• Low-Complexity Perceptual JPEG2000 Encoder for Aerial Images

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Bilgin, Ali; Aulí-Llinàs, Francesc; Oh, Han; Kim, Yookyung; University of Arizona; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      A highly compressed image inevitably has visible compression artifacts. To minimize these artifacts, many compression algorithms exploit the varying sensitivity of the human visual system (HVS) to different frequencies. However, this sensitivity has typically been measured at the near-threshold level where distortion is just noticeable. Thus, it is unclear that the same sensitivity applies at the supra-threshold level where distortion is highly visible. In this paper, we measure the sensitivity of the HVS for several supra-threshold distortion levels based on our JPEG2000 distortion model. Then, a low-complexity JPEG2000 encoder using the measured sensitivity is described. For aerial images, the proposed encoder significantly reduces encoding time while maintaining superior visual quality compared with a conventional JPEG2000 encoder.
    • ARTM Telemetry Receiver Architecture Analysis and Design

      Dourbal, Paul; Goranov, Ivan; Fleyshman, Val; L-3 Telemetry East (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Today's ARTM telemetry systems demand channels with high spectral efficiency using sophisticated modulation methods and communication equipment [1]. At the same time, these receivers must be reliable and cost effective. Receiver designers now need to evaluate more and more design factors to choose the right receiver architecture based on the available set of components, and their complexity and functionality. A receiver's architecture defines its major potential characteristics and limitations while playing a key role in achieving the required performance at minimal cost. This paper introduces fundamental concepts of a recursive analytical method for characterizing receiver architectures based on component parameters. The paper shows how, using the proposed techniques, any receiver architecture can be accurately characterized and how that architecture affects the potential performance figures for receivers of different ARTM waveforms and data rates.
    • Complete Vendor-Neutral Instrumentation Configuration with IHAL and TMATS XML

      Hamilton, John; Darr, Timothy; Fernandes, Ronald; Sulewski, Joe; Jones, Charles; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; L-3 Telemetry East; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Previously, we have presented an approach to achieving standards-based multi-vendor hardware configuration using the Instrumentation Hardware Abstraction Language (IHAL) and an associated Application Programming Interface (API) specification. In this paper, we extend this approach to include support for configuring PCM formats. This capability is an appropriate fit for IHAL since changes to hardware settings can affect the current telemetry format and vice versa. We describe extensions made to the IHAL API in order to support this capability. Additionally, we show how complete instrumentation configurations can be described using an integrated IHAL and TMATS XML. Finally, we describe a demonstration of this capability implemented for data acquisition hardware produced by L-3 Telemetry East.
    • Implementing Subsystem-Level Redundancy within the NOAA Jason Ground System

      Lokshin, Kirill; Puri, Amit; Tao, Felix; Tehranian, Shahram; Agarwal, Abhishek; Ingenicomm, Inc.; Avaya Government Solutions, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Jason Ground System (NJGS) is a consolidated next-generation ground system that will support the simultaneous operation of the OSTM/Jason-2 and Jason-3 ocean surface topography missions. The NJGS will consist of several independent subsystems for spacecraft command and control, telemetry processing, and data archiving and distribution. The existing NOAA Jason-2 Ground System (J2GS) was designed around the concept of subsystem "strings", in which two complete sets of subsystems acted in primary and standby roles. For the NJGS, this concept is replaced with subsystem-level redundancy, in which two or more instances of each subsystem independently provide redundant capabilities. This paper discusses the design elements involved in the provision of a ground system architecture providing redundancy at the subsystem level. The paper focuses on the interaction between primary and standby subsystems and the mechanism through which failover capabilities are provided across the ground system.
    • Using TENA and JMETC to Enable Integrated Testing and Training

