• A Comparison of L-Band and C-Band Multipath Propagation at Edwards AFB

      Rice, Michael; Jensen, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper summarizes L- and C-band propagation data based on multiple transmit and receive antennas in the flight-line environment at Edwards AFB. The data show that for this particular environment, C-band propagation exhibits much less delay spread than L-band propagation. But C-band propagation is more susceptible to complete outages due to shadowing. The main contributing factors to these conclusions are the increased attenuation at the point of reflection at C-band and the fact that the same antennas were used for both the L- and C-band experiments. Consequently, the receive antenna beamwidths were different (the beamwidth was much narrower at C-band) and this narrowed the angular spread of the multipath components captured at C-band.
    • Design and Development of a Thin Conformal C-Band Telemetry Antenna for a Small Diameter Missile

      Cirineo, Tony; Davis, Rick; Byrd, Marvin; Kujiraoka, Scott; Naval Air Warfare Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper will present the preliminary design of a C-Band telemetry antenna mounted conformal to a small diameter missile. Various design studies and options will be explored leading to a preliminary design that best meets system requirements. Simulation results are presented for various options and the rationale for down selection to final configuration is discussed.
    • The F-22A Quick Response Package-QRP

      Natale, Louis; Roach, John; Lockheed Martin Aeronautics; Telectronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The F-22 Quick Response Package was designed to efficiently solve aircraft anomalies in the field. Providing this capability would enhance aircraft combat availability and lower maintenance costs. Using the current F-22 instrumentation flight test system design package as a baseline, a smaller, and much more versatile, version of the system was designed. This new design concept includes a data acquisition and recording system on a single pallet called the Quick Response Package (QRP). The QRP can be installed in any operational F-22 war fighter in a single production shift with no intrusion to the aircraft's systems readiness. The data acquisition and recording capabilities provide a near real-time field solution without excessive downtime or pilot intervention. This paper describes the design requirements, the design concept and packaging details of the QRP.
    • Use of Multi-Threading, Modern Programming Language, and Lossless Compression in a Dynamic Commutation/Decommutation System

      Wigent, Mark A.; Mazzario, Andrea M.; Matsumura, Scott M.; SAIC; Kauai Software Solutions (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The Spectrum Efficient Technology Science and Technology (SET S&T) Program is sponsoring the development of the Dynamic Commutation and Decommutation System (DCDS), which optimizes telemetry data transmission in real time. The goal of DCDS is to improve spectrum efficiency - not through improving RF techniques but rather through changing and optimizing contents of the telemetry stream during system test. By allowing the addition of new parameters to the telemetered stream at any point during system test, DCDS removes the need to transmit measured data unless it is actually needed on the ground. When compared to serial streaming telemetry, real time re-formatting of the telemetry stream does require additional processing onboard the test article. DCDS leverages advances in microprocessor technology to perform this processing while meeting size, weight, and power constraints of the test environment. Performance gains of the system have been achieved by significant multi-threading of the application, allowing it to run on modern multi-core processors. Two other enhancing technologies incorporated into DCDS are the Java programming language and lossless compression.
    • Failsafe Performance and Design Principles of Redundant Cross Strapped RCC 319-07 Flight Termination Receivers in a FTS System

      Moul, Gregory; Herley Industries Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The RCC 319-07 compliant Flight Termination Receiver (FTR) when configured in a dual cross strapped Flight Termination System (FTS) can provide enhanced fail safe condition monitoring and automatic fail safe condition response capabilities in missile, rocket or target platforms. The redundant RCC 319-07 FTRs will latch ON the destruct ARM and TERMINATE command outputs in the event both Fail-Safe Enabled FTRs experience a simultaneous loss of DC power, loss of the RF carrier, or designated modulated tone beyond the preset loss of the tone time out period. RCC 319-07 FTRs also include a Fail-Safe Enable and ARM latched state recovery for power interruptions of up to 50 milliseconds and over-voltage and output protection circuitry on all command and telemetry outputs.
    • Contributions to Data Postprocessing in Sending Samples Parameters at Critical Moments on Unmanned Aerial

