• Control System Analysis of a Telemetry Network System (TmNS)

      Araujo, Maria S.; Moodie, Myron L.; Abbott, Ben A.; Grace, Thomas B.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      On the surface, network-based telemetry systems would appear to be simple, stateless, information collecting entities. Unfortunately, the reality of networking technologies brings a hierarchy of control loops into the system setup. At the top level, the command and status collection data loop that users manipulate the system with is a feedback loop. The commands themselves are transmitted across the network through competing streams of data, which are guided and controlled by Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) mechanisms. TCP mechanisms themselves have control loops in order to avoid congestion, provide reliability, and generally optimize flow. These TCP streams flowing across a network fabric compete at choke points, such as network switches, routers, and wireless telemetry links - all of which are also guided by control loops. This paper discusses the hierarchy of control loops present in a TmNS, provides an analysis of how these loops interact, and describes key points to be considered for telemetry systems.
    • Establishment of a NASA Temporary Tracking Station on Bermuda's Coopers Island

      Hurley, Robert K.; Kremer, Steven E.; Jimmerson, Joseph T.; Goddard Space Flight Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), Research Range Services (RRS) Program supports NASA's mission objectives by providing tracking, telemetry, meteorological, optical, and command and control services for flight vehicles including orbital and suborbital rockets. The RRS Program's mobile range instrumentation includes telemetry, radar, command and power systems. These mobile assets are used as needed to supplement instrumentation at existing ranges, or to establish a temporary range ensuring safety and collection of data in a remote location where no other range instrumentation exists. This complement of mobile systems can be deployed to provide complete range capabilities at remote locations around the world. Just 100 miles up the coast from where the Wright brothers first flew their airplane at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, Orbital Sciences Corporation is planning to launch its new Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) system from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport (MARS), located at NASA GSFC's WFF. Orbital's COTS system design is based on the new Taurus II rocket with a liquid oxygen (LOX)/kerosene (RP-1) first stage powered by two Aerojet AJ-26 engines. The Taurus II second stage is ATK's Castor 30 solid propellant motor derived from their flight proven Castor 120. The spacecraft, known as Cygnus, is derived from Orbital's heritage DAWN and STAR spacecraft projects and International Space Station cargo carriers. The Program is driven by the retirement of the space shuttle, and the United States lacking domestic capability to send crew and cargo to the International Space Station. As a consequence, NASA faces a cargo resupply shortfall of 40 metric tons (approximately 88,000 pounds) between 2011 and 2015 that cannot be met by international partners' space vehicles. Bermuda has played an important role in the United States space program since the 1960s. The former NASA Tracking Station on Bermuda's Coopers Island had range safety systems for command and control, and Missile Instrumentation Precision Radars (MIPRs) providing exact vehicle position and slaving for command destruct systems. Telemetry systems supported scientific spacecraft and manned space flight (i.e., Apollo, Space Transportation System [STS], and Spacelab) with high gain antenna systems. With the advent of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System and changes in the STS flight envelope in the late 1990s, NASA no longer 2 required Bermuda and deactivated the site. NASA instrumentation was removed in early 2000, and the property returned to the Government of Bermuda (GoB). This paper defines the process undertaken to secure an agreement with the GoB to establish a temporary tracking site and describes the technical approach and analysis conducted that justifies bringing Bermuda back as a critical NASA tracking site as it was during the Apollo era and the early years of the Space Shuttle. The RRS Program plans to support the COTS Program with a mobile launch range in Bermuda.
    • International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 47 (2011)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10
    • Image Reconstruction and Resolution Enhancement Algorithm for FMCW Medical Ultrasound Imaging Systems

      Grundfest, Warren S.; Lee, Hua; Lee, Michael; Doonan, Daniel; University of California, Santa Barbara; University of California, Los Angeles (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper presents an overview of the graduate research program on the design and development of the high-performance image reconstruction and resolution enhancement algorithm for an advanced medical ultrasound imaging system. The data acquisition is conducted with a micro flexible transceiver array, operating in the multi-static stepped-frequency FMCW mode. The objective of this system is to perform high-speed high-resolution image reconstruction for biomedical applications.
    • To Determine Networked Telemetry Resynchronization Time

