• International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 47 (2011)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10
    • Wireless Sensor Network

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Xin, Hao; Simkhada, Shailendra; Lee, Christopher; Venderwerf, David; Tyree, Miranda; Lacey, Tyler; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The scope of this document is the description of design and implementation of the wireless sensor network realized as a part of our Senior Design Capstone Project. The various components and sub-systems that comprise the final product are discussed, followed by the implementation procedures and results.
    • Space-Time Coding for Aeronautical Telemetry: Part I - System Description

      Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper described the design and implementation of a prototype transmitter and a prototype demodulator/decoder for space-time coded SOQPSK-TG for aeronautical telemetry. The design exercise showed that the space-time coding concept can be reduced to hardware. The laboratory bit error rate tests showed that the performance of the prototype demodulator in a 2-transmit/1-receive antenna configuration is comparable to that of existing SOQPSK demodulators in a 1-transmit/1- receive antenna configuration.
    • A New Approach to Multipath Mitigation in Aeronautical Telemetry

      Rice, Michael; Narumanchi, Gayatri; Saquib, Mohammad; Brigham Young University; University of Texas at Dallas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper compares the bit error rate performance of a single channel equalizer with the bit error rate performance of a multi-channel equalizer (in the form of the time-reversed space-time block code) using channels derived from multipath channel measurements at Edwards AFB, California, and Cairns Army Airfield, Ft. Rucker, Alabama. The results show that the performance of the multi-channel equalizer is better than the single channel equalizer over the weaker channel, but worse than the performance of the single channel equalizer over the stronger channel. We conclude that the best approach for the informed transmitter is to apply all available power to a single antenna, whereas the best approach for the uninformed transmitter is to apply equal power with transmit diversity to the two available antennas.
    • Advances in Telemetry Capability as Demonstrated on an Affordable Precision Mortar

      Don, Michael L.; Aberdeen Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper presents three telemetry techniques demonstrated on an affordable precision mortar that allowed the guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) system to be effectively analyzed. The first is a technique for the real-time integration and extraction of GPS data into a sensor telemetry stream. The second is a method for increasing telemetry bandwidth by saving a short period of high rate data and then broadcasting it over the rest of the flight test. Lastly, I present an on-board data storage implementation using a MicroSD card.
    • Secure IP Multicasting with Encryption Key Management

      Dean, Richard; Maharjan, Nadim; Moten, Daryl; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper presents the design for secure IP multicasting in an iNet environment using public key cryptography. Morgan State University has been conducting research to improve the telemetry network by improving network performance, implementing IP (Internet Protocol) multicasting and providing a stronger security system for the iNet environment. The present study describes how IP multicasting could be implemented to provide more secure communication in the iNet environment by reducing traffic and optimizing network performance. The multicast of data is closely tied to the key management center for secure applications. This paper develops a means of delivering keys between two or more parties showing a relationship between the multicast network and the Key Management Center (KMC). The KMC is an element of the system which distributes and manages session keys among multicast members. A public key encryption method is used to address the distribution of session keys in the multicast network. The paper will present a system level design of multicast and key management with dual encryption of session keys for the iNet system.
    • The Implications for Network Switch Design in a Networked FTI Data Acquisition System

      Cranley, Nikki; ACRA Control (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Switches are a critical component in any networked FTI data acquisition system in order to allow the forwarding of data from the DAU to the target destination devices such as the network recorder, PCM gateways, or ground station. Commercial off the shelf switches cannot meet the harsh operating conditions of FTI. This paper describes a hardware implementation of a crossbar switching architecture that meets the reliability and performance requirements of FTI equipment. Moreover, by combining the crossbar architecture with filtering techniques, the switch can be configured to achieve sophisticated forwarding operations. By way of illustration, a Gigabit network tap application is used to demonstrate the fundamental concepts of switching, forwarding, crossbar architecture, and filtering.
    • Candidate Spectrum Assignment Manager (SAM) Solution Concepts and Challenges

      Painter, Michael K.; Fernandes, Ronald; Vadakkeveedu, Kalyan; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Current real-time data communications links supporting Major Range and Test Facility Base (MRTFB) operations are one-way, dedicated links based on the IRIG 106 standard. One of the goals of the iNET program is to provide for shared, two-way networked communications links enabling more flexible operation and more efficient use of spectrum. Central to this goal is the provision for a Spectrum Assignment Manager (SAM) as referred to in the iNET architecture. The SAM element of the Resource Management Facility (RMF) works in concert with the TmNS Network Manager to support dynamic frequency assignment and real-time metrics adjustment. This paper describes the potential role, key functions, and technology elements needed to support this important function.
    • New Developments in Integrated Airborne Antennas

