• Design and Development of a Thin Conformal C-Band Telemetry Antenna for a Small Diameter Missile

      Cirineo, Tony; Davis, Rick; Byrd, Marvin; Kujiraoka, Scott; Naval Air Warfare Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper will present the preliminary design of a C-Band telemetry antenna mounted conformal to a small diameter missile. Various design studies and options will be explored leading to a preliminary design that best meets system requirements. Simulation results are presented for various options and the rationale for down selection to final configuration is discussed.
    • "C" Band Telemetry an Aircraft Perspective

      Johnson, Bruce; NAWCAD Patuxent River (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper concentrates on aircraft specific issues and impacts of utilizing a "C" band telemetry system on a new or existing instrumentation system.
    • iNET System Design Concepts

      Abbott, Ben A.; Araujo, Maria S.; Moodie, Myron L.; Newton, Todd A.; Grace, Thomas B.; Southwest Research Institute | Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      One of the core philosophies of the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project is to leverage standard networking technologies whenever possible to both reduce development cost and to allow standard networking applications to function. This paper presents decisions about the system's behavioral design and other decisions affecting the selection and design of system components. The TmNS is a network of networks that must be integrated into existing range processes. An overall guiding tenet for the TmNS is enhancement rather than replacement. As such, this enhancement is melded with pre-existing devices, approaches, and technologies. Overall, the pre-existing Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) data delivery mechanism is augmented with bi-directional, reliable, TmNS-provided communication.
    • Initial Efforts in Augmenting a Missile Telemetry Unit to Operate in C-Band

      Kujiraoka, Scott; Fielder, Russell; Troublefield, Robert; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Currently most of the missile telemetry systems operate in the lower S-Band frequency range (2200-2290 MHz). Due to Federal Government plans to repurpose this frequency spectrum to commercial entities, missile telemetry systems will have to migrate to operate in the lower C-Band range (4400-4940 MHz) as well. This move in the operational frequency requires the upgrading of not only the Range ground receiving equipment, but the airborne transmitting units as well. This paper will detail the efforts required to augment a missile telemetry unit from operating in S-Band to C-Band.
    • A Comparison of L-Band and C-Band Multipath Propagation at Edwards AFB

      Rice, Michael; Jensen, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper summarizes L- and C-band propagation data based on multiple transmit and receive antennas in the flight-line environment at Edwards AFB. The data show that for this particular environment, C-band propagation exhibits much less delay spread than L-band propagation. But C-band propagation is more susceptible to complete outages due to shadowing. The main contributing factors to these conclusions are the increased attenuation at the point of reflection at C-band and the fact that the same antennas were used for both the L- and C-band experiments. Consequently, the receive antenna beamwidths were different (the beamwidth was much narrower at C-band) and this narrowed the angular spread of the multipath components captured at C-band.
    • Accomplishing Seamless IP Mobility in iNET Systems

      Moodie, Myron L.; Araujo, Maria S.; Newton, Todd A.; Abbott, Ben A.; Grace, Thomas B.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      One of the core philosophies of the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project is to leverage standard networking technologies whenever possible to both reduce development cost and to allow standard networking applications to function. This also provides the best long-term scalability to new unforeseen applications, much as the Internet has grown through its open standards. Unfortunately, the radio frequency (RF) channel characteristics do not fully lend themselves to the typical physical layer approaches utilized by IP technologies. As such, the iNET program has developed a specialized communication link management control. But, combining this specialized link management approach with the standardized IP infrastructure on the range and test article provides some challenges. The program has chosen a method to encapsulate the special concepts within a set of components that together (at their boundaries) form a classic router. Construction of this router is quite unique in that portions of it are geographically separate: antenna sites, test article, and mission control room. This paper describes the construction of what the program calls a "virtual router" and explains the performance issues that required it.
    • Control System Analysis of a Telemetry Network System (TmNS)

      Araujo, Maria S.; Moodie, Myron L.; Abbott, Ben A.; Grace, Thomas B.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      On the surface, network-based telemetry systems would appear to be simple, stateless, information collecting entities. Unfortunately, the reality of networking technologies brings a hierarchy of control loops into the system setup. At the top level, the command and status collection data loop that users manipulate the system with is a feedback loop. The commands themselves are transmitted across the network through competing streams of data, which are guided and controlled by Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) mechanisms. TCP mechanisms themselves have control loops in order to avoid congestion, provide reliability, and generally optimize flow. These TCP streams flowing across a network fabric compete at choke points, such as network switches, routers, and wireless telemetry links - all of which are also guided by control loops. This paper discusses the hierarchy of control loops present in a TmNS, provides an analysis of how these loops interact, and describes key points to be considered for telemetry systems.
    • The Implications for Network Switch Design in a Networked FTI Data Acquisition System

