Analytic Ray Tracing and Radiative Transfer (RT²)

      Xu, Feng; Hue, Yik-Kiong; Ponnaluri, Satya P.; Intelligent Automation Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The extremely large electrical-size and complexity of terrain scene poses great challenge in channel modeling of aeronautic telemetry. It becomes even more difficult if severe multipath and fading present due to scattering and attenuation of ground, terrain objects and precipitation [Rice, 2004]. This is critical in more sophisticated test scenarios involving low flying unmanned air vehicles and helicopters tested over water at high sea states, in hilly terrain, or even over urban environment. Conventional ray tracing and simple Fresnel reflection are not sufficient to characterize such complex channels. Hence, the novel bidirectional analytic ray tracing and radiative transfer (RT²) is proposed for advanced telemetry channel modeling.
    • Characterizing Test Range Network Infrastructure in Anticipation of iNET Deployment and Design

      Martin, Joseph D.; Naval Air Systems Command (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The iNET program uses network technology and infrastructure to enhance traditional telemetry systems. The program's components were designed with an eye to existing and emerging technology and infrastructure, requiring the program to gather data about these systems. The methods used in this design effort can be used to characterize existing network infrastructure to determine what upgrades and changes are necessary to deploy a TmNS. This paper describes the methods used for characterizing a range network infrastructure and explores network capacity and policy issues effecting a TmNS deployment. This effort includes making estimates and taking measurements of network capacity, surveying and analyzing network routing/management policies, and proposes a system for evaluating networks for future TmNS deployments.
    • Comparative Analysis of H.264 and Motion-JPEG2000 Compression for Video Telemetry

      Hallamasek, Kurt; Hallamasek, Karen; Schwagler, Brad; Oxley, Les; Ampex Data Systems Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The H.264/AVC standard, popular in commercial video recording and distribution, has also been widely adopted for high-definition video compression in Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance and for Flight Test applications. H.264/AVC is the most modern and bandwidth-efficient compression algorithm specified for video recording in the Digital Recording IRIG Standard 106-11, Chapter 10. This bandwidth efficiency is largely derived from the inter-frame compression component of the standard. Motion JPEG-2000 compression is often considered for cockpit display recording, due to the concern that details in the symbols and graphics suffer excessively from artifacts of inter-frame compression and that critical information might be lost. In this paper, we report on a quantitative comparison of H.264/AVC and Motion JPEG-2000 encoding for HD video telemetry. Actual encoder implementations in video recorder products are used for the comparison.
    • Comparison of Adaptive Transport Layer Error-Control Mechanisms for Highly-Dynamic Airborne Telemetry Networks

      Pathapati, Kamakshi Sirisha; Rohrer, Justin P.; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Transport protocols in highly-dynamic airborne networks call for adaptive error-control mechanisms to provide efficient error detection and recovery. Due to the highly dynamic nature of these networks and short contact durations between the nodes, the AeroTP protocol uses an adaptive multi-mode mechanism to provide a varying degree of reliable services to the application data. The two fundamental error-control mechanisms include an end-to-end ARQ mechanism to provide complete reliability in the AeroTP reliable mode and an end-to-end FEC mechanism to provide statistical reliability in the AeroTP quasi-reliable mode. In this paper, we present our implementation of the hybrid-ARQ mechanism in ns-3 to improve the throughput and delay performance of the AeroTP protocol. We also compare and analyze the performance of hybrid-ARQ against the different AeroTP modes, TCP, and UDP protocols.
    • Control and Status of Telemetric Network Systems

      Araujo, Maria S.; Newton, Todd A.; Samiadji-Benthin, Christopher S.; Seegmiller, Ray D.; Moodie, Myron L.; Abbott, Ben A.; Grace, Thomas B.; Malatesta, William A.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Network-based telemetry systems have unprecedented amounts of flexibility due to the ability to manipulate configuration during a test. As a result of this flexibility, multiple tests can be conducted in a single flight; all it takes is reconfiguration of instrumentation. However, configuration of devices can be a complex task, and dynamic configuration can be even more daunting. As such, device configuration, control, and status must be managed in a coordinated fashion. A system manager implementation that performs coordinated status and control of instrumentation in the Test Article as well as test configuration authoring is presented in this paper, the Ground Test Article Manager (GTAM), which is being developed by the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) program.
    • Crypto Key Management for a Network Telemetry System

      Hodack, David; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      In today's global environment of increasing security threats, good practical key management is becoming increasingly important. This paper will discuss what is involved in key management and will explore key management options for a network based telemetry system. Specifically, the management of the keys used for the iNET radio will be addressed.
    • Decision Feedback Equalization for SOQPSK

