• Implementation of real-time DIS H.264 Encoder for Airborne Recorder

      Nam, Ju-Hun; Kim, Seong-Jong; Kim, Sung-Min; Lee, Nam-Sik; Kim, Jin-Hyung; Danam Systems Inc.; LG Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      When developing a video compression system in black box for aircraft, it is necessary to consider the characteristic of the images and the surrounding environment. The images captured in and out of aircraft have excessive movement-related issues, which make the results difficult to analyze and interpret. Failure to remove the tremors in the video component inevitably leads to poor compression efficiency and degrades the video imaging performance in the airborne black box. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a Compression System which can stabilize the video-image and efficiently utilize high compression recording for aircraft without special hardware. Based on the current situation, we suggest a real-time electronic video stabilization algorithm for airborne recorder which recovers shaky images simply and efficiently to work beside a developed stabilization system based on the H.264 Encoder using DSP.
    • Implementation of the AeroRP and AeroNP Protocols in Python

      Alenazi, Mohammed J. F.; Çetinkaya, Egemen K.; Rohrer, Justin P.; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The domain-specific ANTP protocol suite consisting of AeroTP, AeroRP, and AeroNP has been developed to cope with the challenges in highly-dynamic airborne telemetry networks. These protocols have been designed and modelled through simulation methodology. In this paper, we present an implementation of the AeroRP and AeroNP components in Python. Initially, we implement and test through an emulated wireless environment on the PlanetLab testbed. Further, we present our prototype implementation that is deployed in a real-world wireless environment using radio-controlled vehicles.
    • Implementation of the AeroTP Transport Protocol in Python

      Gogi, Santosh Ajith; Zhang, Dongsheng; Çetinkaya, Egemen K.; Rohrer, Justin P.; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The aeronautical transport protocol AeroTP addresses the challenges of end-to-end communication in the highly dynamic airborne telemetry network environment. The protocol has multiple modes: reliable, near-reliable, quasi-reliable, unreliable connection, and unreliable datagram. We present our Python implementation of AeroTP. The results of preliminary experiments conducted on Linux systems using AeroTP quasi-reliable mode are comparable to previous simulation results.
    • Implementing Real-time Provisioning for Space Link Extension (SLE) Service Instances

      Lokshin, Kirill; Puri, Amit; Irvin, Dana; Ross, Frank; Rush, Rebecca; Ingenicomm, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Space Link Extension (SLE) is a set of recommended standards for mission cross support developed by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). The SLE recommendations define protocols for extending the space link from ground terminals to other facilities deeper within a ground network, allowing distributed access to space link telecommand and telemetry services. The SLE protocols are widely used to provide cross support between sites, programs, and agencies. In traditional SLE deployments, individual service instances have been manually provisioned well in advance of the commencement of cross support for a particular mission, and hardware and software resources have been allocated to those service instances at the time of provisioning. While valid, this approach requires that dedicated resources be provided for each mission and service instance, and limits an SLE provider's ability to reallocate resources in real time based on system availability or other factors. This paper discusses an alternative approach to SLE service provisioning, in which individual service instances are assigned resources from a common resource pool at the time that each service instance is initialized. The paper addresses the key design elements and technical tradeoffs involved in this approach, and discusses the potential benefits with regard to load balancing, equipment reuse, and resiliency against system failure.
    • Implementing Space Link Extension (SLE) for Very High Rate Space Links

      Lokshin, Kirill; Puri, Amit; Irvin, Dana; Ross, Frank; Rush, Rebecca; Ingenicomm, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Space Link Extension (SLE) is a set of recommended standards for mission cross support developed by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). The SLE recommendations define protocols for extending the space link from ground terminals to other facilities deeper within a ground network, allowing distributed access to space link telecommand and telemetry services. The SLE protocols are widely used to provide cross support between sites, programs, and agencies. Traditional SLE protocol implementations have been limited in their ability to support high data rates and large numbers of concurrent service instances. Such limited solutions were sufficient to support the needs of spacecraft health and status or older, low-rate science data. More recent missions, however, have required significantly increased data rates on both uplink and downlink paths, necessitating a new approach to SLE implementation. This paper discusses the design principles involved in implementing the SLE protocols in support of high channel and aggregate mission data rates, with particular focus on the tradeoffs necessary to provide SLE link capability at sustained single-channel rates above 1 Gigabit per second. The paper addresses significant performance bottlenecks in the conventional SLE protocol stack and proposes potential mitigation strategies for them.
    • Incompatibility of Trellis-Based Noncoherent SOQPSK Demodulators for Use in FEC Applications