      Ryken, Marv; Microwave Subsystems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      New developments in miniaturized integrated film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) filters and low noise amplifiers have resulted in the possibility of extremely small integrated antenna, filter, and low noise amplifier subsystems for use in airborne telemetry (TM) systems. This paper gives examples of a new development in airborne GPS antennas using an integrated band pass FBAR filter and low noise amplifier. Data is also included on the example antenna in a GPS/TM system.
    • Prototype MIMO Transmitter for Spin Stabilized Vehicles

      Kosbar, Kurt; Eckler, Kyle; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper describes the design of an inexpensive and scalable transmitter for a Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) communication system. The transmitter is intended to be used in aerospace applications, especially in spin stabilized vehicles. A field programmable gate array (FPGA) in the modulator will implement a modified Alamouti space time block code which will take advantage of the cyclostationary nature of the channel to increase the system data rate.
    • Secure Telemetry: Attacks and Counter Measures on iNET

      Dean, Richard; Odesanmi, Abiola; Moten, Daryl; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      iNet is a project aimed at improving and modernizing telemetry systems by moving from a link to a networking solution. Changes introduce new risks and vulnerabilities. The nature of the security of the telemetry system changes when the elements are in an Ethernet and TCP/IP network configuration. The network will require protection from intrusion and malware that can be initiated internal to, or external of the network boundary. In this paper we will discuss how to detect and counter FTP password attacks using the Hidden Markov Model for intrusion detection. We intend to discover and expose the more subtle iNet network vulnerabilities and make recommendations for a more secure telemetry environment.
    • A Blind Partially Coherent Multi-H CPM Receiver for Aeronautical Telemetry

      Samad, Shaheen; Lumistar Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Multi-H Continuous Phase Modulation is a highly bandwidth efficient constant amplitude modulation scheme. Because of these qualities it was selected as the Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) tier II waveform. In the past, two demodulation techniques have widely been proposed, coherent detection and non-coherent detection. This paper presents a receiver design that implements a hybrid, partially coherent detection scheme that takes advantage of the positive aspects of both coherent and non-coherent detection. Because complete phase recovery is not required, the hybrid receiver performs better in environments with fast fading, strong phase noise, and multi path when compared to the traditional coherent receiver. The hybrid receiver can also acquire and reacquire signals much faster than conventional coherent receivers. The hybrid receiver design implements a partial carrier detection scheme that utilizes phase information that performs much better in AWGN environments than typical non-coherent receivers. Simulation results show that the hybrid receiver has low implementation loss compared to the optimal Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimation (MLSE) receiver.
    • On the Simulation Performance of FEC SOQPSK-TG Systems with Symbol by Symbol and SOVA Decoding Methods

      Hou, Wenshuai; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      A number of encoding and decoding methods for SOQPSK-TG are evaluated with their simulation performance under additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. The two forward error correction (FEC) codes are serial concatenated convolutional code (SCCC) and low-density parity-check code (LDPC). Two decoding methods are applied: soft-output Viterbi algorithm (SOVA) and symbol by symbol (SxS) detection. Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and pulse truncation (PT) filters are designed for SOVA decoding, and numerically optimum (NO) and integrate and dump (I&D) filters are employed for the SxS methods. We discuss the performance of these schemes by comparing and analyzing their Matlab simulation. The LDPC and SOVA with PAM filter outperforms over all the other combinations. We also use timing and phase recovery with various loop bandwidths. The system structures and the synchronization technique are discussed in this paper.
    • Challenges of Implementing an iNET Transceiver for the Radio Access Network Standard (RANS)

      Geoghegan, Mark; L3-Nova Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The Radio Access Network Standard (RANS) is one of the key standards that govern the operation of the iNET Telemetry Network System (TmNS). It defines the network infrastructure over which Test Articles and the Ground Control Stations communicate using the RF network. In the Aeronautical environment, the RAN segment supports the sharing of one RF frequency using a TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) scheme and provides the mechanisms for antenna handoff and relay capabilities. This paper examines the challenges of implementing the wireless RF transceiver portion of the RANS in support of an upcoming 2012 TmNS demonstration system. Specific topics include the modulation and coding, burst TDMA structure, spectral containment, acquisition of the burst waveform, and efficient data recovery.
    • Service-Based Approach for Intelligent Agent Frameworks