      Laird, Daniel T.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) Integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) program is currently testing networked telemetry transceivers (IP.TM-Tx/Rx) using the Internet Protocol (IP), for use in telemetry (TM) channels. A unique characteristic of networked telemetry channel is packet drops due to radio frequency (RF) signal dynamics, i.e., terrain, weather, aircraft attitude, manmade objects, etc.. One of the key measures of the IP.TMTx/ Rx is reliability is link availability (LA), and a key element of LA is time to resynchronize after RF link loss.
    • Utilizing IHAL Instrumentation Descriptions in iNET Scenarios

      Hamilton, John; Darr, Timothy; Fernandes, Ronald; Sulewski, Joe; Jones, Charles; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; L-3 Telemetry East; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      In this paper, we explore ways in which CTEIP's integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) program can benefit from the hardware descriptions supported by the Instrumentation Hardware Abstraction Language (IHAL). We describe how IHAL can be used at the end of the current iNET instrumentation configuration use-case to "fine tune" the instrumentation configuration. Additionally, we describe how IHAL can be used at the beginning of the current instrumentation configuration use-case to enable cross-vendor reasoning and automated construction of multi-vendor instrumentation configurations. Finally, we investigate how IHAL can be used within the iNET system manager to enhance capabilities such as instrumentation discovery.
    • The Implications for DAU Design in a Networked Data Acquisition System

      Cranley, Nikki; ACRA Control (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The higher bandwidth capacities available with the adoption of Ethernet technology for networked FTI data acquisition systems enable more data to be acquired by the Data Acquisition Unit (DAU) from high-speed data busses, with higher channel densities, faster sampling rates, and sample resolution. Ethernet offers increased flexibility, interoperability, and simplicity in terms of the FTI system topology. However, the adoption of Ethernet has numerous implications for the design and operation of the DAU in terms of supporting network protocols for synchronization, configuration, and the transmission of the acquired data. This paper explores these issues and discusses the merits of adopting Ethernet.
    • Service-Based Approach for Intelligent Agent Frameworks

      Mora, Randall P.; Hill, Jerry L.; Avum, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper describes a service-based Intelligent Agent (IA) approach for machine learning and data mining of distributed heterogeneous data streams. We focus on an open architecture framework that enables the programmer/analyst to build an IA suite for mining, examining and evaluating heterogeneous data for semantic representations, while iteratively building the probabilistic model in real-time to improve predictability. The Framework facilitates model development and evaluation while delivering the capability to tune machine learning algorithms and models to deliver increasingly favorable scores prior to production deployment. The IA Framework focuses on open standard interoperability, simplifying integration into existing environments.
    • AIRBUS Generic Flight Test Installation

      Caturla, Jean-Pascal; AIRBUS Operations SAS (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper describes new concepts of test mean and processes to perform flight test for all Airbus aircraft family. The FTI (Flight Test Installation) designed for A320, A340, A380 and A350 programs include acquisition system, recorder, data processing, visualisation, Flight Test Engineer Station and optional functionalities (video acquisition, DGPS, telemetry ...) In the past, these test means were specific for each test aircraft. Due to the large number of Aircraft development in parallel Airbus has designed and standardized new tests means for development and production aircraft. The first goal is to generate significant benefits regarding time and costs savings by simplifying installation and reusing all the test installations components. This paper shows the opportunities and challenges of these new concepts.
    • Stopping Launch Vehicle Failures Using Telemetry to Measure Equipment Usable Life

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Launch vehicle equipment reliability is driven by infant mortality failures, which can be eliminated using a prognostic analysis prior, during and/or after the exhaustive and comprehensive dynamic environmental factory acceptance testing. Measuring and confirming equipment performance is completed to increase equipment reliability by identifying equipment that fails during test for repair/replacement. To move to the 100% reliability domain, equipment dynamic environmental factory testing should be followed by a prognostic analysis to measure equipment usable life and identify the equipment that will fail prematurely. During equipment testing, only equipment performance is measured and equipment performance is unrelated to equipment reliability making testing alone inadequate to produce equipment with 100% reliability. A prognostic analysis converts performance measurements into an invasive usable life measurement by sharing test data used to measure equipment performance. Performance data is converted to usable life data provides a time-to-failure (TTF) in minutes/hours/days/months for equipment that will fail within the first year of use, allowing the production of equipment with 100% reliability.
    • Challenges and Solutions for Complex Gigabit FTI Networks

      Cranley, Nikki; ACRA Control (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper presents a case study of an FTI system with complex requirements in terms of the data acquisition, recording, and post-analysis. Gigabit Ethernet was the technology of choice to facilitate such a system. Recording in a Gigabit Ethernet environment raises a fresh challenge to perform fast data reduction and data mining for post-flight analysis. This paper describes the Quick Access Recorder used in this system and how it addresses this challenge.
    • Transitioning from NTSC to HD Digital Video

