• 3-D Direction of Arrival Estimation with Two Antennas

      Yu, Xiaoju; Xin, Hao; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Inspired by human auditory system, an improved direction of arrival (DOA) technique using only two antennas with a scatterer in between them to achieve additional magnitude cues is proposed. By exploiting the incident-angle-dependent magnitude and phase differences between the two monopole antennas and applying 2-D / 3-D multiple signal classification algorithms (MUSIC), the DOA of an incident microwave signal can be estimated. Genetic algorithm is applied to optimize the scatterer geometry for the 3-D DOA estimation. The simulated results of both the azimuth and three-dimensional DOA estimation have shown an encouraging accuracy and sensitivity by incorporating a lossy scatterer.
    • Accomplishing Seamless IP Mobility in iNET Systems

      Moodie, Myron L.; Araujo, Maria S.; Newton, Todd A.; Abbott, Ben A.; Grace, Thomas B.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      One of the core philosophies of the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project is to leverage standard networking technologies whenever possible to both reduce development cost and to allow standard networking applications to function. This also provides the best long-term scalability to new unforeseen applications, much as the Internet has grown through its open standards. Unfortunately, the radio frequency (RF) channel characteristics do not fully lend themselves to the typical physical layer approaches utilized by IP technologies. As such, the iNET program has developed a specialized communication link management control. But, combining this specialized link management approach with the standardized IP infrastructure on the range and test article provides some challenges. The program has chosen a method to encapsulate the special concepts within a set of components that together (at their boundaries) form a classic router. Construction of this router is quite unique in that portions of it are geographically separate: antenna sites, test article, and mission control room. This paper describes the construction of what the program calls a "virtual router" and explains the performance issues that required it.
    • Adapting Fourier Analysis for Predicting Earth, Mars and Lunar Orbiting Satellite's Telemetry Behavior

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Prognostic technology uses a series of algorithms, combined forms a prognostic-based inference engine (PBIE) for the identification of deterministic behavior embedded in completely normal appearing telemetry from fully functional equipment. The algorithms used to define normal behavior in the PBIE from which deterministic behavior is identified can be adapted to quantify normal spacecraft telemetry behavior while in orbit about a moon or planet or during interplanetary travel. Time-series analog engineering data (telemetry) from orbiting satellites and interplanetary spacecraft are defined by harmonic and non-harmonic influences, which shape it behavior. Spectrum analysis can be used to understand and quantify the fundamental behavior of spacecraft analog telemetry and relate the behavior's frequency and phase to its time-series behavior through Fourier analysis.
    • Adaptive Critic Design Techniques for Mobile Transmitter Path Planning

      Kosbar, Kurt; Rivera, Grant; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      In geometrically complex indoor industrial environments, such as factories, health care facilities, or offices, it can be challenging to determine where each telemetry receiver needs to be located to collect data from one or more mobile transmitters. Accurately estimating the areas that each transmitter frequently travels, rarely travels, and quickly travels through, helps to simplify the telemetry system planning problem and establishes which areas may be acceptable to provide marginal coverage. This paper discusses how using A* (A-Star) for transmitter path planning can assist in the telemetry system planning problem.
    • Advances in Telemetry Capability as Demonstrated on an Affordable Precision Mortar

      Don, Michael L.; Aberdeen Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper presents three telemetry techniques demonstrated on an affordable precision mortar that allowed the guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) system to be effectively analyzed. The first is a technique for the real-time integration and extraction of GPS data into a sensor telemetry stream. The second is a method for increasing telemetry bandwidth by saving a short period of high rate data and then broadcasting it over the rest of the flight test. Lastly, I present an on-board data storage implementation using a MicroSD card.
    • Aeronautical Channel Modeling for Packet Network Simulators

      Dean, Richard A.; Khanal, Sandarva; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The introduction of network elements into telemetry systems brings a level of complexity that makes performance analysis difficult, if not impossible. Packet simulation is a well understood tool that enables performance prediction for network designs or for operational forecasting. Packet simulators must however be customized to incorporate aeronautical radio channels and other effects unique to the telemetry application. This paper presents a method for developing a Markov Model simulation for aeronautical channels for use in packet network simulators such as OPNET modeler. It shows how the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and the Markov Model (MM) can be used together to first extract the channel behavior of an OFDM transmission for an aeronautical channel, and then effortlessly replicate the statistical behavior during simulations in OPENT Modeler. Results demonstrate how a simple Markov Model can capture the behavior of very complex combinations of channel and modulation conditions.
    • AIRBUS Generic Flight Test Installation

