• Data Embedding in Video Telemetry Systems

      Dolan, P.; MIT Lincoln Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper presents a technique for embedding a digital data stream within a digital video stream using wavelet and nonlinear subband decompositions. This technique may enable more efficient use of radio frequency (RF) spectrum and a reduction in hardware necessary to transmit one or more narrowband data streams on a payload that incorporates a digital video camera. Several data embedding examples are presented which show how relatively large payloads can be embedded in even a single image with little noticeable degradation in image quality.
    • Introduction to XidML 3.0 An Open XML Standard for Flight Test Instrumentation Description

      Cooke, Alan; Herbepin, Christian; ACRA Control; Eurocopter (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      A few years ago XidML was introduced as an open XML standard for capturing the meta-data associated with flight test instrumentation (FTI). This meta-data schema was broken down into elements for Parameter (name, range, units, offset-binary), Instrument (name, serial number, misses-to loss), Package (bits per word, words per minor-frame, rate) and Link (name, type) and so on. XidML remains one of the only published schema for FTI meta-data and with XidML 3.0 many simplifications have been introduced along with support for nested tree structures and a single instrument schema allowing anyone to define the validation for instruments from any vendor. This paper introduces the XidML schema and describers the benefits of XidML 3.0 in particular. It begins by giving a brief description of what XidML is and describes its history and motivation. The paper then outlines the main differences between XidML-3.0 and earlier versions, and how the XidML schema has been further refined to meet the challenges faced by the FTI community. As an example of usage the FTIManager software developed at Eurocopter will be briefly presented in order to illustrate the XidML ability to describe a multi-vendor FTI configuration.
    • International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 46 (2010)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10
    • On the Performance of Spectrally Efficient DPM-OFDMA for Aeronautical Telemetry

      Wylie, Marilynn; Green, Glenn; Gem Direct Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      In this paper, we discuss CPM-OFDMA (Continuous Phase Modulation - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) - a novel modulation that maps a discrete-time CPM into a spectrally efficient DFT-spread OFDMA transmission. Three CPM-OFDMA schemes are developed based on discrete-time variants of PCM/FM, SOQPSK-TG and ARTM-CPM telemetry modulations. Simulations reveal that spectrally efficient CPM-OFDMA schemes can outperform the conventionally defined telemetry schemes in the AWGN environment. For example, maximum likelihood sequence detection of conventional PCM/FM yields a BER of 10⁻⁵ at an E(b)/N(0) of 8:4 dB while the least complex CPM-OFDMA scheme that is based on sampling a PCM/FM waveform once per symbol interval achieves the same BER at an E(b)/N(0) of 7:8 dB. Finally, an extensive search to find a subset of the best performing binary schemes shows that there exist very low complexity schemes that can achieve a BER of 10⁻⁶ at an E(b)/N(0) of 7:8 dB, which is an order of magnitude improvement over the performance of PCM/FM at the same E(b)/N(0).
    • Web Service Applications in Future T&E Scenarios

      Sulewski, Joe; Hamilton, John; Darr, Timothy; Fernandes, Ronald; L-3 Telemetry East; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      In this paper, we discuss ways in which web services can be used in future T&E scenarios, from the initial hardware setup to making dynamic configuration changes and data requests. We offer a comparison of this approach to other standards such as SNMP, FTP, and RTSP, describing the pros and cons of each as well as how these standards can be used together for certain applications.
    • Development and Analysis Cloud

      Self, Lance; Kirtland Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The development and analysis cloud is a rapid development system being designed to support the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) Simulation & Technology Assessment Branch. The purpose is to isolate research, development, test, and evaluation of unique software within a Zone D enclave [1] to allow researchers and analysts to develop and test software free of the many IT requirements that hamper development and without risk of contaminating the overall Air Force network. The cloud system is being designed so researchers and analysts will utilize Software as a Service (SaaS) models. Such a model makes it transparent to users such things as where the software originates and any licensing concerns. Utilities, tools, and other enhancing software that users need are published and using them frees the developer to focus on their specific development efforts versus tertiary development modules.
    • X-Tools: A Case Study in Building World Class Software