      Hightower, Paul; Instrumentation Technology Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      As video systems move from analog NTSC to HD digital video, it is also important to move with them accurate time stamping, real time text and graphics insertion capabilities. We will explore some of the tradeoffs and benefits between direct video insertion and data insertion into the SDI metadata. We will explore the impact transmission infrastructure has on time accuracy, positional control and data recovery when transporting HD-SDI video from source to destination. Further some the side effects of compression tools used (e.g. JPEG 2000, MPEG, H.264) to accomplish transport will be discussed.
    • Implementation of an iNET-Enabled End-Node Utilizing an MDL-Based Telemetry System Architecture

      Yin, Xianghong; Sulewski, Joe; L-3 Telemetry East (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Today's telemetry systems need to be highly configurable and easily extensible to support a constantly growing number of data acquisition/transmitting components from different manufacturers. One way to achieve this goal is through a standardized descriptive language that can define the system structure as well as end-node devices. The integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) program has explored such a possibility by creating a series of standards to define how devices are configured and interoperate with each other. As one of the standards created by the iNET program, the Metadata Description Language (MDL) specifies a common interchange language that defines and configures a Telemetry Network System (TmNS). MDL Instance Documents are used to exchange test requirements, data formats and configuration information among the devices within a TmNS system. MDL, together with other standards created in the iNET program, serve as a foundation for assembling a modern telemetry system. This paper starts with an overview of the MDL-based system description architecture. A typical configuration workflow of an MDL-based system is then described. iNET functionality implementations for new and legacy devices are used as examples to illustrate the power of MDL-based design, as well as the challenges and issues associated with the implementation of the MDL standard. We explain and evaluate the design decisions for a new product, the L-3 NetDAS Recorder, as the case study. We also discuss how a legacy Data Acquisition Unit (DAU) acting as an LTC Data Source Unit can be updated to support MDL based iNET functionality. Our practice shows that more efficient data acquisition systems can be designed and implemented using the metadata definition language as a core tool for equipment and system description. We conclude the paper with design tradeoffs and discussions.
    • Systems Approach to Cross-Layer Optimization of a Complex Wireless Environment

      Dean, Richard; Gwanvoma, Stephen B.; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper presents a method for the optimization of mixed networks that incorporates a mixed layer optimization of performance features. The expanded integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) system envisioned telemetering for large and complex networks which will require core telemetry networks with ad hoc extensions for coverage. Organizing such a network has been successfully accomplished in simulations using a K-mean clustering algorithm. This paper shows how the features of these network elements will be captured and disseminated in a real system. This management of network elements across multiple layers is characterized as cross-layer optimization. This paper will also show how such cross layer features can be combined for a globally optimum solution. It shows by example how the iNET system comprising multiple ground stations, gateways, frequency, nodes, and three performance measures can be optimized to achieve overall optimal system performance.
    • The F-22A Quick Response Package-QRP

      Natale, Louis; Roach, John; Lockheed Martin Aeronautics; Telectronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The F-22 Quick Response Package was designed to efficiently solve aircraft anomalies in the field. Providing this capability would enhance aircraft combat availability and lower maintenance costs. Using the current F-22 instrumentation flight test system design package as a baseline, a smaller, and much more versatile, version of the system was designed. This new design concept includes a data acquisition and recording system on a single pallet called the Quick Response Package (QRP). The QRP can be installed in any operational F-22 war fighter in a single production shift with no intrusion to the aircraft's systems readiness. The data acquisition and recording capabilities provide a near real-time field solution without excessive downtime or pilot intervention. This paper describes the design requirements, the design concept and packaging details of the QRP.
    • Using Telemetry to Measure Equipment Mission Life on the NASA Orion Spacecraft for Increasing Astronaut Safety