      Mora, Randall P.; Hill, Jerry L.; Avum, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper describes a service-based Intelligent Agent (IA) approach for machine learning and data mining of distributed heterogeneous data streams. We focus on an open architecture framework that enables the programmer/analyst to build an IA suite for mining, examining and evaluating heterogeneous data for semantic representations, while iteratively building the probabilistic model in real-time to improve predictability. The Framework facilitates model development and evaluation while delivering the capability to tune machine learning algorithms and models to deliver increasingly favorable scores prior to production deployment. The IA Framework focuses on open standard interoperability, simplifying integration into existing environments.
    • PC-Based Frame Optimizer Using Multiple PCM Files

      Koh, Kwang-Ryul; Lee, Sang-Bum; Yi, Taek-Joon; Kim, Whan-Woo; Agency for Defense Development; Danam Systems; Chungnam National University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Many engineers have tried to detect and correct erroneous data in telemetry communications. The best source selector can be used to combine data from two or more bit synchronizers to reduce frame error rates. An error-correcting code can be used as well. These techniques are absolutely helpful to obtain reliable telemetry data. However, some errors still remain and must be removed. This paper introduces the way to effectively merge multiple PCM files that are saved in different receiving sites, and shows nearly errorless data resulting from merging flight test data using a PC-based frame optimizer, which is a developed program.
    • Analysis of a Combined GLONASS/Compass-I Navigation Algorithm

      Peng, Song; Xiao-yu, Chen; Jian-zhong, Qi; North China University of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Compass-I system is China has built satellite navigation system. It's a kind of regional position system according to the double-star position principle. Commonly, Compass-I system need adopt active position, in the paper several passive position methods are put forward. A combination navigation mode based on GLONASS and Compass-I passive navigation is proposed in this paper. The differences of coordinates and time systems between those two navigation systems are analyzed. User position is calculated by least squares method. Combination Navigation Algorithm can improve visible satellite constellation structure and positioning precision so as to ensure the reliability and continuity of positioning result.
    • Adapting Fourier Analysis for Predicting Earth, Mars and Lunar Orbiting Satellite's Telemetry Behavior

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Prognostic technology uses a series of algorithms, combined forms a prognostic-based inference engine (PBIE) for the identification of deterministic behavior embedded in completely normal appearing telemetry from fully functional equipment. The algorithms used to define normal behavior in the PBIE from which deterministic behavior is identified can be adapted to quantify normal spacecraft telemetry behavior while in orbit about a moon or planet or during interplanetary travel. Time-series analog engineering data (telemetry) from orbiting satellites and interplanetary spacecraft are defined by harmonic and non-harmonic influences, which shape it behavior. Spectrum analysis can be used to understand and quantify the fundamental behavior of spacecraft analog telemetry and relate the behavior's frequency and phase to its time-series behavior through Fourier analysis.
    • Using TENA and JMETC to Enable Integrated Testing and Training

      Hudgins, Gene; Poch, Keith; Secondine, Juana; TENA Software Development Activity (SDA) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The Test and Training Enabling Architecture enables interoperability among ranges, facilities, and simulations in a timely and cost-efficient manner and fosters reuse of range assets and future software systems. TENA is a common architecture, providing for real-time software system interoperability using the TENA Middleware, as well as interfacing to existing range assets, C4ISR systems, and simulations. The Middleware, currently at Release 6.0.1, has been used by the range community for testing, evaluation, and feedback in many major exercises since 2002, and has been selected for use in the Joint Mission Environment Test Capability prototyping demonstrations and distributed testing.
    • Optimization of Nodes in Mixed Network Using Three Distance Measures

      Dean, Richard; Astatke, Yacob; Woldearegay, Yonas; Traore, Oumar; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper presents a method for the management of mixed networks as envisioned in future iNET applications and develops a scheme for global optimal performance for features that include signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), Quality of service (QoS), and Interference. This scheme demonstrates potential for significant enhancement of performance for dense traffic environments envisioned in future telemetry applications. Previous research conducted at Morgan State University has proposed a cellular and Ad hoc mixed network for optimum capacity and coverage using two distance measures: QoS and SNR. This paper adds another performance improvement technique, interference, as a third distance measure using an analytical approach and using extensive simulation with MATLAB. This paper also addresses solutions where performance parameters are correlated and uncorrelated. The simulations show the optimization of mixed network nodes using distance, traffic and interference measures all at one time. This has great potential in mobile communication and iNET.