      Hudgins, Gene; Poch, Keith; Secondine, Juana; TENA Software Development Activity (SDA) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The Test and Training Enabling Architecture enables interoperability among ranges, facilities, and simulations in a timely and cost-efficient manner and fosters reuse of range assets and future software systems. TENA is a common architecture, providing for real-time software system interoperability using the TENA Middleware, as well as interfacing to existing range assets, C4ISR systems, and simulations. The Middleware, currently at Release 6.0.1, has been used by the range community for testing, evaluation, and feedback in many major exercises since 2002, and has been selected for use in the Joint Mission Environment Test Capability prototyping demonstrations and distributed testing.
    • High Performance S and C-Band Autotrack Antenna

      Lewis, Ray; ViaSat, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      A novel dual-band S and C band antenna for high-performance autotracking applications is described. The antenna provides simultaneous dual band coverage for targets with circular or linear polarization. A vertex mounted C-band multi-mode common aperture feed is added in a Cassegrain configuration augmenting the existing ViaSat patented [1-4] ESCAN® S-band prime focus feed. A dichroic subreflector is also added allowing simultaneous dual band operation for the prime focus and Cassegrain configurations with minimal interaction. Existing S-band antennas are easily upgraded for dual band capability with only the additions of the vertex mounted C-band feed and dichroic subreflector.
    • Prototype MIMO Transmitter for Spin Stabilized Vehicles

      Kosbar, Kurt; Eckler, Kyle; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper describes the design of an inexpensive and scalable transmitter for a Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) communication system. The transmitter is intended to be used in aerospace applications, especially in spin stabilized vehicles. A field programmable gate array (FPGA) in the modulator will implement a modified Alamouti space time block code which will take advantage of the cyclostationary nature of the channel to increase the system data rate.
    • Randomizers and Derandomizers: Is the Process Reversible?

      Rice, Michael; Barrier, Raymond; Chaulagain, Niraj Sharma; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Mathematical descriptions of the IRIG 106 randomizer and derandomizer are developed and used to show the impact of shift register initial conditions on the input/output relations for a cascade of randomizer and derandomizer operations (the normal order) and a cascade of derandomizer and randomizer operations (the reverse order). The results show that for the normal order, mismatched randomizer and derandomizer shift register initial conditions impact at most the first 15 bits. But for the reverse order, mismatched randomizer and derandomizer initial conditions impact all of the bits. Consequently, the shift register initial conditions must be the same to recover data when the randomizer and derandomizer are operated in the reverse order. The mathematical representation is based on polynomials and the generating function concept and the results are confirmed using computer programs based on bit-level operations.
    • Path Panels vs. Digital Switching Matrices

      Gilorma, Mike; Apogee Labs, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Patch panels are still frequently used in telemetry installations as a means for routing signals during and in between missions. These patch panels have been used for decades and have many benefits operationally speaking. Digital switching matrices on the other hand, while very popular in the broadcasting and music industries, are not being fully utilized in the telemetry world. Digital switches offer many of the same benefits of patch panels along with an abundance of added features including signal conversion and distribution. This paper describes the benefits of migrating from patch panels to digital switching matrices. It will discuss both the pros and cons of each technology as well as look at the short term and long term cost implications of each. This paper will also discuss return on investment and operational improvements that can be gained from utilizing digital switching matrices in place of patch panels.
    • Using COTS Graphics Processing Units in Signal Analysis Workstations

      Kosbar, Kurt; Crook, Alex; Kissinger, Gregory; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) graphics processing units (GPU) perform the signal processing operations needed for video games and similar consumer applications. The high volume and competitive nature of that industry have produced inexpensive GPUs with impressive amounts of signal processing power. These devices use parallel processing architectures to execute DSP algorithms far faster than single, or even multi-core central processing units typically found in workstations. This paper describes a project which improves the performance of a radar telemetry application using the NVidia™ brand GPU and CUDA™ software, although the results could be extended to other devices.
    • The Implications for Network Recorder Design in a Networked Flight Test Instrumentation Data Acquisition System