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      The surprise failure of two NASA Space Shuttles and the premature failures of satellite subsystem equipment on NASA satellites are motivating NASA to adopt an engineering discipline that uses telemetry specifically developed for preventing surprise equipment failures. The NASA Orion spacecraft is an Apollo module-like capsule planned to replace the NASA Space Shuttle reusable launch vehicle for getting astronauts to space and return to the earth safely as well as a crew escape vehicle stored at the ISS. To do so, NASA is adopting a non-Markov reliability paradigm for measuring equipment life based on the prognostic and health management program on the Air Force F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. The decision is based on the results from the prognostic analysis completed on the Space Shuttle Challenger and Columbia that identified the information that was present but was ignored for a variety of reasons. The goal of a PHM is to produce equipment that will not fail prematurely. It includes using predictive algorithms to measure equipment usable life. Equipment with transient behavior caused from accelerated of parts will fail prematurely with 100% certainty. For many decades, it was believed that test equipment and software used to in testing and noise from communications equipment were the cause of most transient behavior. With the processing speed of today's processors, transient behavior is caused from at least one part suffering from accelerated aging. Transient behavior is illustrated in equipment telemetry in a prognostic analysis. Telemetry is equipment performance information and equipment performance has been used to increase reliability, but performance is unrelated to equipment remaining usable life and so equipment should be failing prematurely. A PHM requires equipment telemetry for analysis and so analog telemetry will be available from all Orion avionics equipment. Replacing equipment with a measured remaining usable life of less than one year will stop the premature and surprise equipment failures from occurring during future manned and unmanned space missions.
    • Telemetry Post-Processing in the Clouds: A Data Security Challenge

      Kalibjian, J. R.; Hewlett Packard Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      As organizations move toward cloud [1] computing environments, data security challenges will begin to take precedence over network security issues. This will potentially impact telemetry post processing in a myriad of ways. After reviewing how data security tools like Enterprise Rights Management (ERM), Enterprise Key Management (EKM), Data Loss Prevention (DLP), Database Activity Monitoring (DAM), and tokenization are impacting cloud security, their effect on telemetry post-processing will also be examined. An architecture will be described detailing how these data security tools can be utilized to make telemetry post-processing environments in the cloud more robust.
    • Results from the Prognostic Analysis Completed on the NASA EUVE Satellite to Measure Equipment Mission Life

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper addresses the research conducted at U.C. Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory, Center for Extreme Ultra Violet Astrophysics between 1994 and 1995 on the NASA EUVE ion-orbit satellite. It includes the results from conducting a scientific analysis called a prognostic analysis completed on all satellite subsystem equipment. A prognostic analysis uses equipment analog telemetry to measure equipment remaining usable life. The analysis relates equipment transient behavior, often referred to as "cannot duplicates" in a variety of industries caused from accelerated aging to the equipment end-of-life with certainty. The analysis was confirmed by using proprietary, pattern recognition software by Lockheed Martin personnel Lockheed Martin personnel completed an exploration into the application of statistical pattern recognition methods to identify the behavior caused from accelerated aging that experts in probability reliability analysis claims cannot exist. Both visual and statistical methods were successful in detecting suspect accelerated aging and this behavior was related to equipment end of life with certainty. The long-term objective of this research was to confirm that satellite subsystem equipment failures could be predicted so that satellite subsystem and payload engineering personnel could be allocated for only the time that equipment failures were predicted to occur, lowering the cost of mission operations. This research concluded that satellite subsystem equipment remaining usable life could be measured and equipment failures could be predicted with certainty so that engineering support for mission operations could be greatly reduced.
    • Advances in Telemetry Capability as Demonstrated on an Affordable Precision Mortar

      Don, Michael L.; Aberdeen Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      This paper presents three telemetry techniques demonstrated on an affordable precision mortar that allowed the guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) system to be effectively analyzed. The first is a technique for the real-time integration and extraction of GPS data into a sensor telemetry stream. The second is a method for increasing telemetry bandwidth by saving a short period of high rate data and then broadcasting it over the rest of the flight test. Lastly, I present an on-board data storage implementation using a MicroSD card.
    • Candidate Spectrum Assignment Manager (SAM) Solution Concepts and Challenges

      Painter, Michael K.; Fernandes, Ronald; Vadakkeveedu, Kalyan; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2011-10)
      Current real-time data communications links supporting Major Range and Test Facility Base (MRTFB) operations are one-way, dedicated links based on the IRIG 106 standard. One of the goals of the iNET program is to provide for shared, two-way networked communications links enabling more flexible operation and more efficient use of spectrum. Central to this goal is the provision for a Spectrum Assignment Manager (SAM) as referred to in the iNET architecture. The SAM element of the Resource Management Facility (RMF) works in concert with the TmNS Network Manager to support dynamic frequency assignment and real-time metrics adjustment. This paper describes the potential role, key functions, and technology elements needed to support this important function.