      Perrins, Erik; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
    • An Innovative Approach to Modernizing Telemetry

      Radke, Mark; Young, Tom; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Growing pressures on today's testing resources are driving the need for a change in the way telemetry is currently being done. As systems advance and become more complex, testing these systems becomes more difficult due to budget, schedule and test resource constraints. These pressures create the need to support more concurrent testing with ever increasing numbers of participants and bandwidth requirements, all while available resources are diminishing. In order to continue to provide support to the war fighter through timely and efficient testing of new systems, the test infrastructure needs to be updated to become more agile and efficient. We will examine the application of innovative new technologies and concepts to increase the capabilities of the testing infrastructure in the presence of shrinking resources. By leveraging advances in wireless technologies, telemetry networks and other technologies, we will present alternatives to the current telemetry paradigm.
    • iPCM Telemetry System

      Leite, Nelson Paiva Oliveira; Carvalho, Marco Aurélio; Instituto de Pesquisas e Ensaios em Voo (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The execution of experimental Flight Test Campaign (FTC) provides all information required for the aircraft development, operation and certification. Typically the execution of a FTC encompasses three major systems as follows: Flight Test Instrumentation System (FTI) that is basically a measurement system; Real-Time Telemetry Link (RTL); and Ground Telemetry System (GTS). At the early days, for the development of small aircrafts (i.e. Fighter), the primary source for FTI data was provided by the RTL due to inherent limitations of the open reel airborne data recorders (i.e. media and size), operating under high-dynamics condition. Nowadays with the introduction of solid-state data recording devices, data integrity and reliability is no longer an issue. At the ITC 2010 Blue Ribbon Panel, Mr. Thomas Beard, the executive Director of the Air Force Flight Test Center in Edwards Air Force Base emphasized the need to reduce refly and to improve FTC efficiency. Such statement imposes a new paradigm in Telemetry, which is to improve RTL integrity and reliability level equivalent to the solid-state data recording devices. Therefore the Telemetry community will be able to execute test point validation for refly reduction and quasi realtime data reduction analysis for efficiency improvement. The major solutions that address such issue are Spatial Diversity (SD) architectures and the iNet. The SD solution requires multiple antenna system (which is very expensive) that could still produce ineffective results at high-dynamics test points (e.g. Spin). At the beginning the iNet consortium proposed the usage of TCP protocol for data transmission. Problems associated with TCP limitations such as data latency and overhead lead to the usage of UDP protocol that does not guarantee the packet delivery. To properly address these issues the IPEV R&D group proposes the iPCM Telemetry architecture to be used as RTL. The iPCM uses hybrid architecture for data transmission taking the advantage of legacy digital transmitters combined with iNet-based transceivers to retrieve missing data. The development and the evaluation of iPCM architecture will be executed as a PhD Thesis in ITA University. The expected performance and benefits of iPCM are presented and discussed.
    • IRIG 106 Chapter 10 vs. iNET Packetization: Data Storage and Retrieval

      Jones, Charles H.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The approach to recording data during Test & Evaluation has evolved dramatically over the decades. A simple, traditional approach is to pull all data into a PCM format and record that. A common current approach is to record data in an IRIG 106 Chapter 10 compliant format that records different forms of data (bus, discrete, video, etc.) in different channels of the recorder or exported data file. With network telemetry on the horizon, in the form of the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) standards, much of the data will be transported in iNET messages via Ethernet frames. These messages can potentially carry any type of data from any source. How do we record this data? Ultimately, no matter how the data is stored, it must be translated into a form that can be used for data analysis. Data storage forms that are conducive to this analysis are not necessarily the same that are conducive to real time recording. This paper discusses options and tradeoffs of different approaches to incorporating iNET data structures into the existing T&E architecture.
    • ITC TENA-Enabled Range Roadmap Paper

