• EELV Incorporates GPS Metric Tracking as a Range Tracking Source

      Broadus, Charles; Siegal, Richard; Kreng, Jack; Moore, Theodore; United Launch Alliance; Microwave Innovations; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Currently, the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) utilizes a communications, tracking, and control system that was developed at the inception of the space launch industry. The current system operation and large ground footprint have driven the United States Air Force (USAF) to embark on an initiative known as the Future Flight Safety System (FFSS) that will lead into a Space Based Range Concept. An important phase of FFSS is the implementation of Global Positioning System Metric Tracking (GPS MT) on all launch vehicles. Working in partnership, United Launch Alliance (ULA) and their USAF EELV customer have developed a common GPS MT solution for both the Atlas V and Delta IV Launch Vehicles.
    • Estimation and Correction of Quadrature-Receiver Phase Errors of Stepped-Frequency FMCW Systems for High-Resolution Imaging

      Liebling, Michael; Lee, Hua; Lee, Michael; Doonan, Daniel; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper presents an algorithm for the reduction or removal of the quadrature-receiver phase errors of stepped-frequency frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) imaging systems. The algorithm includes the procedures for the phase error estimation and correction process. Theoretical analysis and simulations are included in the paper to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.
    • Experimental Investigation of Wireless Technologies for Data Acquisition

      Cranley, Nikki; Curtiss-Wright Controls Avionics & Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Now, more than ever, there is significant demand to reduce the weight of Flight Test Instrumentation (FTI) which in turn translates to cost savings. Moreover, there is the on-going requirement to improve the ease of installation, simplify wiring, and reduce power. Wireless technologies provide the ideal solution to overcome these issues by effectively eliminating the need for wiring which in turn reduces weight and simplifies the architecture. Wireless sensors are typically small, low-cost, low weight, and low-power devices that can be used to facilitate remote data acquisition in hard-to-reach and harsh locations in the aircraft. This paper discusses wireless sensor technologies and presents a prototype wireless sensor data acquisition module that was developed to investigate the feasibility of this technology for FTI data acquisition systems.
    • High Speed Target C-Band Feed Upgrade for Autotracking High Dynamic Targets

      Lewis, Ray; ViaSat Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      A new common aperture autotracking C-band feed, specifically designed to accurately track fast moving targets such as the Lance missile, is reviewed. Measured data demonstrates exceptional tracking modulation required for good tracking performance while simultaneously providing excellent data channel performance for high G/T over the entire 4.40-5.25 GHz band. The new patent applied for feed design allows users to maintain existing L/S-band capability with a cost effective field upgrade which adds high performance C-band capability to an existing telemetry tracking system.
    • High-Level Graphical User Interface to Streamline Mission Management of Dynamically Growing Data Transport Systems

      Hoffman, Richard W.; GDP Space Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      As data transport systems become exponentially larger and more complex, the need to simplify the level of user involvement in establishing the intercommunication pathways becomes increasingly vital to streamlined, effective mission management. The proliferation of open-architecture, modular approaches to data transport and multiplexing systems shows the need for a unified, high-level control scheme that helps to flatten the users' learning curve for increasingly sophisticated, expanding systems. Implementing a control package with the functionality described in this paper will improve the user experience by eliminating the need for low level hardware management, minimizing system network footprint and unifying this functionality for a diverse hardware package.
    • Implementation of real-time DIS H.264 Encoder for Airborne Recorder

      Nam, Ju-Hun; Kim, Seong-Jong; Kim, Sung-Min; Lee, Nam-Sik; Kim, Jin-Hyung; Danam Systems Inc.; LG Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      When developing a video compression system in black box for aircraft, it is necessary to consider the characteristic of the images and the surrounding environment. The images captured in and out of aircraft have excessive movement-related issues, which make the results difficult to analyze and interpret. Failure to remove the tremors in the video component inevitably leads to poor compression efficiency and degrades the video imaging performance in the airborne black box. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a Compression System which can stabilize the video-image and efficiently utilize high compression recording for aircraft without special hardware. Based on the current situation, we suggest a real-time electronic video stabilization algorithm for airborne recorder which recovers shaky images simply and efficiently to work beside a developed stabilization system based on the H.264 Encoder using DSP.
    • Implementation of the AeroRP and AeroNP Protocols in Python