      Cranley, Nikki; ACRA Control (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The higher bandwidth capacities available with the adoption of Ethernet technology for networked FTI data acquisition systems enable more data to be acquired. However, this puts increased demands on the network recorder to be able to support such data rates. During any given flight, the network recorder may log hundreds of GigaBytes of data, which must be processed and analyzed in real-time or in post-flight. This paper describes several approaches that may be adopted to facilitate data-on-demand data mining and data reduction operations. In particular, the use of filtering and indexing techniques that may be adopted to address this challenge are described.
    • Establishment of a NASA Temporary Tracking Station on Bermuda's Coopers Island

      Hurley, Robert K.; Kremer, Steven E.; Jimmerson, Joseph T.; Goddard Space Flight Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), Research Range Services (RRS) Program supports NASA's mission objectives by providing tracking, telemetry, meteorological, optical, and command and control services for flight vehicles including orbital and suborbital rockets. The RRS Program's mobile range instrumentation includes telemetry, radar, command and power systems. These mobile assets are used as needed to supplement instrumentation at existing ranges, or to establish a temporary range ensuring safety and collection of data in a remote location where no other range instrumentation exists. This complement of mobile systems can be deployed to provide complete range capabilities at remote locations around the world. Just 100 miles up the coast from where the Wright brothers first flew their airplane at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, Orbital Sciences Corporation is planning to launch its new Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) system from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport (MARS), located at NASA GSFC's WFF. Orbital's COTS system design is based on the new Taurus II rocket with a liquid oxygen (LOX)/kerosene (RP-1) first stage powered by two Aerojet AJ-26 engines. The Taurus II second stage is ATK's Castor 30 solid propellant motor derived from their flight proven Castor 120. The spacecraft, known as Cygnus, is derived from Orbital's heritage DAWN and STAR spacecraft projects and International Space Station cargo carriers. The Program is driven by the retirement of the space shuttle, and the United States lacking domestic capability to send crew and cargo to the International Space Station. As a consequence, NASA faces a cargo resupply shortfall of 40 metric tons (approximately 88,000 pounds) between 2011 and 2015 that cannot be met by international partners' space vehicles. Bermuda has played an important role in the United States space program since the 1960s. The former NASA Tracking Station on Bermuda's Coopers Island had range safety systems for command and control, and Missile Instrumentation Precision Radars (MIPRs) providing exact vehicle position and slaving for command destruct systems. Telemetry systems supported scientific spacecraft and manned space flight (i.e., Apollo, Space Transportation System [STS], and Spacelab) with high gain antenna systems. With the advent of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System and changes in the STS flight envelope in the late 1990s, NASA no longer 2 required Bermuda and deactivated the site. NASA instrumentation was removed in early 2000, and the property returned to the Government of Bermuda (GoB). This paper defines the process undertaken to secure an agreement with the GoB to establish a temporary tracking site and describes the technical approach and analysis conducted that justifies bringing Bermuda back as a critical NASA tracking site as it was during the Apollo era and the early years of the Space Shuttle. The RRS Program plans to support the COTS Program with a mobile launch range in Bermuda.
    • Spectrum Stewardship Through Best Source Selection

      Gerstner, Grant; Lillevold, Hans; Naval Air Warfare Center Atlantis Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      With the increasing demand on available frequencies used for Telemetry transmission, it is important for the test ranges to be good stewards of the spectrum. One method is a new use of Best Source Selection. This method consists of placing data-quality encapsulators at the output of each of the TM receivers used. This system works without the need to use pattern detect which allows for the use of Best Source Selection without the need for decrypting the data. In conjunction with new system architecture, this setup is how the Atlantic Test Range is using best source selection in the future.
    • The Western Aeronautical Test Range Chapter 10 Tools