      Schoberg, Paul; Beatty, Harry; McKinley, Robert A.; PMRF CIO; PMRF Technical POC; TRAX-International (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper discusses the Department of Defense (DoD) direction to provide an environment for realistic Test & Evaluation in a Joint operational context and enhance interoperability and reuse with other test ranges and facilities though the use of the Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA) and connectivity to the Joint Mission Environment Test Capability (JMETC) joint test infrastructure. The intent of the "TENA-Enabled Range Roadmap" is to describe how TENA would be incorporated into PMRF's range infrastructure through both near-term upgrades and long-term system replacement. While details of this implementation plan are specific to PMRF, this roadmap can serve as a blueprint for TENA implementation at other ranges throughout the DoD.
    • A Low Cost, High Density Reconfigurable Recording Subsystem

      Berchuk, Vitaliy; Grozalis, Ed; Yin, Jennifer; Dehmelt, Chris; L-3 Communications Telemetry East (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Modern test programs require an increase in sensor and bus data while at the same time seeking a decrease in the size and price of data acquisition components. Data archiving, which has been traditionally supplied via dedicated standalone hardware, is not exempt to this demand, but in many ways has not kept up with other instrumentation components in terms of flexibility, size, density and price. The archiving capabilities of a data acquisition system must be able to meet the changing needs of the customer. This paper presents a Solid State Drive (SSD) based data recorder implementation that can be easily reconfigured to address the requirements of different applications, including traditional PCM based systems and contemporary network based systems. The paper identifies the requirements, design challenges, trade-offs and risks in creating a low-cost, flexible data archiving subsystem that can be used in a standalone configuration or be directly integrated with a host data acquisition system.
    • Machine Vision and Autonomous Integration Into an Unmanned Aircraft System

      Dianics, James; Fasel, Hermann F.; Marcellin, Michael W.; Alexander, Josh; Blake, Sam; Clasby, Brendan; Shah, Anshul Jatin; Van Horne, Chris; Van Horne, Justin; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The University of Arizona's Aerial Robotics Club (ARC) sponsored two senior design teams to compete in the 2011 AUVSI Student Unmanned Aerial Systems (SUAS) competition. These teams successfully design and built a UAV platform in-house that was capable of autonomous flight, capturing aerial imagery, and filtering for target recognition but required excessive computational hardware and software bugs that limited the systems capability. A new multi-discipline team of undergrads was recruited to completely redesign and optimize the system in an attempt to reach true autonomous real-time target recognition with reasonable COTS hardware.
    • Measurement of Visibility Thresholds for Compression of Stereo Images

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Bilgin, Ali; Feng, Hsin-Chang; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper proposes a method of measuring visibility thresholds for quantization distortion in JPEG2000 for compression of stereoscopic 3D images. The crosstalk effect is carefully considered to ensure that quantization errors in each channel of stereoscopic images are imperceptible to both eyes. A model for visibility thresholds is developed to reduce the daunting number of measurements required for subjective experiments.
    • Merging Multiple Telemetry Files from Widely Separated Sources for Improved Data Integrity

      Endress, William; Raytheon Missile Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Merging telemetry data from multiple data sources into a single file, provides the ability to fill in gaps in the data and reduce noise by taking advantage of the multiple sources. This is desirable when analyzing the data as there is only one file to work from. Also, the analysts will spend less time trying to explain away gaps and spikes in data that are attributable to dropped and noisy telemetry frames, leading to more accurate reports. This paper discusses the issues and solutions for doing the merge.
    • Minimizing Interference in Simultaneous Operations between GPS and Other Instrumentation Systems

      Kujiraoka, Scott; Troublefield, Robert; Fielder, Russell; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Currently many airborne platforms (missiles, targets, and projectiles) contain multiple instrumentation systems to cover the functions of GPS and either telemetry, beacon tracking and/or flight termination. Most of these platforms are not very large, so mounting of various antennas to support these functions are physically close to each other. As a result, unwanted interference (in the form of RF coupling between them) is unavoidable. This paper will discuss the design considerations involved to minimize this interference as well as some lessons learned with its implementation.
    • Multi-Band (L/S/C) Nested Concentric Cavity Coaxial Mode RF Feed for Autotrack Telemetry Systems - Part II: Implementation