      Alenazi, Mohammed J. F.; Çetinkaya, Egemen K.; Rohrer, Justin P.; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The domain-specific ANTP protocol suite consisting of AeroTP, AeroRP, and AeroNP has been developed to cope with the challenges in highly-dynamic airborne telemetry networks. These protocols have been designed and modelled through simulation methodology. In this paper, we present an implementation of the AeroRP and AeroNP components in Python. Initially, we implement and test through an emulated wireless environment on the PlanetLab testbed. Further, we present our prototype implementation that is deployed in a real-world wireless environment using radio-controlled vehicles.
    • Implementation of the AeroTP Transport Protocol in Python

      Gogi, Santosh Ajith; Zhang, Dongsheng; Çetinkaya, Egemen K.; Rohrer, Justin P.; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The aeronautical transport protocol AeroTP addresses the challenges of end-to-end communication in the highly dynamic airborne telemetry network environment. The protocol has multiple modes: reliable, near-reliable, quasi-reliable, unreliable connection, and unreliable datagram. We present our Python implementation of AeroTP. The results of preliminary experiments conducted on Linux systems using AeroTP quasi-reliable mode are comparable to previous simulation results.
    • Implementing Real-time Provisioning for Space Link Extension (SLE) Service Instances

      Lokshin, Kirill; Puri, Amit; Irvin, Dana; Ross, Frank; Rush, Rebecca; Ingenicomm, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Space Link Extension (SLE) is a set of recommended standards for mission cross support developed by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). The SLE recommendations define protocols for extending the space link from ground terminals to other facilities deeper within a ground network, allowing distributed access to space link telecommand and telemetry services. The SLE protocols are widely used to provide cross support between sites, programs, and agencies. In traditional SLE deployments, individual service instances have been manually provisioned well in advance of the commencement of cross support for a particular mission, and hardware and software resources have been allocated to those service instances at the time of provisioning. While valid, this approach requires that dedicated resources be provided for each mission and service instance, and limits an SLE provider's ability to reallocate resources in real time based on system availability or other factors. This paper discusses an alternative approach to SLE service provisioning, in which individual service instances are assigned resources from a common resource pool at the time that each service instance is initialized. The paper addresses the key design elements and technical tradeoffs involved in this approach, and discusses the potential benefits with regard to load balancing, equipment reuse, and resiliency against system failure.
    • Implementing Space Link Extension (SLE) for Very High Rate Space Links

      Lokshin, Kirill; Puri, Amit; Irvin, Dana; Ross, Frank; Rush, Rebecca; Ingenicomm, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Space Link Extension (SLE) is a set of recommended standards for mission cross support developed by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). The SLE recommendations define protocols for extending the space link from ground terminals to other facilities deeper within a ground network, allowing distributed access to space link telecommand and telemetry services. The SLE protocols are widely used to provide cross support between sites, programs, and agencies. Traditional SLE protocol implementations have been limited in their ability to support high data rates and large numbers of concurrent service instances. Such limited solutions were sufficient to support the needs of spacecraft health and status or older, low-rate science data. More recent missions, however, have required significantly increased data rates on both uplink and downlink paths, necessitating a new approach to SLE implementation. This paper discusses the design principles involved in implementing the SLE protocols in support of high channel and aggregate mission data rates, with particular focus on the tradeoffs necessary to provide SLE link capability at sustained single-channel rates above 1 Gigabit per second. The paper addresses significant performance bottlenecks in the conventional SLE protocol stack and proposes potential mitigation strategies for them.
    • Incompatibility of Trellis-Based Noncoherent SOQPSK Demodulators for Use in FEC Applications

