• International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 46 (2010)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10
    • Data Embedding in Video Telemetry Systems

      Dolan, P.; MIT Lincoln Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper presents a technique for embedding a digital data stream within a digital video stream using wavelet and nonlinear subband decompositions. This technique may enable more efficient use of radio frequency (RF) spectrum and a reduction in hardware necessary to transmit one or more narrowband data streams on a payload that incorporates a digital video camera. Several data embedding examples are presented which show how relatively large payloads can be embedded in even a single image with little noticeable degradation in image quality.
    • Mapping Traffic Flow for Telemetry System Planning

      Kosbar, Kurt; Rivera, Grant; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Telemetry receivers must typically be located so that obstacles do not block the signal path. This can be challenging in geometrically complex indoor environments, such as factories, health care facilities, or offices. An accurate method for estimating the paths followed by typical telemetry transmitters in these environments can assist in system planning. It may be acceptable to provide marginal coverage to areas which are rarely visited, or areas which transmitters quickly transit. This paper discusses the use of the ant colony optimization and its application to the telemetry system planning problem.
    • A VHDL Implementation of the Soft Output Viterbi Algorithm

      Perrins, Erik; Werling, Brett W.; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      In this paper we present a VHDL implementation of the soft output Viterbi algorithm (SOVA). We discuss the usefulness of the SOVA in a serially concatenated convolutional code (SCCC) system. We explore various hardware design decisions along with their implications. Finally, we compare the simulated performance of the hardware implementation to a software reference model over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel for several bit widths and traceback window lengths.
    • Performance Analysis of iNET Using Forward Error Correction and OFDM

      Dean, Richard A.; Cole-Rhodes, Arlene; Boru, Sileshi; Maitra, Diptasree; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper shows the improvement in performance for OFDM modulation on aeronautical channels with the addition of convolution coding. OFDM is envisioned for use on the Integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (INET) on aeronautical channels that experience multipath fading which causes inter-symbol interference (ISI). Forward error correction coding, such as convolution coding (cc), significantly improves the bit error rate (BER) of OFDM with multipath fading. Theoretical and simulated results show a performance increase of up to 10dB with the introduction of coding gain and the cyclic prefix (cp). Such improvements can be applied to reduce errors or increase data rates for INET.
    • A Mathematical Model for Instrumentation Configuration

      Jones, Charles H.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper describes a model of how to configure settings on instrumentation. For any given instrument there may be 100s of settings that can be set to various values. However, randomly selecting values for each setting is not likely to produce a valid configuration. By "valid" we mean a set of setting values that can be implemented by each instrument. The valid configurations must satisfy a set of dependency rules between the settings and other constraints. The formalization provided allows for identification of different sets of configurations settings under control by different systems and organizations. Similarly, different rule sets are identified. A primary application of this model is in the context of a multi-vendor system especially when including vendors that maintain proprietary rules governing their systems. This thus leads to a discussion of an application user interface (API) between different systems with different rules and settings.
    • Design and Analysis of a 3-D Gauss-Markov Model for Highly Dynamic Airborne Networks

      Sterbenz, James P. G.; Broyles, Dan; Jabbar, Abdul; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Accurate mobility models are needed to simulate the physical movement of nodes in a highly-dynamic aeronautical network. The fundamental problem with many synthetic mobility models is their random, memoryless behavior. Airborne ad hoc networks require a flexible memory-based 3-dimensional mobility model. We present a new 3-dimensional implementation of the Gauss-Markov mobility model for airborne telemetry network simulations, and compare its behavior to memoryless models such as random waypoint and random walk using the ns-3 simulator.
    • Mixed Network Interference Management with Multi-Distortion Measures

      Dean, Richard; Traore, Abdoulaye S.; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper presents a methodology for the management of interference and spectrum for iNET. It anticipates a need for heavily loaded test environments with Test Articles (TAs) operating over the horizon. In such cases, it is anticipated that fixed and ad hoc networks will be employed, and where spectrum reuse and interference will limit performance. The methodology presented here demonstrates how this can be accomplished in mixed networks.
    • On the Use of Rapid Prototyping for Designing PCM/FM Demodulators in FPGAS

      Rice, Michael; Nelson, Brent; Padilla, Marc; Havican, Jared; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper describes the use of an efficient FPGA design flow, called Ogre, developed at BYU to design and implement PCM/FM demodulators. Ogre exploits the notion of reuse by taking advantage of a library of specially designed cores parameterized by XML metadata. A judicious choice of library cores, targeted to signal processing functions common to sampled data modulators and demodulators, reduces the design and test cycle time. We demonstrate this by using the tool to construct rapid prototypes of three different versions of FM demodulators and show that the bit error rate performance is comparable to demodulators on the market today.
    • Describing Telemetry Systems with the Metadata Description Language

