• Relying on Telemetry for Mission Critical Decisions: Lessons Learned from NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle for Use on the Air Force's Next Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The U.S. Air Force's next generation reusable booster (NGRSB) offers the opportunity for the Space Command to use intelligent equipment for decision making replacing personnel, increasing safety and mission assurance by removing decisions from program management personnel who may not have had any flight-test experience. Adding intelligence to launch vehicle and spacecraft equipment may include requiring the builder to use a prognostic and health management (PHM) program. The PHM was added to NASA's aircraft programs in 2009 and we have requested NASA HQ and NASA Marshal Space Flight Center adopt the NASA PHM in the procurement contracts used on the new Space Launch Systems, NASA's congressionally mandated replacement for the Space Shuttle. Space Vehicle Program managers often make decisions for on-orbit spacecraft without ever having on-orbit space flight experience. Intelligent equipment would have eliminated the catastrophic failures on the NASA Space Shuttle Challenger and Columbia. These accidents occurred due to the lack of space vehicle subsystem engineering personnel analyzing real-time equipment telemetry presented on strip chart and video data prior to lift off during pre-launch checkout for the Space Shuttle Challenger and the lack of space vehicle real-time equipment telemetry for Columbia. The PHM requires all equipment to include analog telemetry for measuring the equipment performance and usable life determination in real-time and a prognostic analysis completed manually will identify the equipment that will fail prematurely for replacement before launch preventing catastrophic equipment failures that may cause loss of life.
    • Remote-Sensed LIDAR Using Random Impulsive Scans

      Creusere, Charles D.; Castorena, Juan; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Third generation full-waveform (FW) LIDAR systems image an entire scene by emitting laser pulses in particular directions and measuring the echoes. Each of these echoes provides range measurements about the objects intercepted by the laser pulse along a specified direction. By scanning through a specified region using a series of emitted pulses and observing their echoes, connected 1D profiles of 3D scenes can be readily obtained. This extra information has proven helpful in providing additional insight into the scene structure which can be used to construct effective characterizations and classifications. Unfortunately, massive amounts of data are typically collected which impose storage, processing and transmission limitations. To address these problems, a number of compression approaches have been developed in the literature. These, however, generally require the initial acquisition of large amounts of data only to later discard most of it by exploiting redundancies, thus sampling inefficiently. Based on this, our main goal is to apply efficient and effective LIDAR sampling schemes that achieve acceptable reconstruction quality of the 3D scenes. To achieve this goal, we propose on using compressive sampling by emitting pulses only into random locations within the scene and collecting only the corresponding returned FW signals. Under this framework, the number of emissions would typically be much smaller than what traditional LIDAR systems require. Application of this requires, however, that scenes contain many degrees of freedom. Fortunately, such a requirement is satisfied in most natural and man-made scenes. Here, we propose to use a measure of rank as the measure of degrees of freedom. To recover the connected 1D profiles of the 3D scene, matrix completion is applied to the tensor slices. In this paper, we test our approach by showing that recovery of compressively sampled 1D profiles of actual 3D scenes is possible using only a subset of measurements.
    • Resolution Analysis and System Integration of a Dynamically Reconfigurable FMCW Medical Ultrasound Imaging System

      Liebling, Michael; Lee, Hua; Lee, Michael; Doonan, Daniel; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper describes the system performance analysis of the dynamically reconfigurable FMCW medical ultrasound imaging systems. Full-scale resolution analysis, for mono-static, bi-static, and multi-static data-acquisition formats, and laboratory experiment are included in the analysis.
    • A Runlength Coded LDPC Scheme for Insertion/Deletion Correction in Multimedia Watermarking

      Vasic, Bata; Vasic, Bane; University of Nis; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      We describe a simple and effective coding scheme for insertion/deletion channels. It is based on runlength coding which converts a class of insertion/deletion channels that have infinite memory into memoryless channels, which are much easier to handle. Runlength coding is then combined with powerful error correction low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes designed for memoryless channels. We consider a novel applications of this technique in multimedia watermarking using quantization index modulation operating on the three dimensional mesh vertices. The runlength LDPC coding recovers the data hidden in the vertices removed by the process of mesh simplification.
    • Servo Controls for Low S/N Satellite Auto-Tracking