      Cooke, Alan; ACRA Control (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      X-Tools is a collection of utilities for validation, translation, editing and report generation designed to enable the Flight Test Instrumentation (FTI) community to quickly adopt the XidML 3.0 meta-data standard. This paper discusses the challenges of developing such software that meets the current and future needs of the FTI community, and meets the increasingly high quality standards expected of modern software. The paper first starts by discussing the needs of the FTI community and the specific functional requirements of software. These include the ability to fit in with legacy systems, the ability to handle many tens of thousands of parameters, support for new networked-based technologies and support for hardware from any vendor. The non-functional requirements of FTI orientated software are also described and it is suggested that the key non-functional requirements include testability, modifiability, extensibility and maintainability. Finally, as a case study, the X-Tools from ACRA CONTROL are presented. The paper discusses their design, and the tactics used to meet the functional and non-functional requirements of the FTI industry. The paper then outlines how the rigorous quality standards were met and describes the specific mechanisms used to verify the quality of the software.
    • Multi-Band (L/S/C) Nested Concentric Cavity Coaxial Mode RF Feed for Autotrack Telemetry Systems

      Blake, George R.; Shea, Don F.; Hoory, Yossi; Krepner, Itzik; Pein, Joe; Nahshon, Ofir; Orbit Communications Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Recognizing the current and future requirements of extending Telemetry, TT&C, Earth Resources operations into the C-Band (4400-5200 MHZ) arena, Orbit Communication Systems and Orbit Communication Ltd. are currently designing and testing a Tri-Band auto-tracking / receive / transmit feed technology combining dual polarization with multiple frequency band coverage (L/S/C) into a single feed that can be fitted onto new or existing antenna systems. This technology reduces footprint and minimizes life cycle cost, both of which are important considerations for both our commercial and military customers. This technology has been applied to a number of systems, including flyaway, fixed (or teleport) and shipboard, and is readily applicable to ground and mobile applications. The multiband feed design consists of coaxial, concentric waveguide cavities operating in TE11 and TE21 modes (Patent Pending). The large outermost cavities of the feed operate in the L/S frequency band while the innermost cavities operate at C-Band. The antenna is fed with orthogonally polarized inputs/outputs enabling polarization diversity in all bands. The coaxial cavity feed is ideal for this application because the feed produces high-efficiency, near-optimum illumination patterns and coincident phase centers in all three bands simultaneously. Because it is a waveguide design, the input power levels used in Telemetry and Satellite systems do not present breakdown problems. This type of feed has proved to be an ideal multiband illuminator for parabolic reflectors, and therefore could be used in many military and commercial applications that require multiband operation.
    • Integrity Analysis and Fault Detection of Flight Test Data

      Glenn, Gregory J.; Duong, Nhattrieu; Speyer, Jason L.; Sysense, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Undetected sensor malfunctions during flight testing can lead to cost overruns and program delays. Determining the presence of these faults in a timely manner allows the operator to mitigate their effect. One way to detect these faults is to use a priori knowledge of sensor calibration data and system dynamics to calculate measurement uncertainties. These can then be used to determine the integrity of the sensor data and report violations of expected sensor behavior. Analytical redundancy methods and residual processing can be used in conjunction with a priori sensor information to detect faults otherwise unobserved with single-instrument data as well as to isolate and identify failure modes. These simulation and analysis methods have been implemented as MATLAB® Simulink® blocks and were used to model the flight instruments, detect anomalies in the navigation instruments, and locate the origin of the errors of a flight test data set.
    • Dynamic Formatting of the Test Article Data Stream

      Young, Tom; Wigent, Mark; AFFTC; SAIC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
    • Localization Using CDMA-MIMO Radar

      Iltis, Ronald A.; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      A MIMO radar system for target localization is presented which uses direct-sequence CDMA (DS-CDMA) waveforms. The received DS-CDMA signal at each antenna is expressed directly in terms of the target positions. The waveforms employed are Gold sequences, and hence are not exactly orthogonal. A generalized successive interference cancellation (GSIC) approach is used to resolve multiple scatterers and reduce clutter. Simulation results are presented which suggest the capability to detect weak scatterers in the presence of clutter using the cancellation method.
    • Advanced Test Range Verification at RF Without Flights