      Moore, Michael S.; Price, Jeremy C.; Cormier, Andrew R.; Thibodeaux, Ryan J.; Abbott, Ben A.; Malatesta, William A.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The integrated Network-Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project has developed standards to enhance telemetry systems for the twenty-first century. A foundational component of these standards is the Metadata Description Language (MDL). MDL is an eXtensible Markup Language (XML)-based language for describing requirements, design choices, and configuration parameters of a Telemetry Network System (TmNS). Within a TmNS, MDL guides the exchange of information between applications and the configuration of network devices. Recent initial evaluations assessed MDL in terms of the expressive power of the language and the level of effort in developing applications that utilize MDL Instance Documents. Performing these initial evaluations required the generation of MDL Instance Documents to describe scenarios representative of both near-term and future telemetry systems that express different levels of iNET interoperability. These initial evaluations determined quantitative metrics such as file size, memory requirements, and required parsing time for MDL Instance Documents, and further evaluations judged the efficacy and complexity of MDL for describing and configuring a TmNS.
    • L-3 Communications 3rd Generation Telemetry Transmitter ST-5000 L/S/C Band Architecture and Design Efforts

      Wang, Wearn-Juhn; Martz, David; Hutzel, Kevin; L-3 Communications Telemetry East; L-3 Communications Nova Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper presents the architecture and design efforts for L-3 3rd generation telemetry transmitter ST-5000. A Modulator/Upconverter with a low phase noise PLL synthesizer, a highly efficient and rugged power amplifier module with the multistage GaN HEMT devices and a high power density buck-boost power supply are discussed.
    • Network System Integration: Migrating Legacy Systems into Network-Based Architectures

      Newton, Todd A.; Moodie, Myron L.; Thibodeaux, Ryan J.; Araujo, Maria S.; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The direction of future data acquisition systems is rapidly moving toward a network-based architecture. There is a handful of these network-based flight test systems already operating, and the current trend is catching on all over the flight test community. As vendors are churning out a whole new product line for networking capabilities, system engineers are left asking, "What do I do with all of this non-networked, legacy equipment?" Before overhauling an entire test system, one should look for a way to incorporate the legacy system components into the modern network architecture. Finding a way to integrate the two generations of systems can provide substantial savings in both cost and application development time. This paper discusses the advantages of integrating legacy equipment into a network-based architecture with examples from systems where this approach was utilized.
    • The Performance Evaluation of an OFDM-Based IP Transceiver at Eglin AFB

      Berard, Alfredo; Cook, Paul; Roach, John; Eglin Air Force Base; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The 46th Test Wing, 846th Test Support Squadron (846 TSS/TSI) at Eglin AFB is currently evaluating their airspace for the use of SOQPSK transmitters and receivers for telemetry. The Squadron will incorporate an IP-compatible OFDM transceiver from Teletronics Technology Corporation (TTC) that will provide a two-way communication channel for controlling configuration settings of the airborne SOQPSK transmitter and receiver. This provides an opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of an airborne network instrumentation system and measure some critical parameters, with an opportunity to assess the performance and reliability of streaming telemetry and OFDM-based IP communication systems. This paper describes the experimental test setup created for this evaluation and summarizes the measurement and evaluation process.
    • Aeronautical Channel Simulation in Network Simulators for Incorporation into OPNET

      Dean, Richard; Zhang, Tianyin; Jaber, Nur; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper discusses channel simulation using OPNET Modeler in support of iNET. It shows how wireless communication is simulated, how to simulate the special aeronautical channel of iNET, and how to deliver the aeronautical channel, test article, and ground station as reusable components for future simulation. Network simulation is a critical tool for iNET and it enables design decisions that cannot be made analytically due to the complexity of the problem. This work addresses the incorporation of the aeronautical channel into the OPNET Modeler tool set as this piece of iNET is unique and is not available in OPNET Modeler.
    • Reduced Complexity Viterbi Decoders for SOQPSK Signals over Multipath Channels

      Saquib, Mohammad; Kannappa, Sandeep Mavuduru; University of Texas at Dallas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      High data rate communication between airborne vehicles and ground stations over the bandwidth constrained Aeronautical Telemetry channel is attributed to the development of bandwidth efficient Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) waveforms. This communication takes place over a multipath channel consisting of two components - a line of sight and one or more ground reflected paths which result in frequency selective fading. We concentrate on the ARTM SOQPSKTG transmit waveform suite and decode information bits using the reduced complexity Viterbi algorithm. Two different methodologies are proposed to implement reduced complexity Viterbi decoders in multipath channels. The first method jointly equalizes the channel and decodes the information bits using the reduced complexity Viterbi algorithm while the second method utilizes the minimum mean square error equalizer prior to applying the Viterbi decoder. An extensive numerical study is performed in comparing the performance of the above methodologies. We also demonstrate the performance gain offered by our reduced complexity Viterbi decoders over the existing linear receiver. In the numerical study, both perfect and estimated channel state information are considered.
    • Adapting Fourier Analysis for Predicting Earth, Mars and Lunar Orbiting Satellite's Telemetry Behavior

