• The Subminiature Flight Safety System

      Woodard, Tracy; Dehmelt, Chris; Eglin Air Force Base; L-3 Communications Telemetry East (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Weapons platform testing and monitoring have historically consisted of custom telemetry and flight safety system solutions tailored to the requirements (including Title 10 Mandates) and size constraints of individual platforms. The size of these individual components of these systems has necessitated that warhead replacement to facilitate insertion of these units to support test and evaluation activities. Currently there are no products available to meet these requirements in a miniaturized and modular package. L-3 Communications Telemetry East (L-3 TE) has developed an extensive background in providing solutions to gather vital missile and target information over the last several decades. Under the auspices of Eglin AFB, L-3 TE is leading a multi-disciplinary team to design and develop the Subminiature Flight Safety System (SFSS) to support existing and new weapons applications. SFSS is a universal, small, and low cost redundant flight termination system (FTS) that incorporates encoding, processing and TSPI capacities that provides critical health/safety/welfare monitoring and allows for highly efficient telemetering of all weapon application and FTS data. The SFSS is intended as a solution to allow weapon system developers, test agencies, and range safety officers the ability to track, monitor, and if necessary, terminate all types of weapon systems. It is designed to interface with newly developed weapon systems, while providing backward compatibility to meet existing requirements with minimal modifications to the weapon. The SFSS components are intended to significantly reduce the cost and improve the quality of test support by providing a highly integrated solution that minimizes physical intrusion into weapon systems, by eliminating the need for warhead removal. In addition, a common hardware platform will reduce overall system cost of acquisition and maintenance to the government, a key element in today's world of stressed budgets.
    • Development of a Subminiature Enhanced Flight Termination Receiver

      Woodard, Tracy; Vetter, Jeff; Rodzinak, Jason; Eglin Air Force Base; L-3 Communications Cincinnati Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      As the size of missiles and UAVs shrink, so does the volume available for the Flight Termination System (FTS). Small, light weight FTS systems open up applications not possible with the larger and heavier conventional FTS systems. This paper presents a novel approach for the design, implementation and test of a subminiature Flight Terminate System Receiver for use in the Subminiature Flight Safety System (SFSS). This receiver implements the new digital-based Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS) protocol, while maintaining a volume of less than 1 cubic inch with power consumption of less than 2 watts. Combining all of the necessary functionality into a small package while meeting the rigorous requirements of the Range Commanders Council (RCC) specifications (EMI, vibration and shock) presented significant challenges. The Subminiature Enhanced Flight Termination Receiver used in the SFSS has been named the "SEFTR".
    • Research About the Efficient Recording Structure of Installed Data Recording Devices

      Lee, Hyun-Kyu; Lee, Hyun-So; Song, Jae-Hoon; Danamsystems Inc.; Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Although the wireless data transmission technologies have evolved significantly, data recording devices are still being used because of the limitations of data rates and reliability issues over wireless environment in the avionics, military, space etc. Payload has limitation of weight. In addition, storage has limitation of capacity. So, we need to research about a data recording structure within a limited amount of memory. In this paper, we propose a new data recording structure through a condition necessary for efficient use of memory. The proposed structure has an equivalent function as other recording systems. But, it uses less memory than the other equivalent recording structures.
    • Complete Vendor-Neutral Instrumentation Configuration with IHAL and TMATS XML

      Hamilton, John; Darr, Timothy; Fernandes, Ronald; Sulewski, Joe; Jones, Charles; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; L-3 Telemetry East; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Previously, we have presented an approach to achieving standards-based multi-vendor hardware configuration using the Instrumentation Hardware Abstraction Language (IHAL) and an associated Application Programming Interface (API) specification. In this paper, we extend this approach to include support for configuring PCM formats. This capability is an appropriate fit for IHAL since changes to hardware settings can affect the current telemetry format and vice versa. We describe extensions made to the IHAL API in order to support this capability. Additionally, we show how complete instrumentation configurations can be described using an integrated IHAL and TMATS XML. Finally, we describe a demonstration of this capability implemented for data acquisition hardware produced by L-3 Telemetry East.
    • Control System Analysis of a Telemetry Network System (TmNS)

      Araujo, Maria S.; Moodie, Myron L.; Abbott, Ben A.; Grace, Thomas B.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      On the surface, network-based telemetry systems would appear to be simple, stateless, information collecting entities. Unfortunately, the reality of networking technologies brings a hierarchy of control loops into the system setup. At the top level, the command and status collection data loop that users manipulate the system with is a feedback loop. The commands themselves are transmitted across the network through competing streams of data, which are guided and controlled by Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) mechanisms. TCP mechanisms themselves have control loops in order to avoid congestion, provide reliability, and generally optimize flow. These TCP streams flowing across a network fabric compete at choke points, such as network switches, routers, and wireless telemetry links - all of which are also guided by control loops. This paper discusses the hierarchy of control loops present in a TmNS, provides an analysis of how these loops interact, and describes key points to be considered for telemetry systems.
    • Candidate Spectrum Assignment Manager (SAM) Solution Concepts and Challenges