      Williams, Steve; RT Logic (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Flight and weapons test ranges typically include multiple Telemetry Sites (TM Sites) that receive telemetry from platforms being flown on the range. Received telemetry is processed and forwarded by them to a Range Control Center (RCC) which is responsible for flight safety, and for delivering captured best source telemetry to those responsible for the platform being flown. When range equipment or operations are impaired in their ability to receive telemetry or process it correctly, expensive and/or one-of-a-kind platforms may have to be destroyed in flight to maintain safety margins, resulting in substantial monetary loss, valuable data loss, schedule disruption and potential safety concerns. Less severe telemetry disruptions can also result in missing or garbled telemetry data, negatively impacting platform test, analysis and design modification cycles. This paper provides a high level overview of a physics-compliant Range Test System (RTS) built upon Radio Frequency (RF) Channel Simulator technology. The system is useful in verifying range operation with most range equipment configured to function as in an actual mission. The system generates RF signals with appropriate RF link effects associated with range and range rate between the flight platform and multiple telemetry tracking stations. It also emulates flight and RF characteristics of the platform, to include signal parameters, antenna modeling, body shielding and accurate flight parameters. The system is useful for hardware, software, firmware and process testing, regression testing, and fault detection test, as well as range customer assurance, and range personnel training against nominal and worst-case conditions.
    • The Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA) Enabling Technology for the Joint Mission Environment Test Capability (JMETC) in Live, Virtual, and Constructive (LVC) Environments

      Hudgins, Gene; Poch, Keith; Secondine, Juana; TENA Software Development Activity (SDA) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The Joint Mission Environment Test Capability (JMETC) is a distributed live, virtual, and constructive (LVC) testing capability developed to support the acquisition community and to demonstrate Net-Ready Key Performance Parameters (KPP) requirements in a customer-specific Joint Mission Environment (JME). JMETC, using the Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA), provides connectivity to the Services' distributed test capabilities and simulations, and Industry test resources. TENA is well-designed for supporting JMETC events through its architecture and software capabilities which enable interoperability among range instrumentation systems, facilities, and simulations. TENA, used in major exercises and distributed test events, is also interfacing with other emerging range systems.
    • Analysis of a Geolocation-Assisted Routing Protocol for Airborne Telemetry Networks

      Sterbenz, James P. G.; Peters, Kevin; Çetinkaya, Egemen K.; Jabbar, Abdul; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Emerging networked telemetry systems require domain-specific routing protocols, such as AeroRP, to cope with the challenges faced by the aeronautical environment. We present an ns-3 based performance analysis of the geolocation-based forwarding and store-and-haul mechanisms used by AeroRP. The analysis of the simulations shows AeroRP has several advantages over other MANET routing protocols and offers tradeoffs for different performance metrics in the form of different AeroRP modes.
    • An Open Architecture Approach to Networked Telemetry System

      Woolridge, Daniel 'Shane'; GDP Space Systems; Delta Digital Video (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      When designing data transport systems, Telemetry and Communications engineers always face the risk that their chosen hardware will not be available or supported soon after the hardware has been installed. The best way to reduce this risk and ensure the longevity of the system is to select an open architecture standard that is supported by multiple manufacturers. This open architecture should also have the ability to be easily upgraded and provide for all of the features and flexibility that are required to be a reliable carrier-grade edge-device. The PCI Industrial Computer Manufacturers Group (PICMG) developed the MicroTCA open standard to address the specific needs of these Communications and Network System Engineers. This paper describes the MicroTCA architecture and how it can be applied as the ideal edge-device solution for Networked Telemetry Systems applications.
    • Telemetry System for the Solar Miner VII

      Kosbar, Kurt; Guenther, Clinton; Mertens, Robert; Lewis, Adam; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper describes a telemetry system used in the Missouri S&T solar car, which competed in the American Solar Challenge. The system monitors parameters of a number of the on-board electronic and mechanical systems, and also the activities of the vehicle driver. This data is transmitted to a lead vehicle, where the support team analyzes the performance in real-time to optimize the vehicle's performance. In previous vehicles the data was displayed using a LabVIEW based user interface. In this work we will describe a custom software solution, which provides the team with additional flexibility to display and analyze the data.
    • A TDMA-MAC Protocol for a Seismic Telemetry-Network with Energy Constraints