      Busch, Chuck E.; ViaSat Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      At very low Signal to Noise receive ratios, a typical Autotrack servo loop exhibits significant servo noise tracking jitter that can degrade the received signal characteristics. The angular jitter can be minimized by a lowering of the autotracking servo loop bandwidth, but at the sacrifice of the servos ability to reject external torque disturbances, such as wind deflections. As satellite downlinks continue to move to higher frequencies, the angular errors caused by either the tracking noise or the wind deflections of a receive antenna will have increasingly negative effect on the quality of the received data. This paper examines the performance of a servo algorithm that maintains the needed wide bandwidth characteristics of wind deflection rejection while achieving the noise smoothing characteristics of a very low bandwidth Autotrack servo response. The control algorithms have been tested on a 13 meter Remote Sensing Satellite tracking system to determine the overall tracking performance of the new implementation. Current results indicate that the new servo configuration achieves the desired results typical of a wide bandwidth system of high wind rejection and low target dynamics tracking errors. At the same time, it provides elimination of slowly changing errors from axis miss-alignments, thermal effects, and gravitational effects and the low RF noise jitter performance typical of a low bandwidth system.
    • Small Wearable Antenna for Animal Tracking

      Melde, Kathleen; Marcellin, Michael; Fowler, Jared R.; Austin, Jon M.; Estrada, Kathy T.; Velazquez, Martin; Mohr, Robyn; Sanchez, Ruben; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Many tracking devices exist in today's world. There are car tracking devices, hunting dog tracking devices, and even cell phone tracking devices. The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) has increased the ability to track various subjects throughout all parts of the world. However, there is no reliable tracking device for small mammals that allows researchers to maintain an unobtrusive distance from the animals. The goal of this project was to begin the process for designing a tracking system for small mammals. The overall system design utilizes a Garmin Astro 320 GPS tracking unit in order to focus on effectively reducing the size of the external antenna. Through the use of current technology and the knowledge of several engineering disciplines, an antenna was designed and embedded into a collar which connects with the Astro unit. This new antenna is compact and more suitable for tracking the Golden Lion Tamarin, a small monkey living in the Brazilian rain forest.
    • The Space Ground Link Subsystem (SGLS) Downlink Detection Improvement

      Washburn, Greg; Corman, David; ITT Exelis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The Space Ground Link Subsystem (SGLS) downlink signals are a PM/PSK modulation and have been detected at VAFB by detuning the receivers to the subcarrier frequency or by using cascaded demodulators. A recent demodulator enhancement by SEMCO allows a single box solution by internally routing the signals between FPGAs. This paper discusses the test methods and compares the results of the legacy methods of demodulation with the new demodulators.
    • Spectrum Efficient Technology Today, Tomorrow and Beyond

      Young, Tom; Santiago, Mark; Radke, Mark; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      In preparation for the onslaught of the commercial wireless appetite, we, the test community, must continually invest in methods to better utilize the Department of Defense (DoD) Radio Frequency (RF) spectrum allocations and or leverage the shared commercial space. There is an ever increasing demand for the limited physical allocations within the RF spectrum for wireless communications. This has never been more prevalent within the test community as it is today with the continuing encroachment of the commercial wireless communication systems. These commercial entities are investing billions of dollars to insure that the bandwidth demands of the public are met which in turn will affect the DoD allocations and usage. Based on the need for increasing data rates, number of simultaneous tests, number of test participants and competition from the commercial sector, the test community must continually improve our efficiency of use within the wireless communications space. To accomplish this, the Test Resource Management Center (TRMC) has identified a Test Technology Area (TTA) Spectrum Efficient Technology (SET) that targets methodologies to more efficiently and effectively utilize this wireless test asset. The SET team has broken down the problem space into three distinct domains; wireless technologies, telemetry networking, and spectrum management. The idea therein is to maximize efficiency within the legacy use of the RF spectrum, while improving the utilization of this constrained resource with technology investment. Much of this work requires leveraging commercial technologies/trends and applying these technologies to the dynamic test environment problem space.
    • Spectrum Management in Telemetry Networks

      Fofanah, Jemilatu; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Spectrum efficiency is the key challenge in modern telemetry systems. Network telemetry requires moving from a dedicated link structure to a network structure which is a very complex problem and requires spectrum management tools. A mixed network structure has been previously proposed for networked telemetry which employs a combination of cellular and Adhoc networks. Significant improvements in QoS and clustering of the complex aeronautical networks have been observed and published in several venues. However in the earlier work routing within the Ad-hoc clusters has not been addressed and the clustering has been done using an enhanced K-means clustering. In this paper, a well known clustering algorithm is adopted in the mixed network concept and clustering of the Ad-hoc nodes are optimized based on shortest route to the gateway and minimum hop count criteria. The proposed clustering technique in this paper leads to a jointly optimized cluster-topology and gateway-selection solution a complex aeronautical network. Simulation results towards the end of this paper illustrate that with the proposed method, cluster configuration is locally optimized and the best gateway for each cluster is successfully selected. With addition of traffic measures to the consideration in the routing, the proposed solution will leads to efficient spectrum allocation and improved QoS.
    • Spectrum Management Metrics Development