      Rubio, Manuel Sánchez; Armengod, Rafael G.; de-Marcos, Luis; Martinez, José-Javier; National Institue of Aerospace Technology (INTA); University of Alcalá (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      In this paper we investigate the different stages that allow us to create a model that would provide a better understanding of what happens on certain parameters that measure physical quantities related to the behavior of both, burst and reaction, unmanned aircraft as well as unmanned helicopters based on a data transmission to land via radio modem.
    • The Subminiature Flight Safety System

      Woodard, Tracy; Dehmelt, Chris; Eglin Air Force Base; L-3 Communications Telemetry East (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Weapons platform testing and monitoring have historically consisted of custom telemetry and flight safety system solutions tailored to the requirements (including Title 10 Mandates) and size constraints of individual platforms. The size of these individual components of these systems has necessitated that warhead replacement to facilitate insertion of these units to support test and evaluation activities. Currently there are no products available to meet these requirements in a miniaturized and modular package. L-3 Communications Telemetry East (L-3 TE) has developed an extensive background in providing solutions to gather vital missile and target information over the last several decades. Under the auspices of Eglin AFB, L-3 TE is leading a multi-disciplinary team to design and develop the Subminiature Flight Safety System (SFSS) to support existing and new weapons applications. SFSS is a universal, small, and low cost redundant flight termination system (FTS) that incorporates encoding, processing and TSPI capacities that provides critical health/safety/welfare monitoring and allows for highly efficient telemetering of all weapon application and FTS data. The SFSS is intended as a solution to allow weapon system developers, test agencies, and range safety officers the ability to track, monitor, and if necessary, terminate all types of weapon systems. It is designed to interface with newly developed weapon systems, while providing backward compatibility to meet existing requirements with minimal modifications to the weapon. The SFSS components are intended to significantly reduce the cost and improve the quality of test support by providing a highly integrated solution that minimizes physical intrusion into weapon systems, by eliminating the need for warhead removal. In addition, a common hardware platform will reduce overall system cost of acquisition and maintenance to the government, a key element in today's world of stressed budgets.
    • Complete Vendor-Neutral Instrumentation Configuration with IHAL and TMATS XML

      Hamilton, John; Darr, Timothy; Fernandes, Ronald; Sulewski, Joe; Jones, Charles; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; L-3 Telemetry East; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Previously, we have presented an approach to achieving standards-based multi-vendor hardware configuration using the Instrumentation Hardware Abstraction Language (IHAL) and an associated Application Programming Interface (API) specification. In this paper, we extend this approach to include support for configuring PCM formats. This capability is an appropriate fit for IHAL since changes to hardware settings can affect the current telemetry format and vice versa. We describe extensions made to the IHAL API in order to support this capability. Additionally, we show how complete instrumentation configurations can be described using an integrated IHAL and TMATS XML. Finally, we describe a demonstration of this capability implemented for data acquisition hardware produced by L-3 Telemetry East.
    • Utilizing IHAL Instrumentation Descriptions in iNET Scenarios

      Hamilton, John; Darr, Timothy; Fernandes, Ronald; Sulewski, Joe; Jones, Charles; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; L-3 Telemetry East; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      In this paper, we explore ways in which CTEIP's integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) program can benefit from the hardware descriptions supported by the Instrumentation Hardware Abstraction Language (IHAL). We describe how IHAL can be used at the end of the current iNET instrumentation configuration use-case to "fine tune" the instrumentation configuration. Additionally, we describe how IHAL can be used at the beginning of the current instrumentation configuration use-case to enable cross-vendor reasoning and automated construction of multi-vendor instrumentation configurations. Finally, we investigate how IHAL can be used within the iNET system manager to enhance capabilities such as instrumentation discovery.
    • Where Next for XidML

      Cooke, Alan; ACRA Control (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      XidML is an open, vendor neutral, XML based standard for the FTI community used to capture the metadata associated with flight test instrumentation and data acquisition networks. This paper discusses the difference between metadata and meta-metadata, how these concepts apply to XidML and an optional schema, XdefML. The paper also describes how Settings and their validation may be applied to a Generic package definition. Some examples are given of how the current version XdefML can be leveraged to auto-generate graphical user interfaces that are both feature rich and incorporate sophisticated error checking and data validation.
    • Wireless Rotor Data Acquisition System