      Mayer, Gerhard; Höller, Peter; Höller, Yvonne; University of Salzburg (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The requirements for a seismic telemetry-network are even more stringent than the well known problems of sensor networks. Existing medium access control (MAC) protocols suggest reducing energy consuming network activity by reducing costly transmissions and idle listening. Furthermore, it is required to set up communication patterns in different priority levels as well as ensuring fast handling of critical events. A protocol is proposed that operates with two parallel sets of time schedules in a time-division-multiple-access (TDMA) sense of periodic activity for listening and for transmitting. Synchronization packets sent from a central base station ensure optimal response times.
    • Integrating Wireless Sensor Technologies into Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems

      Araujo, Maria S.; Moodie, Myron L.; Willden, Greg C.; Thibodeaux, Ryan J.; Abbott, Ben A.; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Recent technological advancements in low-power, low-cost, small-footprint embedded processors, sensors, and radios are resulting in the very rapid growth of wireless sensor network deployments. Wireless sensor networks merge the scalability and distributed nature of networked systems with the size and energy constraints of remote embedded systems. With the ever increasing need to develop less intrusive, more scalable solutions for instrumentation systems, wireless sensor technologies present several benefits. They largely eliminate the need for power and network wiring, thus potentially reducing cost, weight, and deployment time; their modularity provides the flexibility to rapidly change instrumentation configurations and the capability to increase the coverage of an instrumentation system. While the benefits are exciting and varied, as with any emerging technology, many challenges need to be overcome before wireless sensor networks can be effectively and successfully deployed in instrumentation applications, including throughput, latency, power management, electromagnetic interference (EMI), and band utilization considerations. This paper describes some approaches to addressing these challenges and achieving a useful system.
    • iNET System Management Scaling

      Bertrand, Allison R.; Newton, Todd A.; Grace, Thomas B.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The integration of standard networking technologies into the test range allows for more capable and complex systems. As System Management provides the capability for dynamic allocation of resources, it is critical to support the level of network flexibility envisioned by the integrated Network-Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project. This paper investigates the practical performance of managing the Telemetry Network System (TmNS) using the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). It discusses the impacts and benefits of System Management as the size of the TmNS scales from small to large and as distributed and centralized management styles are applied. To support dynamic network states, it is necessary to be able to both collect the current status of the network and command (or modify the configuration of) the network. The management data needs to travel both ways over the telemetry link (in limited bandwidth) without interfering with critical data streams. It is important that the TmNS's status is collected in a timely manner so that the engineers are aware of any equipment failures or other problems; it is also imperative that System Management does not adversely affect the real-time delivery of data. This paper discusses measurements of SNMP traffic under various loading conditions. Statistics considered will include the performance of SNMP commands, queries, and events under various test article and telemetry network loads and the bandwidth consumed by SNMP commands, queries, and events under various conditions (e.g., pre-configuration, normal operation, and device error).
    • Using Telemetry to Measure Equipment Reliability and Upgrading the Satellite and Launch Vehicle Factory ATP

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Satellite and launch vehicles continues to suffer from catastrophic infant mortality failures. NASA now requires satellite suppliers to provide on-orbit satellite delivery and a free satellite and launch vehicle in the event of a catastrophic infant mortality failure. The infant mortality failure rate remains high demonstrating that the factory acceptance test program alone is inadequate for producing 100% reliability space vehicle equipment. This inadequacy is caused from personnel only measuring equipment performance during ATP and performance is unrelated to reliability. Prognostic technology uses pro-active diagnostics, active reasoning and proprietary algorithms that illustrate deterministic data for prognosticians to identify piece-parts, components and assemblies that will fail within the first year of use allowing this equipment to be repaired or replaced while still on the ground. Prognostic technology prevents equipment failures and so is pro-active. Adding prognostic technology will identify all unreliable equipment prior to shipment to the launch pad producing 100% reliable equipment and will eliminate launch failures, launch pad delays, on-orbit infant mortalities, surprise in-orbit failures. Moving to the 100% reliable equipment extends on-orbit equipment usable life.