      Perrins, Erik; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
    • An Innovative Approach to Modernizing Telemetry

      Radke, Mark; Young, Tom; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Growing pressures on today's testing resources are driving the need for a change in the way telemetry is currently being done. As systems advance and become more complex, testing these systems becomes more difficult due to budget, schedule and test resource constraints. These pressures create the need to support more concurrent testing with ever increasing numbers of participants and bandwidth requirements, all while available resources are diminishing. In order to continue to provide support to the war fighter through timely and efficient testing of new systems, the test infrastructure needs to be updated to become more agile and efficient. We will examine the application of innovative new technologies and concepts to increase the capabilities of the testing infrastructure in the presence of shrinking resources. By leveraging advances in wireless technologies, telemetry networks and other technologies, we will present alternatives to the current telemetry paradigm.
    • iPCM Telemetry System

      Leite, Nelson Paiva Oliveira; Carvalho, Marco Aurélio; Instituto de Pesquisas e Ensaios em Voo (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The execution of experimental Flight Test Campaign (FTC) provides all information required for the aircraft development, operation and certification. Typically the execution of a FTC encompasses three major systems as follows: Flight Test Instrumentation System (FTI) that is basically a measurement system; Real-Time Telemetry Link (RTL); and Ground Telemetry System (GTS). At the early days, for the development of small aircrafts (i.e. Fighter), the primary source for FTI data was provided by the RTL due to inherent limitations of the open reel airborne data recorders (i.e. media and size), operating under high-dynamics condition. Nowadays with the introduction of solid-state data recording devices, data integrity and reliability is no longer an issue. At the ITC 2010 Blue Ribbon Panel, Mr. Thomas Beard, the executive Director of the Air Force Flight Test Center in Edwards Air Force Base emphasized the need to reduce refly and to improve FTC efficiency. Such statement imposes a new paradigm in Telemetry, which is to improve RTL integrity and reliability level equivalent to the solid-state data recording devices. Therefore the Telemetry community will be able to execute test point validation for refly reduction and quasi realtime data reduction analysis for efficiency improvement. The major solutions that address such issue are Spatial Diversity (SD) architectures and the iNet. The SD solution requires multiple antenna system (which is very expensive) that could still produce ineffective results at high-dynamics test points (e.g. Spin). At the beginning the iNet consortium proposed the usage of TCP protocol for data transmission. Problems associated with TCP limitations such as data latency and overhead lead to the usage of UDP protocol that does not guarantee the packet delivery. To properly address these issues the IPEV R&D group proposes the iPCM Telemetry architecture to be used as RTL. The iPCM uses hybrid architecture for data transmission taking the advantage of legacy digital transmitters combined with iNet-based transceivers to retrieve missing data. The development and the evaluation of iPCM architecture will be executed as a PhD Thesis in ITA University. The expected performance and benefits of iPCM are presented and discussed.
    • IRIG 106 Chapter 10 vs. iNET Packetization: Data Storage and Retrieval

      Jones, Charles H.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The approach to recording data during Test & Evaluation has evolved dramatically over the decades. A simple, traditional approach is to pull all data into a PCM format and record that. A common current approach is to record data in an IRIG 106 Chapter 10 compliant format that records different forms of data (bus, discrete, video, etc.) in different channels of the recorder or exported data file. With network telemetry on the horizon, in the form of the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) standards, much of the data will be transported in iNET messages via Ethernet frames. These messages can potentially carry any type of data from any source. How do we record this data? Ultimately, no matter how the data is stored, it must be translated into a form that can be used for data analysis. Data storage forms that are conducive to this analysis are not necessarily the same that are conducive to real time recording. This paper discusses options and tradeoffs of different approaches to incorporating iNET data structures into the existing T&E architecture.
    • ITC TENA-Enabled Range Roadmap Paper

