• A Reflection Type Phase Shifter for iNET Phase Array Antenna Applications

      Shrestha, Bikram; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      In this article we present results from modeling and simulation of a L-band reflection type phase shifter (RTPS) that provides continuous phase shift of 0° to 360°. The RTPS circuit uses a 90º hybrid coupler and two reflective load networks consisting of varactor diodes and inductors. Proper design of 90° hybrid coupler is critical in realizing maximum phase shift. The RTPS circuit implemented on a Rogers Duroid substrate is large in size. We discuss methods to reduce the size of L-band RTPS.
    • Using Oracol® for Predicting Long-Term Telemetry Behavior for Earth and Lunar Orbiting and Interplanetary Spacecraft

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Providing normal telemetry behavior predictions prior to and post launch will help to stop surprise catastrophic satellite and spacecraft equipment failures. In-orbit spacecraft fail from surprise equipment failures that can result from not having normal telemetry behavior available for comparison with actual behavior catching satellite engineers by surprise. Some surprise equipment failures lead to the total loss of the satellite or spacecraft. Some recovery actions from a surprise equipment failure increase spacecraft risk and involve decisions requiring a level of experience far beyond the responsible engineers.
    • A New Standard for Temperature Measurement in an Aviation Environment

      Grossman, Hy; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Accurate temperature measurement is an essential requirement in modern aircraft data acquisition systems. Both thermocouples and Platinum resistance temperature detectors (RTD) are used for this purpose with the latter being both more accurate and more repeatable. To ensure that only the sensor limits the accuracy of a temperature measurement, end-to-end system accuracy forward of the sensor, should be significantly greater than that of the sensor itself. This paper describes a new digital signal processing (DSP) based system for providing precision RTD based temperature measurements with laboratory accuracy in an aviation environment. Advantages of the new system include, true 3-wire RTD measurement, linear temperature output, on-board ultra-precision resistance standards and transparent dynamic calibration.
    • Network System Integration: Migrating Legacy Systems into Network-Based Architectures

      Newton, Todd A.; Moodie, Myron L.; Thibodeaux, Ryan J.; Araujo, Maria S.; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The direction of future data acquisition systems is rapidly moving toward a network-based architecture. There is a handful of these network-based flight test systems already operating, and the current trend is catching on all over the flight test community. As vendors are churning out a whole new product line for networking capabilities, system engineers are left asking, "What do I do with all of this non-networked, legacy equipment?" Before overhauling an entire test system, one should look for a way to incorporate the legacy system components into the modern network architecture. Finding a way to integrate the two generations of systems can provide substantial savings in both cost and application development time. This paper discusses the advantages of integrating legacy equipment into a network-based architecture with examples from systems where this approach was utilized.
    • Performance Evaluation of a TDMA MAC Protocol in Airborne Telemetry Networks

      Perrins, Erik; Sterbenz, James P. G.; Tunç, Muharrem Ali; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Emerging airborne telemetry networks are going beyond traditional point-to-point communication. The iNET telemetry architecture uses a TDMA MAC with relay nodes that enable multi-hop communication. We analyze the performance of the iNET TDMA MAC protocol with respect to various parameters such as number of nodes, flight range, number of relays, and number of hops via mathematical modeling. We also discuss the role of cross-layer optimizations with the AeroNP, AeroRP, and AeroTP aeronautical protocols.
    • Recording in the iNET Architecture: Moving to the Future of Recording

      Cranley, Nikki; Corry, Diarmuid; ACRA Control (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      At the heart of many networked Flight Test Instrumentation (FTI) systems is the Network- Recorder. The high data rates typical in networked FTI systems put increased demands on the Network-Recorder to support ever faster read and write rates. However, thanks to the developments in CompactFlash and SATA technologies, such recording rates are achievable in the Network-Recorder. This paper discusses several ways in which the recorder can be optimized to improve the memory capacity usage, writing speed and relevance of the recorded data.
    • A Novel Antenna Design for Size Constrained Applications Requiring a Thin Conformal Antenna