      Cranley, Nikki; ACRA Control (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Switches are a critical component in any networked FTI data acquisition system in order to allow the forwarding of data from the DAU to the target destination devices such as the network recorder, PCM gateways, or ground station. Commercial off the shelf switches cannot meet the harsh operating conditions of FTI. This paper describes a hardware implementation of a crossbar switching architecture that meets the reliability and performance requirements of FTI equipment. Moreover, by combining the crossbar architecture with filtering techniques, the switch can be configured to achieve sophisticated forwarding operations. By way of illustration, a Gigabit network tap application is used to demonstrate the fundamental concepts of switching, forwarding, crossbar architecture, and filtering.
    • Transitioning from NTSC to HD Digital Video

      Hightower, Paul; Instrumentation Technology Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      As video systems move from analog NTSC to HD digital video, it is also important to move with them accurate time stamping, real time text and graphics insertion capabilities. We will explore some of the tradeoffs and benefits between direct video insertion and data insertion into the SDI metadata. We will explore the impact transmission infrastructure has on time accuracy, positional control and data recovery when transporting HD-SDI video from source to destination. Further some the side effects of compression tools used (e.g. JPEG 2000, MPEG, H.264) to accomplish transport will be discussed.
    • Rapid Prototyped Terahertz-Domain Gradient Index Optics: Computational Design, Simulation, and Manufacture

      Xin, Hao; Gehm, Michael; Miles, Alexander; Duncan, William; Klug, Brian; Holmes, Colton; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      There are a myriad of applications for terahertz radiation: security, military radar, product inspection, and telecommunications. These require manipulation of the radiation beyond simple transmission and detection, namely refraction: focusing, defocusing, and collimation. The current state of the art fabrication of terahertz lenses is an expensive and time consuming processes; involving high purity semiconductors and months of lead time. Our project focused on demonstrating that an inexpensive and quick process could reduce the production investment required by more than three orders of magnitude. This process is based on fabrication using a novel gradient index structure produced with polymer-jetting rapid-prototyping machine.
    • Contributions to Data Postprocessing in Sending Samples Parameters at Critical Moments on Unmanned Aerial

      Rubio, Manuel Sánchez; Armengod, Rafael G.; de-Marcos, Luis; Martinez, José-Javier; National Institue of Aerospace Technology (INTA); University of Alcalá (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      In this paper we investigate the different stages that allow us to create a model that would provide a better understanding of what happens on certain parameters that measure physical quantities related to the behavior of both, burst and reaction, unmanned aircraft as well as unmanned helicopters based on a data transmission to land via radio modem.
    • Development of a Subminiature Enhanced Flight Termination Receiver

      Woodard, Tracy; Vetter, Jeff; Rodzinak, Jason; Eglin Air Force Base; L-3 Communications Cincinnati Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      As the size of missiles and UAVs shrink, so does the volume available for the Flight Termination System (FTS). Small, light weight FTS systems open up applications not possible with the larger and heavier conventional FTS systems. This paper presents a novel approach for the design, implementation and test of a subminiature Flight Terminate System Receiver for use in the Subminiature Flight Safety System (SFSS). This receiver implements the new digital-based Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS) protocol, while maintaining a volume of less than 1 cubic inch with power consumption of less than 2 watts. Combining all of the necessary functionality into a small package while meeting the rigorous requirements of the Range Commanders Council (RCC) specifications (EMI, vibration and shock) presented significant challenges. The Subminiature Enhanced Flight Termination Receiver used in the SFSS has been named the "SEFTR".
    • Space-Time Coding for Aeronautical Telemetry: Part II - Experimental Results

      Rice, Michael; Temple, Kip; Brigham Young University; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Experiments involving side-by-side comparisons of traditional two-antenna transmissions and space-time coded (STC) transmissions involving two transmit antennas confirm theoretical predictions that space time coding is effective in removing signal dropouts caused by the "twoantenna problem." The experiments involved real transmitters on an airborne platform and a prototype demodulator operating at the Air Force Flight Test Center. The theory is confirmed both by the behaviors of the received signal powers from the two signaling approaches as well as the improved link availability based on the bit error rate performance.
    • An Analysis of FTI DAUS and Recorders in Space

      Melicher, Milos; ACRA Control (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      In recent years there has been a trend towards the wider use of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) products in space missions. One obvious source of COTS solutions is FTI equipment, since this equipment is rugged, compact and state of the art. However, issues associated with even greater reliability demands and tolerance to radiation effects have to be considered. This paper discusses the use of COTS FTI data acquisition and recording equipment on board spacecraft vehicle. It describes techniques used to characterize and qualify this equipment for space missions and demonstrates its practical usage with a case study.
    • Wideband Multipath Propagation for Helicopter-to-Ground Telemetry Links