      Rice, Michael; Narumanchi, Gayatri; Saquib, Mohammad; Brigham Young University; University of Texas at Dallas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper investigates a fractionally-spaced decision-feedback equalization technique for Shaped Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (SOQPSK). The kernel of the block-based feedback algorithm is to estimate the intersymbol interference and cancel it from the samples used to make the bit decisions. This process refines the bit estimates sequentially, thereby increasing the probability of obtaining accurate estimates. The simulated bit error rate performance of the decision-feedback technique shows a 1 dB improvement over MMSE-equalized SOQPSK-TG over channels derived from multipath channel measurements at Cairns Army Airfield, Ft. Rucker, Alabama and Edwards AFB, California.
    • Delay Spread Characterization of the Aeronautical Channel

      Fofanah, Ibrahim; Assegu, Wannaw; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Radio transmission channel influences greatly the quality of transmitted voice and data signal in terms of data rate and robustness. This degradation is as a result of many factors, notable amongst them are having multiple replica of the transmitted signal at the receiver (multipath), changes of frequency as a result of the movement of the aircraft (Doppler shift) and noise. This paper characterizes the scattered components of the aeronautical channel in terms of delay spread. Geometric representation is used to derive expressions for the maximum delay spread using the 2-ray model and the three dimensional model of the scattered path. Furthermore, the delay and Doppler frequencies are described as a function of the horizontal distance to the specular reflection point between a ground station and a test article. The simulated results are compared to measured data of related articles and the value of the maximum delay spread is compared with the proposed intersymbol guard band for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) in the Integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) program to see if this proposition can be adapted to the aeronautical channel.
    • Design and Implementation of the Next Generation Landsat Satellite Communications System

      Mah, Grant; O'Brien, Mike; Garon, Howard; Mott, Claire; Ames, Alan; Dearth, Ken; United States Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resource Observations and Science (EROS) Center; Stinger Ghaffarian Technologies (SGT, Inc.); Muniz; Orbital Sciences Corporation; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The next generation Landsat satellite, Landsat 8 (L8), also known as the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), uses a highly spectrally efficient modulation and data formatting approach to provide large amounts of downlink (D/L) bandwidth in a limited X-Band spectrum allocation. In addition to purely data throughput and bandwidth considerations, there were a number of additional constraints based on operational considerations for prevention of interference with the NASA Deep-Space Network (DSN) band just above the L8 D/L band, minimization of jitter contributions to prevent impacts to instrument performance, and the need to provide an interface to the Landsat International Cooperator (IC) community. A series of trade studies were conducted to consider either X- or Ka-Band, modulation type, and antenna coverage type, prior to the release of the request for proposal (RFP) for the spacecraft. Through use of the spectrally efficient rate-7/8 Low-Density Parity-Check error-correction coding and novel filtering, an XBand frequency plan was developed that balances all the constraints and considerations, while providing world-class link performance, fitting 384 Mbits/sec of data into the 375 MHz X-Band allocation with bit-error rates better than 10⁻¹² using an earth-coverage antenna.
    • Design Improvement and Implementation of 3D Gauss-Markov Mobility Model

      Alenazi, Mohammed J. F.; Sahin, Cenk; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The current ns-3 implementation of the 3D Gauss-Markov mobility model (3D-GMMM) allows mobile nodes to reach and bounce off the simulation boundaries. This causes sudden and unnatural movement of the nodes in the vicinity of the simulation boundaries. In this paper, we present a modification to the current ns-3 implementation of the 3D-GMMM. We follow an approach in which mobile nodes are directed toward the center of the simulation region at a random angle if they are within a certain distance from the simulation boundaries. As the simulation results show, the improved ns-3 implementation of 3D-GMMM prevents mobile nodes from reaching the simulation boundaries while resulting in smooth movement.
    • The Design of a Fully Autonomous RC Racecar

      Archibald, James K.; Wilde, Doran; Rice, Michael D.; Black, Richard A.; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper discusses the design of an autonomous remote-controlled racecar to play a one-on-one match of capture the flag. A competition was held, and the results are presented and conclusions are made.
    • Design of a Radio channel Simulator for Aeronautical Communications