      Myers, Robert; Hoory, Yossi; Krepner, Itzik; Nahshon, Ofir; Pein, Joe; Voin, Miron; NAVAIR Atlantis Test Range; ORBIT Communications System (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This is the continuation of a paper given at ITC 2010 regarding the design, development, production and testing of a novel Tri-Band auto-tracking / receive / transmit feed technology combining dual polarization with multiple frequency band coverage (L/S/C) into a single feed that can be fitted onto new or existing antenna systems. This technology reduces footprint and minimizes life cycle cost, both of which are important considerations for both commercial and military communities. This multiband feed design consists of coaxial, concentric waveguide cavities operating in TE11 and TE21 modes (Patent Pending). This paper specifically addresses the manufacture, integration, acceptance testing, installation and use of two 10-Foot / 3.0-Meter Tri-band Telemetry Tracking Systems installed and operated at Patuxent River NAS, Maryland under the auspices of NAVAIR Atlantic Test Range, Telemetry Systems Branch. What is described herein is the final configuration as delivered, antenna test range results, on-site results, and lessons-learned during the development and implementation phases. Charts and tables are presented to assist with clarification of relevant data for the reader.
    • A Multi-Band Transceiver Design for L/S/C-Band Telemetry

      Thompson, Willie L., II; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The Serial Streaming Telemetry infrastructure is being augmented with the Telemetry Network System, which is a net-centric infrastructure requiring bi-directional communications between the test article segment and the ground station segment. As a result, future radio segments must implement transceiver architecture to support bi-directional communications. This paper presents a design methodology for a multi-band transceiver design. The design methodology is based upon the Weaver architecture to provide coarse selection between the telemetry bands. Utilization of the Weaver architecture allowed for the optimization of multiple transmitter and receiver channels into single channels to support the L/S/C-Band frequency allocations. System-level simulation is presented to evaluate the feasibility of the transceiver design for a multi-band, multi-mode software-defined radio (SDR) platform in support of Telemetry Network System.
    • Multiple-Input Multiple Output System on a Spinning Vehicle with Unknown Channel State Information

      Kosbar, Kurt; Muralidhar, Aditya; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper presents the investigations into the performance of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with its transmitters on a spinning vehicle and no available channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter or the receiver. The linear least squares approach is used to estimate the channel and the estimation error is measured. Spinning gives rise to a periodic component in the channel which can be estimated based on the spin rate relative to the data rate of the system. It is also determined that spinning causes the bit error rate of the system to degrade by a few dB.
    • NASA Remote Imaging System Acquisition (RISA) Multispectral Imager Development Updates

      Grubbs, Elmer; Marcellin, Michael W.; Martin, Samuel; Mayer, Jackeline; Owan, Parker; Stephens, Kyle; Suring, Lee; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The NASA Remote Imaging System Acquisition (RISA) project is a prototype camera intended to be used by future NASA astronauts. NASA has commissioned the development of this engineering camera to support new mission objectives and perform multiple functions. These objectives require the final prototype to be radiation hardened, multispectral, completely wireless in data transmission and communication, and take high quality still images. This year's team was able to successfully develop an optical system that uses a liquid lens element for focus adjustment. The electrical system uses an Overo Fire computer-on-module (COM) developed by Gumstix. The OMAP processor onboard handles all communication with a monochromatic CMOS sensor, liquid lens control circuitry, pixel data acquisition and processing, and wireless communication with a host computer.
    • Novel Broadband Direction of Arrival Estimation Using Luneburg Lens

      Yu, Xiaoju; Liang, Min; Sabory-Garcia, Rafael; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      A broadband passive direction finding system utilizing Luneburg lens has been investigated. With the simulated power level distribution at the detectors mounted on a Luneburg lens, both Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) and the root mean square error (RMS) based on the Correlation Algorithm (CA) for the direction of arrival (DoA) estimation have been derived and calculated. Guidelines on how to design the Luneburg lens detecting system have been studied. Finally, as a proof-of-concept demonstration, the DoA performance of a Luneburg lens fabricated using the polymer jetting technology with five detectors 10° equally spaced to receive the azimuth signal from -20° to 20° is demonstrated.