      Kpodzo, Elias; DiLemmo, Marc; Wang, Wearn-Juhn; L-3 Communications Telemetry East (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Flight test data acquisition systems have been widely deployed in helicopter certification programs for a few decades. A data acquisition system uses a series of strategically placed sensors to provide instantaneous status condition of the helicopter's components and structure. However, until recently, it has been difficult to collect flight test data from helicopter rotors in motion. Traditional rotor solutions have used slip rings to electrically connect fixed and rotating mechanical elements; but slip rings are inconvenient to use, prone to wear, and notoriously unreliable.
    • AIRBUS Generic Flight Test Installation

      Caturla, Jean-Pascal; AIRBUS Operations SAS (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper describes new concepts of test mean and processes to perform flight test for all Airbus aircraft family. The FTI (Flight Test Installation) designed for A320, A340, A380 and A350 programs include acquisition system, recorder, data processing, visualisation, Flight Test Engineer Station and optional functionalities (video acquisition, DGPS, telemetry ...) In the past, these test means were specific for each test aircraft. Due to the large number of Aircraft development in parallel Airbus has designed and standardized new tests means for development and production aircraft. The first goal is to generate significant benefits regarding time and costs savings by simplifying installation and reusing all the test installations components. This paper shows the opportunities and challenges of these new concepts.
    • Design Considerations for XML-Based T&E Standards

      Darr, Tim; Hamilton, John; Fernandes, Ronald; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The next generation of telemetry systems will rely heavily on XML-based standards. Multiple standards are currently being developed and reviewed by the T&E community, including iNET's Metadata Description Language (MDL), the XML-version of IRIG 106, Chapter 9 (TMATS XML), the Instrumentation Hardware Abstraction Language (IHAL), and the Data Display Markup Language (DDML). In this paper, we share design considerations for developing XML-based T&E standards, gained from our experiences in designing IHAL and DDML.
    • Vendor Interoperability Through MDL

      Willden, Greg C.; Seegmiller, Ray D.; Araujo, Maria S.; Abbott, Ben A.; Malatests, William A.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Describing data formats has gone a long way in providing a common thread for moving test programs from one test range to another without incurring massive code rewrites. The introduction of the IRIG 106-93 standard provided the Telemetry Attributes Transfer Standard (TMATS) to achieve interoperability between the test article and ground processing system. The integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) Metadata Description Language (MDL) extends the concept to include descriptions of the equipment configuration and setup. This MDL declarative language is both vendor neutral and vendor customizable (where needed) and extends interoperability down to the individual components of the instrumentation system. This paper describes the current state of MDL and its use across intended vendor lines.
    • The Implications for Network Switch Design in a Networked FTI Data Acquisition System

      Cranley, Nikki; ACRA Control (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Switches are a critical component in any networked FTI data acquisition system in order to allow the forwarding of data from the DAU to the target destination devices such as the network recorder, PCM gateways, or ground station. Commercial off the shelf switches cannot meet the harsh operating conditions of FTI. This paper describes a hardware implementation of a crossbar switching architecture that meets the reliability and performance requirements of FTI equipment. Moreover, by combining the crossbar architecture with filtering techniques, the switch can be configured to achieve sophisticated forwarding operations. By way of illustration, a Gigabit network tap application is used to demonstrate the fundamental concepts of switching, forwarding, crossbar architecture, and filtering.
    • Service-Based Approach for Intelligent Agent Frameworks

      Mora, Randall P.; Hill, Jerry L.; Avum, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper describes a service-based Intelligent Agent (IA) approach for machine learning and data mining of distributed heterogeneous data streams. We focus on an open architecture framework that enables the programmer/analyst to build an IA suite for mining, examining and evaluating heterogeneous data for semantic representations, while iteratively building the probabilistic model in real-time to improve predictability. The Framework facilitates model development and evaluation while delivering the capability to tune machine learning algorithms and models to deliver increasingly favorable scores prior to production deployment. The IA Framework focuses on open standard interoperability, simplifying integration into existing environments.
    • Examining the Duplication of Flight Test Data Centers