      Rice, Michael; Jensen, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper reports the analysis of L-band channel sounding experiments conducted along the flight line at Cairns Army Airfield, Ft. Rucker, Alabama. Propagation data from multiple antennas on a helicopter to multiple receiving antennas on the ground are used to compute power delay profiles. Analysis of the results reveals delay spreads of the multipath channels between 200 ns and 400 ns, with the longer delay spreads resulting when using a receive antenna with lower gain and higher sidelobe levels. The data also shows that on average, diversity signaling from three aircraft-mounted antennas can lead to gains in signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 13 dB, with the gain dependent on the multipath characteristics observed by the ground antenna.
    • Remote-Sensed LIDAR Using Random Sampling and Sparse Reconstruction

      Creusere, Charles D.; Martinez, Juan Enrique Castorera; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      In this paper, we propose a new, low complexity approach for the design of laser radar (LIDAR) systems for use in applications in which the system is wirelessly transmitting its data from a remote location back to a command center for reconstruction and viewing. Specifically, the proposed system collects random samples in different portions of the scene, and the density of sampling is controlled by the local scene complexity. The range samples are transmitted as they are acquired through a wireless communications link to a command center and a constrained absolute-error optimization procedure of the type commonly used for compressive sensing/sampling is applied. The key difficulty in the proposed approach is estimating the local scene complexity without densely sampling the scene and thus increasing the complexity of the LIDAR front end. We show here using simulated data that the complexity of the scene can be accurately estimated from the return pulse shape using a finite moments approach. Furthermore, we find that such complexity estimates correspond strongly to the surface reconstruction error that is achieved using the constrained optimization algorithm with a given number of samples.
    • Spectrum Stewardship Through Best Source Selection

      Gerstner, Grant; Lillevold, Hans; Naval Air Warfare Center Atlantis Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      With the increasing demand on available frequencies used for Telemetry transmission, it is important for the test ranges to be good stewards of the spectrum. One method is a new use of Best Source Selection. This method consists of placing data-quality encapsulators at the output of each of the TM receivers used. This system works without the need to use pattern detect which allows for the use of Best Source Selection without the need for decrypting the data. In conjunction with new system architecture, this setup is how the Atlantic Test Range is using best source selection in the future.
    • Uncertainty Determination with Monte-Carlo Based Algorithm

      Leite, Nelson Paiva Oliveira; Sousa, Lucas Benedito dos Reis; Instituto de Pesquisas e Ensaios em Voo (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The measurement result is complete only if it contains the measurand and its units, uncertainty and coverage factor. The uncertainty estimation for the parameters acquired by the FTI is a known process. To execute this task the Institute of Research and Flight Test (IPEV) developed the SALEV© system which is fully compliant with the applicable standards. But the measurement set also includes Derived Parameters. The uncertainty evaluation of these parameters can be solved by cumbersome partial derivates. The search for a simpler solution leads us to a Monte-Carlo based algorithm. The result of using this approach are presented and discussed.
    • Turbo Equalization for OFDM over the Doubly-Spread Channel using Nonlinear Programming

      Iltis, Ronald A.; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      OFDM has become the preferred modulation format for a wide range of wireless networks including 802.11g, 802.16e (WiMAX) and 4G LTE. For multipath channels which are time-invariant during an OFDM symbol duration, near-optimal demodulation is achieved using the FFT followed by scalar equalization. However, demodulating OFDM on the doubly-spread channel remains a challenging problem, as time-variations within a symbol generate intercarrier interference. Furthermore, demodulation and channel estimation must be effectively combined with decoding of the LDPC code in the 4G-type system considered here. This paper presents a new Turbo Equalization (TEQ) decoder, detector and channel estimator for OFDM on the doubly-spread channel based on nonlinear programming. We combine the Penalty Gradient Projection TEQ with a MMSE-type channel estimator (PGP-TEQ) that is shown to yield a convergent algorithm. Simulation results are presented comparing conventional MMSE TEQ using the Sum Product Algorithm (MMSE-SPA-TEQ) with the new PGP-TEQ for doubly-spread channels.
    • Multichannel Telemetry Data Acquisition Using a Synchronous DSP Filtering Approach

      Dourbal, Paul; Goranov, Ivan; Dehmelt, Chris; L-3 Communications Telemetry East (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Today's telemetry data acquisition systems demand an increased number of highly configurable acquisition channels delivering synchronized data samples in a specific format [1]. At the same time, there are additional requirements that these systems be compact and cost effective. In order to design such systems, novel approaches in digital signal processing are required. In this paper, we compare the typical analog signal sampling approach used in current systems with a flexible system architecture that is based on digital signal processing, allowing for precise synchronization and simultaneous sampling. An appropriate DSP filter structure is discussed, and a Xilinx FPGA based implementation example of this multi-channel filter that utilizes a minimal number of key signal processing components while easing the analog component requirements is presented.