      Caturla, Jean-Pascal; AIRBUS Operations SAS (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper describes new concepts of test mean and processes to perform flight test for all Airbus aircraft family. The FTI (Flight Test Installation) designed for A320, A340, A380 and A350 programs include acquisition system, recorder, data processing, visualisation, Flight Test Engineer Station and optional functionalities (video acquisition, DGPS, telemetry ...) In the past, these test means were specific for each test aircraft. Due to the large number of Aircraft development in parallel Airbus has designed and standardized new tests means for development and production aircraft. The first goal is to generate significant benefits regarding time and costs savings by simplifying installation and reusing all the test installations components. This paper shows the opportunities and challenges of these new concepts.
    • Analysis of a Combined GLONASS/Compass-I Navigation Algorithm

      Peng, Song; Xiao-yu, Chen; Jian-zhong, Qi; North China University of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Compass-I system is China has built satellite navigation system. It's a kind of regional position system according to the double-star position principle. Commonly, Compass-I system need adopt active position, in the paper several passive position methods are put forward. A combination navigation mode based on GLONASS and Compass-I passive navigation is proposed in this paper. The differences of coordinates and time systems between those two navigation systems are analyzed. User position is calculated by least squares method. Combination Navigation Algorithm can improve visible satellite constellation structure and positioning precision so as to ensure the reliability and continuity of positioning result.
    • An Analysis of FTI DAUS and Recorders in Space

      Melicher, Milos; ACRA Control (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      In recent years there has been a trend towards the wider use of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) products in space missions. One obvious source of COTS solutions is FTI equipment, since this equipment is rugged, compact and state of the art. However, issues associated with even greater reliability demands and tolerance to radiation effects have to be considered. This paper discusses the use of COTS FTI data acquisition and recording equipment on board spacecraft vehicle. It describes techniques used to characterize and qualify this equipment for space missions and demonstrates its practical usage with a case study.
    • ANTP Protocol Suite Software Implementation Architecture in Python

      Alenazi, Mohammed; Gogi, Santosh Ajith; Zhang, Dongsheng; Çetinkaya, Egemen K.; Rohrer, Justin; Sterbenz, James P. G.; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Due to the highly-dynamic nature of airborne telemetry networks, we have developed the ANTP protocol suite consisting of AeroTP, AeroRP, and AeroNP. Having verified these protocols through simulation and analysis, the next step towards deployment of the ANTP suite is developing a cross-platform implementation of the protocols. Towards this end we present a preliminary architecture for the protocol stack to be implemented in the Python programming language. Initial development and testing is being conducted in the PlanetLab testbed environment, with future trials to be conducted using embedded processors on radio-controlled aircraft and ground vehicles.
    • ARTM Telemetry Receiver Architecture Analysis and Design

      Dourbal, Paul; Goranov, Ivan; Fleyshman, Val; L-3 Telemetry East (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Today's ARTM telemetry systems demand channels with high spectral efficiency using sophisticated modulation methods and communication equipment [1]. At the same time, these receivers must be reliable and cost effective. Receiver designers now need to evaluate more and more design factors to choose the right receiver architecture based on the available set of components, and their complexity and functionality. A receiver's architecture defines its major potential characteristics and limitations while playing a key role in achieving the required performance at minimal cost. This paper introduces fundamental concepts of a recursive analytical method for characterizing receiver architectures based on component parameters. The paper shows how, using the proposed techniques, any receiver architecture can be accurately characterized and how that architecture affects the potential performance figures for receivers of different ARTM waveforms and data rates.
    • A Blind Partially Coherent Multi-H CPM Receiver for Aeronautical Telemetry

      Samad, Shaheen; Lumistar Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Multi-H Continuous Phase Modulation is a highly bandwidth efficient constant amplitude modulation scheme. Because of these qualities it was selected as the Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) tier II waveform. In the past, two demodulation techniques have widely been proposed, coherent detection and non-coherent detection. This paper presents a receiver design that implements a hybrid, partially coherent detection scheme that takes advantage of the positive aspects of both coherent and non-coherent detection. Because complete phase recovery is not required, the hybrid receiver performs better in environments with fast fading, strong phase noise, and multi path when compared to the traditional coherent receiver. The hybrid receiver can also acquire and reacquire signals much faster than conventional coherent receivers. The hybrid receiver design implements a partial carrier detection scheme that utilizes phase information that performs much better in AWGN environments than typical non-coherent receivers. Simulation results show that the hybrid receiver has low implementation loss compared to the optimal Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimation (MLSE) receiver.
    • "C" Band Telemetry an Aircraft Perspective

      Johnson, Bruce; NAWCAD Patuxent River (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper concentrates on aircraft specific issues and impacts of utilizing a "C" band telemetry system on a new or existing instrumentation system.
    • Candidate Spectrum Assignment Manager (SAM) Solution Concepts and Challenges

      Painter, Michael K.; Fernandes, Ronald; Vadakkeveedu, Kalyan; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Current real-time data communications links supporting Major Range and Test Facility Base (MRTFB) operations are one-way, dedicated links based on the IRIG 106 standard. One of the goals of the iNET program is to provide for shared, two-way networked communications links enabling more flexible operation and more efficient use of spectrum. Central to this goal is the provision for a Spectrum Assignment Manager (SAM) as referred to in the iNET architecture. The SAM element of the Resource Management Facility (RMF) works in concert with the TmNS Network Manager to support dynamic frequency assignment and real-time metrics adjustment. This paper describes the potential role, key functions, and technology elements needed to support this important function.
    • Capacity Enhancement in Aeronautical Channels by MIMO Technology