      Vickers, Stephen R.; Lockheed Aeronautical (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Aircraft flight test data processing began with on site data analysis from the very first aircraft design. This method of analyzing flight data continued from the early 1900's to the present day. Today each new aircraft program builds a separate data center for post flight processing (PFP) to include operations, system administration, and management. Flight Test Engineers (FTE) are relocated from geographical areas to ramp up the manpower needed to analyze the PFP data center products and when the first phase of aircraft design and development is completed the FTE headcount is reduced with the FTE either relocated to another program or the FTE finds other employment. This paper is a condensed form of the research conducted by the author on how the methodology of continuing to build PFP data centers cost the aircraft company millions of dollars in development and millions of dollars on relocation plus relocation stress effects on FTE which can hinder productivity. This method of PFP data center development can be avoided by the consolidation of PFP data centers using present technology.
    • Using Telemetry to Measure Equipment Mission Life on the NASA Orion Spacecraft for Increasing Astronaut Safety

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The surprise failure of two NASA Space Shuttles and the premature failures of satellite subsystem equipment on NASA satellites are motivating NASA to adopt an engineering discipline that uses telemetry specifically developed for preventing surprise equipment failures. The NASA Orion spacecraft is an Apollo module-like capsule planned to replace the NASA Space Shuttle reusable launch vehicle for getting astronauts to space and return to the earth safely as well as a crew escape vehicle stored at the ISS. To do so, NASA is adopting a non-Markov reliability paradigm for measuring equipment life based on the prognostic and health management program on the Air Force F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. The decision is based on the results from the prognostic analysis completed on the Space Shuttle Challenger and Columbia that identified the information that was present but was ignored for a variety of reasons. The goal of a PHM is to produce equipment that will not fail prematurely. It includes using predictive algorithms to measure equipment usable life. Equipment with transient behavior caused from accelerated of parts will fail prematurely with 100% certainty. For many decades, it was believed that test equipment and software used to in testing and noise from communications equipment were the cause of most transient behavior. With the processing speed of today's processors, transient behavior is caused from at least one part suffering from accelerated aging. Transient behavior is illustrated in equipment telemetry in a prognostic analysis. Telemetry is equipment performance information and equipment performance has been used to increase reliability, but performance is unrelated to equipment remaining usable life and so equipment should be failing prematurely. A PHM requires equipment telemetry for analysis and so analog telemetry will be available from all Orion avionics equipment. Replacing equipment with a measured remaining usable life of less than one year will stop the premature and surprise equipment failures from occurring during future manned and unmanned space missions.
    • Development of a Subminiature Enhanced Flight Termination Receiver

      Woodard, Tracy; Vetter, Jeff; Rodzinak, Jason; Eglin Air Force Base; L-3 Communications Cincinnati Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      As the size of missiles and UAVs shrink, so does the volume available for the Flight Termination System (FTS). Small, light weight FTS systems open up applications not possible with the larger and heavier conventional FTS systems. This paper presents a novel approach for the design, implementation and test of a subminiature Flight Terminate System Receiver for use in the Subminiature Flight Safety System (SFSS). This receiver implements the new digital-based Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS) protocol, while maintaining a volume of less than 1 cubic inch with power consumption of less than 2 watts. Combining all of the necessary functionality into a small package while meeting the rigorous requirements of the Range Commanders Council (RCC) specifications (EMI, vibration and shock) presented significant challenges. The Subminiature Enhanced Flight Termination Receiver used in the SFSS has been named the "SEFTR".
    • The Implications for Network Recorder Design in a Networked Flight Test Instrumentation Data Acquisition System

      Cranley, Nikki; ACRA Control (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The higher bandwidth capacities available with the adoption of Ethernet technology for networked FTI data acquisition systems enable more data to be acquired. However, this puts increased demands on the network recorder to be able to support such data rates. During any given flight, the network recorder may log hundreds of GigaBytes of data, which must be processed and analyzed in real-time or in post-flight. This paper describes several approaches that may be adopted to facilitate data-on-demand data mining and data reduction operations. In particular, the use of filtering and indexing techniques that may be adopted to address this challenge are described.