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Prognostic technology uses a series of algorithms, combined forms a prognostic-based inference engine (PBIE) for the identification of deterministic behavior embedded in completely normal appearing telemetry from fully functional equipment. The algorithms used to define normal behavior in the PBIE from which deterministic behavior is identified can be adapted to quantify normal spacecraft telemetry behavior while in orbit about a moon or planet or during interplanetary travel. Time-series analog engineering data (telemetry) from orbiting satellites and interplanetary spacecraft are defined by harmonic and non-harmonic influences, which shape it behavior. Spectrum analysis can be used to understand and quantify the fundamental behavior of spacecraft analog telemetry and relate the behavior's frequency and phase to its time-series behavior through Fourier analysis.
    • Digital Cross-Polar Interference Canceller

      Thesling, Bill; ViaSat, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Dual-polarized data transmission promises to double the system capacity by transmitting independent signals simultaneously on both polarizations in the same channel. However, the polarization orthogonality of the propagation field can not always be perfectly preserved in various environments. Also the antenna and waveguide networks may not be able to achieve absolute polarization isolation. Therefore cross-polarization interference becomes a severe source of performance degradation in dual-polar systems. This paper presents an all-digital design of the cross-polarization interference canceller (XPIC or CPIC). This canceller is designed to remove the cross-polar interference so that comparable performance to single-polar system can be achieved for each polarization. Specifically, this digital design aims for • Mitigating the cross-polarization interference caused primarily by antenna orientation. (Delay between the signals from both polarizations is considered insignificant.) • Can operate with time varying cross-polar interference varying at rates of 2-3 Hz and beyond. • Initial isolation can be as low as 10 dB. • Is well suited to an all digital modem where clocking from the A/D is independent of symbol timing recovery clocks.
    • A Wideband Stacked Microstrip Patch Antenna for Telemetry Applications

      Nithianandam, Jeyasingh; Hategekimana, Bayezi; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This research article reports a design of a wide band multilayer microstrip patch antenna (MSPA). Positions of a coaxial probe feed to main patch of the multilayer MSPA, widths and lengths of main and parasitic patches, and height of a Rohacell foam layer in the multilayer MSPA were optimized to achieve desired performance in L-band. The work also reports a design of a two-by-two array of multilayer MSPA. We present results on antenna radiation patterns and return loss obtained with full wave finite element simulations with Ansoft HFSS software and measurements with a vector network analyzer.
    • On the Performance of Spectrally Efficient DPM-OFDMA for Aeronautical Telemetry

      Wylie, Marilynn; Green, Glenn; Gem Direct Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      In this paper, we discuss CPM-OFDMA (Continuous Phase Modulation - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) - a novel modulation that maps a discrete-time CPM into a spectrally efficient DFT-spread OFDMA transmission. Three CPM-OFDMA schemes are developed based on discrete-time variants of PCM/FM, SOQPSK-TG and ARTM-CPM telemetry modulations. Simulations reveal that spectrally efficient CPM-OFDMA schemes can outperform the conventionally defined telemetry schemes in the AWGN environment. For example, maximum likelihood sequence detection of conventional PCM/FM yields a BER of 10⁻⁵ at an E(b)/N(0) of 8:4 dB while the least complex CPM-OFDMA scheme that is based on sampling a PCM/FM waveform once per symbol interval achieves the same BER at an E(b)/N(0) of 7:8 dB. Finally, an extensive search to find a subset of the best performing binary schemes shows that there exist very low complexity schemes that can achieve a BER of 10⁻⁶ at an E(b)/N(0) of 7:8 dB, which is an order of magnitude improvement over the performance of PCM/FM at the same E(b)/N(0).
    • The Range Area Network: A New Approach for Aeronautical Telemetry

      Rice, Michael; Tinubi, Oluwasegun; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The concept of a range area network dedicated to the reception of telemetry from airborne test articles is explored. The range area network consists of ground-based radios that receive telemetry packets from an airborne test article and relay those packets through the network to a data sink (e.g., the main telemetry display and processing center). The network may use either "dumb" nodes or "smart" nodes and this choice presents a trade-off involving node complexity, network bandwidth, and required RF power. Using a somewhat idealized, but nonetheless realistic example at the Edwards AFB complex and link budgets based on the emerging iNET standard, we show that a network consisting of just 6 nodes reduces the L-band airborne transmitter power to 6W and the ground-based transmitters to 3W. If the airborne transmitter is restricted to 1W at L-band, then coverage can be provided by a grid of 50 nodes.