      Jones, Charles H.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      There is a lot of talk about there not being enough spectrum available for use by either government or industry. One would thus suppose that there are clear answers to the questions, "How much spectrum is being used?" and "How much spectrum would be used if it was available?" Unfortunately, clear answers do not exist. In fact, even if you collected data, analyzed it, and generated charts, there is likely to be (and, in fact, have been) long debates about the meaning of those charts. A fundamental problem is that there are no standard metrics for reporting spectrum usage. A well-defined and documented set of metrics would aid in any analysis and discussion of spectrum usage. The Range Commander's Council (RCC) Frequency Management Group (FMG) has initiated a formal Task, FM-37, to develop and standardize a set of spectrum management metrics. These metrics will go beyond simple usage and provide metrics for analysis of spectrum management in general, such as spectrum usage requirements, scheduling efficiencies, and prediction of impacts to spectrum availability. This paper overviews an initial draft of the document being developed under Task FM-37.
    • A Spectrum Management Tool to Aid Efficient Frequency Assignments at Test Ranges

      Madon, Phiroz H.; Gadgil, Shrirang; Harasty, Daniel J.; Kim, Heechang; Triolo, Anthony A.; Ziegler, Robert A.; Applied Communication Sciences (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Increasing demands for telemetry bandwidth in conjunction with commercial encroachments on telemetry spectrum have created a need for test range operations personnel to make frequency assignments in the most efficient manner possible. The Spectrum Management System (SMS) project researches a potential tool to bring advanced capabilities to the assistance of test range operations. Features that appear to have significant utility are: frequency assignment optimizations to simultaneously satisfy device and spectrum constraints, prediction of RF channel quality across airspace, and support for frequency reuse. A prototype system is currently being trialed at selected test ranges.
    • Spectrum Savings from High Performance Network Recording and Playback Onboard the Test Article

      Wigent, Mark A.; Mazzario, Andrea M.; SAIC; Kauai Software Solutions (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The Test Resource Management Center's (TRMC) Spectrum Efficient Technologies (SET) S&T program is sponsoring development of the Enhanced Query Data Recorder (EQDR), a network flight recorder that is intended to meet the future needs of the networked telemetry environment. EQDR is designed to support the "fetch" of recorded test data during a test without interrupting the ongoing recording of data from the test article vehicle network. The key benefits of the network data recorder as implemented in EQDR are increased flexibility and efficiency of test in an environment with increasing demands on spectrum available for telemetered data. EQDR enables retrieval of individual recorded parameters on an as-needed basis. Having the flexibility to send data only when it is required rather than throughout the duration of the test significantly increases the efficiency with which limited spectrum resources are used. EQDR enables parametric-level data retrieval, based not only on time interval and data source, but also on the content of the recorded data messages. EQDR enables selective, efficient retrieval of individual parameters using indexes derived from the actual values of recorded data. This paper describes the design of EQDR and the benefits of selective data storage and retrieval in the application of networked telemetry. In addition it describes the performance of the EQDR in terms of data recording and data retrieval rates when implemented on single board computers designed for use in the aeronautical test environment with size, weight, and power constraints.
    • Standardization of the Instrumentation Hardware Abstraction Language in IRIG 106

      Hamilton, John; Fernandes, Ronald; Darr, Timothy; Jones, Charles H.; Faulstich, Ray; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base; CSC Range and Engineering Services (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Previously, we have presented an approach to achieving standards-based multi-vendor hardware configuration using the Instrumentation Hardware Abstraction Language (IHAL) and an associated Application Programming Interface (API) specification. In this paper we describe the current status of the IHAL standard. Since the first introduction of IHAL at ITC 2006, the language has undergone a number of additions and improvements. Currently, IHAL is nearing the end of a 2-year standardization task with the Range Commanders Council Telemetry Group (RCC TG). This paper describes the standardization process in addition to providing an overview of the current state of IHAL. The standard consists of two key components: (1) the IHAL language, and (2), the IHAL API specification.
    • Stopping Launch Vehicle Failures Using Telemetry to Measure Equipment Usable Life

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Launch vehicle equipment reliability is driven by infant mortality failures, which can be eliminated using a prognostic analysis prior, during and/or after the exhaustive and comprehensive dynamic environmental factory acceptance testing. Measuring and confirming equipment performance is completed to increase equipment reliability by identifying equipment that fails during test for repair/replacement. To move to the 100% reliability domain, equipment dynamic environmental factory testing should be followed by a prognostic analysis to measure equipment usable life and identify the equipment that will fail prematurely. During equipment testing, only equipment performance is measured and equipment performance is unrelated to equipment reliability making testing alone inadequate to produce equipment with 100% reliability. A prognostic analysis converts performance measurements into an invasive usable life measurement by sharing test data used to measure equipment performance. Performance data is converted to usable life data provides a time-to-failure (TTF) in minutes/hours/days/months for equipment that will fail within the first year of use, allowing the production of equipment with 100% reliability.
    • System Design for FEC in Aeronautical Telemetry