      Cirineo, Anthony; David, Rick; Naval Air Warfare Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper will discuss the design of a new antenna element for use on vehicles requiring a thin conformal antenna such as on missiles or targets. The new element employs a partial shorted edge, which reduces the size of the element compared to a traditional microwave patch, while maintaining the impedance bandwidth.
    • Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Systems for Spinning Vehicles

      Kosbar, Kurt; Petersen, Samuel; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper investigates the performance of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) digital communication system, when the transmitter is located on a spinning vehicle. In particular, a 2x2 MIMO system is used, with Alamouti coding at the transmitter. Both Rayleigh and Rayleigh plus line-of-sight, or Rician, models combined with a deterministic model to simulate the channel. The spinning of the transmitting vehicle, relative to the stationary receive antennas, modulates the signal, and complicates the decoding and channel parameter estimation processes. The simulated system bit error rate is the primary performance metric used. The Alamouti channel code is shown to perform better than the maximal ratio receiver combining (MRRC) and single receiver (2x1) system in some circumstances and performs similarly to the MRRC in the broadside case.
    • Role of a Small Switch in a Network-Based Data Acquisition System

      Hildin, John; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Network switches are an integral part of most network-based data acquisition systems. Switches fall into the category of network infrastructure. They support the interconnection of nodes and the movement of data in the overall network. Unlike endpoints such as data acquisition units, recorders, and display modules, switches do not collect, store or process data. They are a necessary expense required to build the network. The goal of this paper is to show how a small integrated network switch can be used to maximize the value proposition of a given switch port in the network. This can be accomplished by maximizing the bandwidth utilization of individual network segments and minimizing the necessary wiring needed to connect all the network components.
    • Bulk Creation of Data Acquisition Parameters

      Kupferschmidt, Benjamin; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Modern data acquisition systems can be very time consuming to configure. The most time consuming aspect of configuring a data acquisition system is defining the measurements that the system will collect. Each measurement has to be uniquely identified in the system and the system needs to know what data the measurement will sample. Data acquisition systems are capable of sampling thousands of measurements in a single test flight. If all of the measurements are created by hand, it can take many hours to input all of the required measurements into the data acquisition system's setup software. This process can also be extremely tedious since many measurements are very similar. This paper will examine several possible solutions to the problem of rapidly creating large numbers of data acquisition measurements. If the list of measurements that need to be created already exists in an electronic format then the simplest approach would be to create an importer. The two main ways to import data are XML and comma separated value files. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches. In addition to importers, this paper will discuss a system that can be used to create large numbers of similar measurements very quickly. This system is ideally suited to MILSTD- 1553 and ARINC-429 bus data. It exploits the fact that most bus measurements are typically very similar to each other. For example, 1553 measurements typically differ only in terms of the command word and the selected data words. This system allows the user to specify ranges of data words for each command word. It can then create the measurements based on the user specified ranges.
    • L-3 Communications 3rd Generation Telemetry Transmitter ST-5000 L/S/C Band Architecture and Design Efforts

      Wang, Wearn-Juhn; Martz, David; Hutzel, Kevin; L-3 Communications Telemetry East; L-3 Communications Nova Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper presents the architecture and design efforts for L-3 3rd generation telemetry transmitter ST-5000. A Modulator/Upconverter with a low phase noise PLL synthesizer, a highly efficient and rugged power amplifier module with the multistage GaN HEMT devices and a high power density buck-boost power supply are discussed.
    • Adapting Fourier Analysis for Predicting Earth, Mars and Lunar Orbiting Satellite's Telemetry Behavior