      Cole-Rhodes, Arlene; Moazzami, Farzad; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper shows how the application of MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) communication methods can enhance telemetry systems. The main contribution of MIMO to the communication systems is improving spectral efficiency by exploiting spatial diversity of multiple antennas. For communications using high order QAM modulated signals, a blind MIMO equalizer is proposed in earlier works. In this work the possibility of adapting blind MIMO equalizer to iNET problems is explored. In addition, MIMO equalization is adapted to operate as a successive interference cancellation (SIC) scheme to improve the quality of received signal in a high interference environment by capturing and cancelling the interferer.
    • A Case for Waste Fraud and Abuse: Stopping the Air Force from Purchasing Spacecraft That Fail Prematurely

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Spacecraft and launch vehicle reliability is dominated by premature equipment failures and surprise equipment failures that increase risk and decrease safety, mission assurance and effectiveness. Large, complex aerospace systems such as aircraft, launch vehicle and satellites are first subjected to most exhaustive and comprehensive acceptance testing program used in any industry and yet suffer from the highest premature failure rates. Desired/required spacecraft equipment performance is confirmed during factory testing using telemetry, however equipment mission life requirement is not measured but calculated manually and so the equipment that will fail prematurely are not identified and replaced before use. Spacecraft equipment mission-life is not measured and confirmed before launch as performance is but calculated using stochastic equations from probability reliability analysis engineering standards such as MIL STD 217. The change in the engineering practices used to manufacture and test spacecraft necessary to identify the equipment that will fail prematurely include using a prognostic and health management (PHM) program. A PHM includes using predictive algorithms to convert equipment telemetry into a measurement of equipment remaining usable life. A PHM makes the generation, collection, storage and engineering and scientific analysis of equipment performance data "mission critical" rather than just nice-to-have engineering information.
    • Challenges and Solutions for Complex Gigabit FTI Networks

      Cranley, Nikki; ACRA Control (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper presents a case study of an FTI system with complex requirements in terms of the data acquisition, recording, and post-analysis. Gigabit Ethernet was the technology of choice to facilitate such a system. Recording in a Gigabit Ethernet environment raises a fresh challenge to perform fast data reduction and data mining for post-flight analysis. This paper describes the Quick Access Recorder used in this system and how it addresses this challenge.
    • Challenges of Implementing an iNET Transceiver for the Radio Access Network Standard (RANS)

      Geoghegan, Mark; L3-Nova Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The Radio Access Network Standard (RANS) is one of the key standards that govern the operation of the iNET Telemetry Network System (TmNS). It defines the network infrastructure over which Test Articles and the Ground Control Stations communicate using the RF network. In the Aeronautical environment, the RAN segment supports the sharing of one RF frequency using a TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) scheme and provides the mechanisms for antenna handoff and relay capabilities. This paper examines the challenges of implementing the wireless RF transceiver portion of the RANS in support of an upcoming 2012 TmNS demonstration system. Specific topics include the modulation and coding, burst TDMA structure, spectral containment, acquisition of the burst waveform, and efficient data recovery.
    • A Comparison of L-Band and C-Band Multipath Propagation at Edwards AFB

      Rice, Michael; Jensen, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper summarizes L- and C-band propagation data based on multiple transmit and receive antennas in the flight-line environment at Edwards AFB. The data show that for this particular environment, C-band propagation exhibits much less delay spread than L-band propagation. But C-band propagation is more susceptible to complete outages due to shadowing. The main contributing factors to these conclusions are the increased attenuation at the point of reflection at C-band and the fact that the same antennas were used for both the L- and C-band experiments. Consequently, the receive antenna beamwidths were different (the beamwidth was much narrower at C-band) and this narrowed the angular spread of the multipath components captured at C-band.
    • Complete Vendor-Neutral Instrumentation Configuration with IHAL and TMATS XML

      Hamilton, John; Darr, Timothy; Fernandes, Ronald; Sulewski, Joe; Jones, Charles; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; L-3 Telemetry East; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Previously, we have presented an approach to achieving standards-based multi-vendor hardware configuration using the Instrumentation Hardware Abstraction Language (IHAL) and an associated Application Programming Interface (API) specification. In this paper, we extend this approach to include support for configuring PCM formats. This capability is an appropriate fit for IHAL since changes to hardware settings can affect the current telemetry format and vice versa. We describe extensions made to the IHAL API in order to support this capability. Additionally, we show how complete instrumentation configurations can be described using an integrated IHAL and TMATS XML. Finally, we describe a demonstration of this capability implemented for data acquisition hardware produced by L-3 Telemetry East.