      Painter, Michael K.; Fernandes, Ronald; Vadakkeveedu, Kalyan; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Current real-time data communications links supporting Major Range and Test Facility Base (MRTFB) operations are one-way, dedicated links based on the IRIG 106 standard. One of the goals of the iNET program is to provide for shared, two-way networked communications links enabling more flexible operation and more efficient use of spectrum. Central to this goal is the provision for a Spectrum Assignment Manager (SAM) as referred to in the iNET architecture. The SAM element of the Resource Management Facility (RMF) works in concert with the TmNS Network Manager to support dynamic frequency assignment and real-time metrics adjustment. This paper describes the potential role, key functions, and technology elements needed to support this important function.
    • Advances in Telemetry Capability as Demonstrated on an Affordable Precision Mortar

      Don, Michael L.; Aberdeen Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper presents three telemetry techniques demonstrated on an affordable precision mortar that allowed the guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) system to be effectively analyzed. The first is a technique for the real-time integration and extraction of GPS data into a sensor telemetry stream. The second is a method for increasing telemetry bandwidth by saving a short period of high rate data and then broadcasting it over the rest of the flight test. Lastly, I present an on-board data storage implementation using a MicroSD card.
    • A New Approach to Multipath Mitigation in Aeronautical Telemetry

      Rice, Michael; Narumanchi, Gayatri; Saquib, Mohammad; Brigham Young University; University of Texas at Dallas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper compares the bit error rate performance of a single channel equalizer with the bit error rate performance of a multi-channel equalizer (in the form of the time-reversed space-time block code) using channels derived from multipath channel measurements at Edwards AFB, California, and Cairns Army Airfield, Ft. Rucker, Alabama. The results show that the performance of the multi-channel equalizer is better than the single channel equalizer over the weaker channel, but worse than the performance of the single channel equalizer over the stronger channel. We conclude that the best approach for the informed transmitter is to apply all available power to a single antenna, whereas the best approach for the uninformed transmitter is to apply equal power with transmit diversity to the two available antennas.
    • Secure IP Multicasting with Encryption Key Management

      Dean, Richard; Maharjan, Nadim; Moten, Daryl; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper presents the design for secure IP multicasting in an iNet environment using public key cryptography. Morgan State University has been conducting research to improve the telemetry network by improving network performance, implementing IP (Internet Protocol) multicasting and providing a stronger security system for the iNet environment. The present study describes how IP multicasting could be implemented to provide more secure communication in the iNet environment by reducing traffic and optimizing network performance. The multicast of data is closely tied to the key management center for secure applications. This paper develops a means of delivering keys between two or more parties showing a relationship between the multicast network and the Key Management Center (KMC). The KMC is an element of the system which distributes and manages session keys among multicast members. A public key encryption method is used to address the distribution of session keys in the multicast network. The paper will present a system level design of multicast and key management with dual encryption of session keys for the iNet system.
    • New Developments in Integrated Airborne Antennas

      Ryken, Marv; Microwave Subsystems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      New developments in miniaturized integrated film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) filters and low noise amplifiers have resulted in the possibility of extremely small integrated antenna, filter, and low noise amplifier subsystems for use in airborne telemetry (TM) systems. This paper gives examples of a new development in airborne GPS antennas using an integrated band pass FBAR filter and low noise amplifier. Data is also included on the example antenna in a GPS/TM system.
    • Low-Complexity Perceptual JPEG2000 Encoder for Aerial Images

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Bilgin, Ali; Aulí-Llinàs, Francesc; Oh, Han; Kim, Yookyung; University of Arizona; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      A highly compressed image inevitably has visible compression artifacts. To minimize these artifacts, many compression algorithms exploit the varying sensitivity of the human visual system (HVS) to different frequencies. However, this sensitivity has typically been measured at the near-threshold level where distortion is just noticeable. Thus, it is unclear that the same sensitivity applies at the supra-threshold level where distortion is highly visible. In this paper, we measure the sensitivity of the HVS for several supra-threshold distortion levels based on our JPEG2000 distortion model. Then, a low-complexity JPEG2000 encoder using the measured sensitivity is described. For aerial images, the proposed encoder significantly reduces encoding time while maintaining superior visual quality compared with a conventional JPEG2000 encoder.
    • Wireless Sensor Network

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Xin, Hao; Simkhada, Shailendra; Lee, Christopher; Venderwerf, David; Tyree, Miranda; Lacey, Tyler; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The scope of this document is the description of design and implementation of the wireless sensor network realized as a part of our Senior Design Capstone Project. The various components and sub-systems that comprise the final product are discussed, followed by the implementation procedures and results.
    • The Implications for Network Switch Design in a Networked FTI Data Acquisition System