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Prognostic technology uses a series of algorithms, combined forms a prognostic-based inference engine (PBIE) for the identification of deterministic behavior embedded in completely normal appearing telemetry from fully functional equipment. The algorithms used to define normal behavior in the PBIE from which deterministic behavior is identified can be adapted to quantify normal spacecraft telemetry behavior while in orbit about a moon or planet or during interplanetary travel. Time-series analog engineering data (telemetry) from orbiting satellites and interplanetary spacecraft are defined by harmonic and non-harmonic influences, which shape it behavior. Spectrum analysis can be used to understand and quantify the fundamental behavior of spacecraft analog telemetry and relate the behavior's frequency and phase to its time-series behavior through Fourier analysis.
    • An Enhancement of Existing RF Data Links Using Advanced Diversity Techniques

      Melicher, Milos; ACRA Control (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The theoretical capacity of communication channel in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) as defined by Shannon's channel capacity theorem has been well understood since 1940s. This theorem bounds the bit error rate (BER) of RF data links achievable for a particular noise level. The development in digital technology over the last decade has made it possible not just to design devices that operate close to the Shannon's limit, but also to explore techniques, such as best source and best data selectors, for further improvements in performance of RF data links where frequency, spatial or polar diverse reception is possible. This paper discusses an approach to improving quality of data links using an advanced diversity technique that does not select one source at a time but aligns and combines soft values from each. It shows how the overall bit error rate of RF data link can be improved by combining signals from multiple receivers and/or transmitters. Test results showing practical performance improvements are presented and discussed.
    • Multi-Band (L/S/C) Nested Concentric Cavity Coaxial Mode RF Feed for Autotrack Telemetry Systems

      Blake, George R.; Shea, Don F.; Hoory, Yossi; Krepner, Itzik; Pein, Joe; Nahshon, Ofir; Orbit Communications Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Recognizing the current and future requirements of extending Telemetry, TT&C, Earth Resources operations into the C-Band (4400-5200 MHZ) arena, Orbit Communication Systems and Orbit Communication Ltd. are currently designing and testing a Tri-Band auto-tracking / receive / transmit feed technology combining dual polarization with multiple frequency band coverage (L/S/C) into a single feed that can be fitted onto new or existing antenna systems. This technology reduces footprint and minimizes life cycle cost, both of which are important considerations for both our commercial and military customers. This technology has been applied to a number of systems, including flyaway, fixed (or teleport) and shipboard, and is readily applicable to ground and mobile applications. The multiband feed design consists of coaxial, concentric waveguide cavities operating in TE11 and TE21 modes (Patent Pending). The large outermost cavities of the feed operate in the L/S frequency band while the innermost cavities operate at C-Band. The antenna is fed with orthogonally polarized inputs/outputs enabling polarization diversity in all bands. The coaxial cavity feed is ideal for this application because the feed produces high-efficiency, near-optimum illumination patterns and coincident phase centers in all three bands simultaneously. Because it is a waveguide design, the input power levels used in Telemetry and Satellite systems do not present breakdown problems. This type of feed has proved to be an ideal multiband illuminator for parabolic reflectors, and therefore could be used in many military and commercial applications that require multiband operation.
    • Advanced Test Range Verification at RF Without Flights

      Williams, Steve; RT Logic (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Flight and weapons test ranges typically include multiple Telemetry Sites (TM Sites) that receive telemetry from platforms being flown on the range. Received telemetry is processed and forwarded by them to a Range Control Center (RCC) which is responsible for flight safety, and for delivering captured best source telemetry to those responsible for the platform being flown. When range equipment or operations are impaired in their ability to receive telemetry or process it correctly, expensive and/or one-of-a-kind platforms may have to be destroyed in flight to maintain safety margins, resulting in substantial monetary loss, valuable data loss, schedule disruption and potential safety concerns. Less severe telemetry disruptions can also result in missing or garbled telemetry data, negatively impacting platform test, analysis and design modification cycles. This paper provides a high level overview of a physics-compliant Range Test System (RTS) built upon Radio Frequency (RF) Channel Simulator technology. The system is useful in verifying range operation with most range equipment configured to function as in an actual mission. The system generates RF signals with appropriate RF link effects associated with range and range rate between the flight platform and multiple telemetry tracking stations. It also emulates flight and RF characteristics of the platform, to include signal parameters, antenna modeling, body shielding and accurate flight parameters. The system is useful for hardware, software, firmware and process testing, regression testing, and fault detection test, as well as range customer assurance, and range personnel training against nominal and worst-case conditions.
    • Mapping Traffic Flow for Telemetry System Planning