      Knudtson, Kevin; Park, Alice; Downing, Bob; Sheldon, Jack; Harvey, Robert; Norcross, April; NASA Dryden Flight Research Center; Arcata Associates, Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) staff at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is developing a translation software called Chapter 10 Tools in response to challenges posed by post-flight processing data files originating from various on-board digital recorders that follow the Range Commanders Council Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) 106 Chapter 10 Digital Recording Standard but use differing interpretations of the Standard. The software will read the date files regardless of the vendor implementation of the source recorder, displaying data, identifying and correcting errors, and producing a data file that can be successfully processed post-flight.
    • International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 47 (2011)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10
    • iNET System Design Concepts

      Abbott, Ben A.; Araujo, Maria S.; Moodie, Myron L.; Newton, Todd A.; Grace, Thomas B.; Southwest Research Institute | Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      One of the core philosophies of the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project is to leverage standard networking technologies whenever possible to both reduce development cost and to allow standard networking applications to function. This paper presents decisions about the system's behavioral design and other decisions affecting the selection and design of system components. The TmNS is a network of networks that must be integrated into existing range processes. An overall guiding tenet for the TmNS is enhancement rather than replacement. As such, this enhancement is melded with pre-existing devices, approaches, and technologies. Overall, the pre-existing Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) data delivery mechanism is augmented with bi-directional, reliable, TmNS-provided communication.
    • Design and Development of a Thin Conformal C-Band Telemetry Antenna for a Small Diameter Missile

      Cirineo, Tony; Davis, Rick; Byrd, Marvin; Kujiraoka, Scott; Naval Air Warfare Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper will present the preliminary design of a C-Band telemetry antenna mounted conformal to a small diameter missile. Various design studies and options will be explored leading to a preliminary design that best meets system requirements. Simulation results are presented for various options and the rationale for down selection to final configuration is discussed.
    • Systems Approach to Cross-Layer Optimization of a Complex Wireless Environment

      Dean, Richard; Gwanvoma, Stephen B.; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper presents a method for the optimization of mixed networks that incorporates a mixed layer optimization of performance features. The expanded integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) system envisioned telemetering for large and complex networks which will require core telemetry networks with ad hoc extensions for coverage. Organizing such a network has been successfully accomplished in simulations using a K-mean clustering algorithm. This paper shows how the features of these network elements will be captured and disseminated in a real system. This management of network elements across multiple layers is characterized as cross-layer optimization. This paper will also show how such cross layer features can be combined for a globally optimum solution. It shows by example how the iNET system comprising multiple ground stations, gateways, frequency, nodes, and three performance measures can be optimized to achieve overall optimal system performance.
    • Cost Effective COTS Microphone Array for Range Safety Applications

      Kosbar, Kurt; Goodlin, Ryan; Grafelman, Brad; Wolz, Troy; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      In range safety and surveillance applications, it is helpful to have an array of sensitive, directional microphones. Using beamforming and feature extraction, one can use such an array to locate, track, and identify a variety of targets. This paper describes how one can construct such an array from sub-arrays of small, inexpensive, commercial off-the-shelf microphones. Each sub-array consists of a few dozen electrets condenser microphones which are closely spaced. The analog signals from the microphones are summed, digitized, and then combined with signals from other sub-arrays using a field programmable gate array device. The digital signal is then passed to a general purpose computer for further analysis.
    • Optimization of Nodes in Mixed Network Using Three Distance Measures

      Dean, Richard; Astatke, Yacob; Woldearegay, Yonas; Traore, Oumar; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper presents a method for the management of mixed networks as envisioned in future iNET applications and develops a scheme for global optimal performance for features that include signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), Quality of service (QoS), and Interference. This scheme demonstrates potential for significant enhancement of performance for dense traffic environments envisioned in future telemetry applications. Previous research conducted at Morgan State University has proposed a cellular and Ad hoc mixed network for optimum capacity and coverage using two distance measures: QoS and SNR. This paper adds another performance improvement technique, interference, as a third distance measure using an analytical approach and using extensive simulation with MATLAB. This paper also addresses solutions where performance parameters are correlated and uncorrelated. The simulations show the optimization of mixed network nodes using distance, traffic and interference measures all at one time. This has great potential in mobile communication and iNET.