      Perrins, Erik; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      This paper contains a description of two types of forward error correction (FEC) codes for shaped offset quadrature phase shift keying, telemetry group version (SOQPSK-TG). The FEC codes are a low-density parity check (LDPC) code and a serially concatenated convolutional code (SCCC). The contributions of this paper are on the system-design level. One major contribution is to design a SCCC code word format that is as compatible as possible with the LDPC code word, which simplifies other aspects of the system design. Another major contribution is to show exactly how demodulators and decoders can be decoupled from each other at the receiver. This simplifies the demodulation process because receiver synchronization is no longer intertwined with FEC decoding. Furthermore, this enables a mix-and-match design, where demods can be chosen based on their performance and complexity tradeoffs. In fact, for the first time, we show how symbol-by-symbol demods can be used with all FEC coding/decoding options, and we also show that these demods have very attractive BER performance given their simplicity.
    • System-Level Algorithm Design for Radionavigation using UWB Waveforms

      Iltis, Ronald A.; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      A radiolocation/navigation system is considered in which mobile nodes use ultra-wideband (UWB) radios to obtain inter-node ranges via round-trip travel time (RTT). Each node is also assumed to contain an inertial measurement unit (IMU) which generates 2D position estimates subject to Gaussian drift and additive noise errors. The key problem in such a system is obtaining 2 or 3-D position estimates from the nonlinear UWB range measurements and fusing the resulting UWB and IMU estimates. The system presented uses a Steepest Descent Random Start (SDRS) algorithm to solve the nonlinear positioning problem. It is shown that SDRS is a stable algorithim under a realistic communications reciprocity assumption. The SDRS estimates are then treated as measurements by the navigation Kalman filter. The navigation filter also processes separate IMU-derived position estimates to update node position/velocity. Simulation results for an urban corridor are given showing < 6 m. rms position errors.
    • Telemetry Network Intrusion Detection System

      Maharjan, Nadim; Moazzemi, Paria; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      Telemetry systems are migrating from links to networks. Security solutions that simply encrypt radio links no longer protect the network of Test Articles or the networks that support them. The use of network telemetry is dramatically expanding and new risks and vulnerabilities are challenging issues for telemetry networks. Most of these vulnerabilities are silent in nature and cannot be detected with simple tools such as traffic monitoring. The Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a security mechanism suited to telemetry networks that can help detect abnormal behavior in the network. Our previous research in Network Intrusion Detection Systems focused on "Password" attacks and "Syn" attacks. This paper presents a generalized method that can detect both "Password" attack and "Syn" attack. In this paper, a K-means Clustering algorithm is used for vector quantization of network traffic. This reduces the scope of the problem by reducing the entropy of the network data. In addition, a Hidden-Markov Model (HMM) is then employed to help to further characterize and analyze the behavior of the network into states that can be labeled as normal, attack, or anomaly. Our experiments show that IDS can discover and expose telemetry network vulnerabilities using Vector Quantization and the Hidden Markov Model providing a more secure telemetry environment. Our paper shows how these can be generalized into a Network Intrusion system that can be deployed on telemetry networks.
    • Telemetry Network Systems (TMNS) RF Link Management Quality of Service

      O'Connell, Ray; Webster, Lyle; Kaba, James; RoboComAI LLC; SRI International Sarnoff (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      In the Telemetry Network System (TmNS) the prioritization of mission traffic is performed by internal radio queuing disciplines and the Link Manager performing adjustments to each radio transmit window in the TDMA network. These processes combine to provide the QoS traffic handling across the range. The radios provide the transmit packet prioritization using queuing disciplines which can be assigned to mission traffic flows. The Link Manager on the ground receives periodic reports of queue levels from each radio and performs transmit capacity adjustments based on internal radio and network wide conditions. Presented in this paper is the design of this TmNS RF Link Management QoS process with OPNET modeling and simulation results.
    • Telemetry System for Remote Monitoring of Utility Usage in Commercial and Residential Structures

      Grott, Steven; Lecko, David; Parker, Ryan; Price, Nathan; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)
      The system described in this paper can monitor utility usage in commercial and residential structures, and send an alert message over conventional cell phone networks when it detects an anomalous condition. Such a condition could indicate a utility outage, structure failure, HVAC system failure, water leak, etc. The microcontroller-based system can measure electrical current, carbon monoxide, methane, liquid propane, temperature, barometric pressure, and altitude using a wired and wireless sensor network. The microcontroller displays the measurements on local and external graphical user interface, and sends SMS alert messages when necessary. The system may be retrofitted into existing structures.
    • Telemetry, Aeronautical and Medical: New Frontiers in Spectrum Sharing

      Keane, William K.; Duane Morris LLP (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2012-10)