      Kosbar, Kurt; Rivera, Grant; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Telemetry receivers must typically be located so that obstacles do not block the signal path. This can be challenging in geometrically complex indoor environments, such as factories, health care facilities, or offices. An accurate method for estimating the paths followed by typical telemetry transmitters in these environments can assist in system planning. It may be acceptable to provide marginal coverage to areas which are rarely visited, or areas which transmitters quickly transit. This paper discusses the use of the ant colony optimization and its application to the telemetry system planning problem.
    • Time Stamp Synchronization in Video Systems

      Yang, Hsueh-szu; Kupferschmidt, Benjamin; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Synchronized video is crucial for data acquisition and telecommunication applications. For real-time applications, out-of-sync video may cause jitter, choppiness and latency. For data analysis, it is important to synchronize multiple video channels and data that are acquired from PCM, MIL-STD-1553 and other sources. Nowadays, video codecs can be easily obtained to play most types of video. However, a great deal of effort is still required to develop the synchronization methods that are used in a data acquisition system. This paper will describe several methods that TTC has adopted in our system to improve the synchronization of multiple data sources.
    • An Integrated Data Acquisition System for Parachute Development and Qualification Testing

      Starbuck, Philip; PSG and Associates (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The development and qualification of personnel and cargo aerial delivery parachute systems present unique challenges to the instrumentation and data analysis engineers. Some of the areas that must be addressed include: a) system must be low in cost, b) system often has to be operated on ranges that have limited telemetry or other range instrumentation and support (i.e. commercial skydiving centers), c) system is often rigged and operated by parachute support personnel and test jumpers rather than instrumentation engineers, and d) system must be able to be reconfigured in the field to support a variety of test card requirements during a typical test day, e) data must be available for review and the system be prepared for the next test within a few minutes of parachute recovery, and f) system must withstand ground impact velocities as high as 50 ft/sec (15.24 m/sec) without damage. This paper describes such a system as it is being used for the development and qualification testing of a number of parachute systems for sport skydiving, military personnel, as well as cargo parachute systems. This modular system has been developed as a result of previous experience in other parachute development and qualification projects to address the need for a flexible Data Acquisition System (DAS) system that meets the above requirements. This paper describes some of the tools used to meet these requirements.
    • Telemetry System for the Solar Miner VII

      Kosbar, Kurt; Guenther, Clinton; Mertens, Robert; Lewis, Adam; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper describes a telemetry system used in the Missouri S&T solar car, which competed in the American Solar Challenge. The system monitors parameters of a number of the on-board electronic and mechanical systems, and also the activities of the vehicle driver. This data is transmitted to a lead vehicle, where the support team analyzes the performance in real-time to optimize the vehicle's performance. In previous vehicles the data was displayed using a LabVIEW based user interface. In this work we will describe a custom software solution, which provides the team with additional flexibility to display and analyze the data.
    • On the Use of Rapid Prototyping for Designing PCM/FM Demodulators in FPGAS

      Rice, Michael; Nelson, Brent; Padilla, Marc; Havican, Jared; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper describes the use of an efficient FPGA design flow, called Ogre, developed at BYU to design and implement PCM/FM demodulators. Ogre exploits the notion of reuse by taking advantage of a library of specially designed cores parameterized by XML metadata. A judicious choice of library cores, targeted to signal processing functions common to sampled data modulators and demodulators, reduces the design and test cycle time. We demonstrate this by using the tool to construct rapid prototypes of three different versions of FM demodulators and show that the bit error rate performance is comparable to demodulators on the market today.