      Montaquila, Roberto V.; Iudice, Ivan; Castrillo, Vittorio U.; C.I.R.A. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The goal of this paper is to implement a model of multipath fading in a radio channel simulator for aeronautical applications. When developing a wireless communications system, it is useful to perform simulations of the radio context in which the system has to operate. A radio link is substantially composed by three parts: transmitting segment, transmission channel and receiving segment. We focus our attention on the radio channel propagation. We proposed two geometrical models of a territory corresponding to a determined flight area and, after importing the data needed to estimate our parameters, we compared our results with the channel soundings in literature, obtaining comparable values.
    • Design of a Semi-Autonomous Quadrotor Aircraft

      Kosbar, Kurt; Hickle, Mark; Wilson, Alexander; Kientzy, Joshua; Myers, Matthew; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper describes the design and construction of a semi-autonomous quadrotor aircraft approximately 1 meter in diameter. Because of the mechanical simplicity of the aircraft, the design challenges primarily centered on the electrical and computer engineering (ECE) tasks, and was used as a capstone design experience in an undergraduate ECE program. An onboard microcontroller based system uses a network of digital sensors and differential thrust for autonomous attitude control. A wireless telemetry and command link allows a user to monitor the vehicle, control its direction of flight, and for flight safety control.
    • Design of Basic Receiving Functions for an SDR Based Communication System

      Manco, Angelo; Castrillo, Vittorio U.; C.I.R.A. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The paper focuses on the design and implementation of the base-band basic receiving functions, for a binary CP-FSK demodulator pilot study, as independent modules of a complete Reconfigurable Data-Link (RDL). A model-based approach and Software Defined Radio (SDR) paradigm are used for the design. The implementation will be executed on Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based hardware.
    • The Design of Dynamic Calibration Procedure

      Leite, Nelson Paiva Oliveira; Sousa, Lucas Benedito dos Reis; Instituto de Pesquisas e Ensaios em Voo (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The execution of experimental Flight Test Campaign (FTC) provides all information required for the aircraft operation and certification. Nowadays all information gathered during a FTC is provided by the Flight Test Instrumentation System (FTI) that is basically a measurement system. Typically for all FTI parameters, the estimation of the calibration coefficients that minimizes most of systematic errors and its associated uncertainty is carried out by a Static Calibration Process. To execute this task the Brazilian Institute of Research and Flight Test (Instituto de Pesquisa e Ensaios em Voo - IPEV) developed the Sistema de Automação do Laboratório de Ensaios em Voo (SALEV©) which is fully compliant with the calibration and uncertainty expression standards. For some parameters (i.e. Static Pressure) the sensor installation particularities (i.e. Pressure tapping) introduces low pass filtering characteristics into the measurement chain. In this case the measurement accuracy will be jeopardized when executing high-dynamic test points (i.e. Spin Tests). To overcome this issue the IPEV research and development group introduced a dynamic calibration process for flight test parameters that requires the knowledge of the actual Transfer Function (TF). The problem now is to simulate an impulsive input for the TF characterization which is too complex. To solve this issue a new calibration procedure was developed and evaluated for the determination of the FTI dynamic response. SALEV© was used to simulate a step input instead of an impulse. Then filtered and unfiltered data was properly compared for the determination of the TF. Preliminary test results show satisfactory performance.
    • Development of a Variable Output Power, High Efficiency Programmable Telemetry Transmitter Using GaN Amplifier Technology

      Oder, Stephen; Arinello, Paula; Caron, Peter; Crawford, Scott; McGoldrick, Stephen; Bajgot, Douglas; Cobham Electronic Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Cobham Electronic Systems, Inc. has developed a field-programmable telemetry transmitter module for higher-power (0.1W to 25W) airborne telemetry applications. A key feature of the transmitter is high DC to RF conversion efficiency over the entire variable output power range of 25dB through the use of GaN amplifiers. This high efficiency is realized by using a variable voltage DC-DC converter and dynamic bias control of the GaN amplifier elements. This feature is useful in that output power can be tailored to mission requirements and timelines, thereby extending battery life and increasing operation time. The transmitter receives configuration commands and can be programmed through an external data port. The transmitter can be configured for RF power and frequency over the telemetry S-Band frequency range, and has multiple data rates. The unit consists of RF, digital and power supply circuits. The RF transmitter is a PCM-FM type with a phase-locked loop, driver amplifiers, a power amplifier and a digital processor for RF control. The unit contains a digital processor, FPGA's, and flash memory. The power supplies contains all the regulator circuits to supply power to the rest of the unit, variable output drain voltage to the GaN devices, EMI filtering, under/overvoltage protection, a temperature sensor and a digital processor for power control. The electronics are housed in a compact aluminum housing.