      Schoberg, Paul; Beatty, Harry; McKinley, Robert A.; PMRF CIO; PMRF Technical POC; TRAX-International (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper discusses the Department of Defense (DoD) direction to provide an environment for realistic Test & Evaluation in a Joint operational context and enhance interoperability and reuse with other test ranges and facilities though the use of the Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA) and connectivity to the Joint Mission Environment Test Capability (JMETC) joint test infrastructure. The intent of the "TENA-Enabled Range Roadmap" is to describe how TENA would be incorporated into PMRF's range infrastructure through both near-term upgrades and long-term system replacement. While details of this implementation plan are specific to PMRF, this roadmap can serve as a blueprint for TENA implementation at other ranges throughout the DoD.
    • A Low Cost, High Density Reconfigurable Recording Subsystem

      Berchuk, Vitaliy; Grozalis, Ed; Yin, Jennifer; Dehmelt, Chris; L-3 Communications Telemetry East (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Modern test programs require an increase in sensor and bus data while at the same time seeking a decrease in the size and price of data acquisition components. Data archiving, which has been traditionally supplied via dedicated standalone hardware, is not exempt to this demand, but in many ways has not kept up with other instrumentation components in terms of flexibility, size, density and price. The archiving capabilities of a data acquisition system must be able to meet the changing needs of the customer. This paper presents a Solid State Drive (SSD) based data recorder implementation that can be easily reconfigured to address the requirements of different applications, including traditional PCM based systems and contemporary network based systems. The paper identifies the requirements, design challenges, trade-offs and risks in creating a low-cost, flexible data archiving subsystem that can be used in a standalone configuration or be directly integrated with a host data acquisition system.
    • Machine Vision and Autonomous Integration Into an Unmanned Aircraft System

      Dianics, James; Fasel, Hermann F.; Marcellin, Michael W.; Alexander, Josh; Blake, Sam; Clasby, Brendan; Shah, Anshul Jatin; Van Horne, Chris; Van Horne, Justin; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The University of Arizona's Aerial Robotics Club (ARC) sponsored two senior design teams to compete in the 2011 AUVSI Student Unmanned Aerial Systems (SUAS) competition. These teams successfully design and built a UAV platform in-house that was capable of autonomous flight, capturing aerial imagery, and filtering for target recognition but required excessive computational hardware and software bugs that limited the systems capability. A new multi-discipline team of undergrads was recruited to completely redesign and optimize the system in an attempt to reach true autonomous real-time target recognition with reasonable COTS hardware.
    • Measurement of Visibility Thresholds for Compression of Stereo Images

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Bilgin, Ali; Feng, Hsin-Chang; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper proposes a method of measuring visibility thresholds for quantization distortion in JPEG2000 for compression of stereoscopic 3D images. The crosstalk effect is carefully considered to ensure that quantization errors in each channel of stereoscopic images are imperceptible to both eyes. A model for visibility thresholds is developed to reduce the daunting number of measurements required for subjective experiments.
    • Merging Multiple Telemetry Files from Widely Separated Sources for Improved Data Integrity

      Endress, William; Raytheon Missile Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Merging telemetry data from multiple data sources into a single file, provides the ability to fill in gaps in the data and reduce noise by taking advantage of the multiple sources. This is desirable when analyzing the data as there is only one file to work from. Also, the analysts will spend less time trying to explain away gaps and spikes in data that are attributable to dropped and noisy telemetry frames, leading to more accurate reports. This paper discusses the issues and solutions for doing the merge.
    • Minimizing Interference in Simultaneous Operations between GPS and Other Instrumentation Systems

      Kujiraoka, Scott; Troublefield, Robert; Fielder, Russell; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Currently many airborne platforms (missiles, targets, and projectiles) contain multiple instrumentation systems to cover the functions of GPS and either telemetry, beacon tracking and/or flight termination. Most of these platforms are not very large, so mounting of various antennas to support these functions are physically close to each other. As a result, unwanted interference (in the form of RF coupling between them) is unavoidable. This paper will discuss the design considerations involved to minimize this interference as well as some lessons learned with its implementation.