      Cranley, Nikki; ACRA Control (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Switches are a critical component in any networked FTI data acquisition system in order to allow the forwarding of data from the DAU to the target destination devices such as the network recorder, PCM gateways, or ground station. Commercial off the shelf switches cannot meet the harsh operating conditions of FTI. This paper describes a hardware implementation of a crossbar switching architecture that meets the reliability and performance requirements of FTI equipment. Moreover, by combining the crossbar architecture with filtering techniques, the switch can be configured to achieve sophisticated forwarding operations. By way of illustration, a Gigabit network tap application is used to demonstrate the fundamental concepts of switching, forwarding, crossbar architecture, and filtering.
    • Failsafe Performance and Design Principles of Redundant Cross Strapped RCC 319-07 Flight Termination Receivers in a FTS System

      Moul, Gregory; Herley Industries Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The RCC 319-07 compliant Flight Termination Receiver (FTR) when configured in a dual cross strapped Flight Termination System (FTS) can provide enhanced fail safe condition monitoring and automatic fail safe condition response capabilities in missile, rocket or target platforms. The redundant RCC 319-07 FTRs will latch ON the destruct ARM and TERMINATE command outputs in the event both Fail-Safe Enabled FTRs experience a simultaneous loss of DC power, loss of the RF carrier, or designated modulated tone beyond the preset loss of the tone time out period. RCC 319-07 FTRs also include a Fail-Safe Enable and ARM latched state recovery for power interruptions of up to 50 milliseconds and over-voltage and output protection circuitry on all command and telemetry outputs.
    • Remote Detection and Geolocation of Breathing Subjects by High-Performance FMCW MIMO Microwave Imaging System

      Wu, Mei-Su; Lee, Hua; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper presents the remote detection and geolocation of breathing targets, for the purpose of effective search and rescue. The key objective is to detect and locate micro oscillatory movement through high-performance sensing, such that breathing targets can be clearly identified from the stationary background image. The presentation of this paper includes theoretical analysis, structure of the imaging formation algorithm and data-acquisition hardware, and full-scale field experiments.
    • Space-Time Coding for Aeronautical Telemetry: Part I - System Description

      Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper described the design and implementation of a prototype transmitter and a prototype demodulator/decoder for space-time coded SOQPSK-TG for aeronautical telemetry. The design exercise showed that the space-time coding concept can be reduced to hardware. The laboratory bit error rate tests showed that the performance of the prototype demodulator in a 2-transmit/1-receive antenna configuration is comparable to that of existing SOQPSK demodulators in a 1-transmit/1- receive antenna configuration.
    • Remote Imaging System Acquisition Multispectral Imager

      Grubbs, Elmer; Marcellin, Michael; Choate, Laura; Lundstrom, Kevin; Pounds, Kevin; Richards, Garrett; Vinal, Eli; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Remote Imaging System Acquisition (RISA) camera will integrate the functionalities of existing space cameras. The system operates between 350nm and 1050nm wavelengths, with a MATLAB user interface, uses a CS-mount standard with a CMOS detector, and has a fixed focal plane. The implementation of a liquid lens uses electrical focus adjustments to image from infinity down to one foot. This will allow wireless operation and reduces mechanical failure. All images and video captured will be transmitted wirelessly to a MATLAB program. This data is then processed and stored, allowing for remote imaging.
    • International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 47 (2011)

      Unknown author (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
    • Secure Telemetry: Attacks and Counter Measures on iNET

      Dean, Richard; Odesanmi, Abiola; Moten, Daryl; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      iNet is a project aimed at improving and modernizing telemetry systems by moving from a link to a networking solution. Changes introduce new risks and vulnerabilities. The nature of the security of the telemetry system changes when the elements are in an Ethernet and TCP/IP network configuration. The network will require protection from intrusion and malware that can be initiated internal to, or external of the network boundary. In this paper we will discuss how to detect and counter FTP password attacks using the Hidden Markov Model for intrusion detection. We intend to discover and expose the more subtle iNet network vulnerabilities and make recommendations for a more secure telemetry environment.
    • Randomizers and Derandomizers: Is the Process Reversible?

      Rice, Michael; Barrier, Raymond; Chaulagain, Niraj Sharma; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Mathematical descriptions of the IRIG 106 randomizer and derandomizer are developed and used to show the impact of shift register initial conditions on the input/output relations for a cascade of randomizer and derandomizer operations (the normal order) and a cascade of derandomizer and randomizer operations (the reverse order). The results show that for the normal order, mismatched randomizer and derandomizer shift register initial conditions impact at most the first 15 bits. But for the reverse order, mismatched randomizer and derandomizer initial conditions impact all of the bits. Consequently, the shift register initial conditions must be the same to recover data when the randomizer and derandomizer are operated in the reverse order. The mathematical representation is based on polynomials and the generating function concept and the results are confirmed using computer programs based on bit-level operations.