• FTI Network Discover, Health, and Status Monitoring

      Cranley, Nikki; ACRA Control (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
    • Performance Analysis of iNET Using Forward Error Correction and OFDM

      Dean, Richard A.; Cole-Rhodes, Arlene; Boru, Sileshi; Maitra, Diptasree; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper shows the improvement in performance for OFDM modulation on aeronautical channels with the addition of convolution coding. OFDM is envisioned for use on the Integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (INET) on aeronautical channels that experience multipath fading which causes inter-symbol interference (ISI). Forward error correction coding, such as convolution coding (cc), significantly improves the bit error rate (BER) of OFDM with multipath fading. Theoretical and simulated results show a performance increase of up to 10dB with the introduction of coding gain and the cyclic prefix (cp). Such improvements can be applied to reduce errors or increase data rates for INET.
    • A Hybrid Data Acquisition Architecture on the CH-53K Program

      Dehmelt, Chris; L3 Communications Telemetry East (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      As today's flight test programs need for sensor and bus data continue to increase, there has been associated requirements to provide modern system output products and support higher encoder data rates. The CH-53K Heavy Lift Replacement (HLR) Program is an example in which the instrumentation data requirements have increased significantly over previous helicopter programs and necessitated the introduction of new technologies and capabilities. The CH-53K Program utilizes a hybrid system architecture that combines the benefits of legacy PCM and modern networked system architectures. The system provides for maintaining the required system-wide synchronized sampling capabilities, while providing real-time data access and system control over a vehicle network. Serial Streaming Telemetry (SST)-to-vNET Adapters are employed to enable many of these capabilities. This paper describes the instrumentation requirements for the CH-53K program and the features, tools and performance of its data acquisition system - which addressed all requirements while minimizing the overall impact to the existing instrumentation infrastructure.
    • Performance Evaluation of a TDMA MAC Protocol in Airborne Telemetry Networks

      Perrins, Erik; Sterbenz, James P. G.; Tunç, Muharrem Ali; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Emerging airborne telemetry networks are going beyond traditional point-to-point communication. The iNET telemetry architecture uses a TDMA MAC with relay nodes that enable multi-hop communication. We analyze the performance of the iNET TDMA MAC protocol with respect to various parameters such as number of nodes, flight range, number of relays, and number of hops via mathematical modeling. We also discuss the role of cross-layer optimizations with the AeroNP, AeroRP, and AeroTP aeronautical protocols.
    • Information Assurance (IA) Considerations for a Telemetry Network System (TmNS)

      Hodack, David; Naval Air Systems Command (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project was launched by the Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) to foster network enhanced instrumentation and telemetry. The iNET program is preparing for the TmNS system demonstration. The goal of the demonstration is to prove that the proposed TmNS will meet the Test Capability Requirements Document (TCRD) and validate the iNET standards. One aspect of the preparation is looking at the IA issues and making decisions to ensure that the system will be certified and accredited, meet user needs, and be secure. This paper will explore a few of these considerations.
    • End-to-End ARQ: Transport-Layer Reliability for Airborne Telemetry Networks

      Sterbenz, James P. G.; Pathapati, Kamakshi Sirisha; Rohrer, Justin P.; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Due to the mission-critical nature of command-and-control traffic in the telemetry environment, it is imperative that reliable transfer be supported. The AeroTP disruption-tolerant transport protocol is intended for this environment. The mechanism for reliable transfer is ARQ with end-to-end acknowledgments. This has significant performance limitations resulting from the highly-dynamic nature of airborne telemetry networks, since end-to-end paths may not persist long enough for retransmissions to be received. We use ns-3 to analyze the AeroTP ARQ mechanism, along with tunable parameters that may improve performance in reliable transfer mode.
    • QoS Performance Management in Mixed Wireless Networks

      Dean, Richard; Astatke, Yacob; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper presents a model for Quality of Service (QoS) management in a mix of fixed Ground Station (GS) and ad-hoc telemetry networks, and introduces an enhanced clustering scheme that jointly optimizes the performance of the network using multiple distance measures based on the location of the wireless nodes and the traffic level. It also demonstrates that a "power" performance measure is an effective tool for modeling and managing QoS in Mixed Networks. Simulation results show that significant QoS performance improvements can be obtained and maintained even under severe traffic conditions.
    • On the Use of Rapid Prototyping for Designing PCM/FM Demodulators in FPGAS

      Rice, Michael; Nelson, Brent; Padilla, Marc; Havican, Jared; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper describes the use of an efficient FPGA design flow, called Ogre, developed at BYU to design and implement PCM/FM demodulators. Ogre exploits the notion of reuse by taking advantage of a library of specially designed cores parameterized by XML metadata. A judicious choice of library cores, targeted to signal processing functions common to sampled data modulators and demodulators, reduces the design and test cycle time. We demonstrate this by using the tool to construct rapid prototypes of three different versions of FM demodulators and show that the bit error rate performance is comparable to demodulators on the market today.
    • Mixed Network Interference Management with Multi-Distortion Measures

      Dean, Richard; Traore, Abdoulaye S.; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper presents a methodology for the management of interference and spectrum for iNET. It anticipates a need for heavily loaded test environments with Test Articles (TAs) operating over the horizon. In such cases, it is anticipated that fixed and ad hoc networks will be employed, and where spectrum reuse and interference will limit performance. The methodology presented here demonstrates how this can be accomplished in mixed networks.
    • Situational Wireless Awareness Network

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Xin, Hao; Scheidemantel, Austin; Alnasser, Ibrahim; Carpenter, Benjamin; Frost, Paul; Nettles, Shivhan; Morales, Chelsie; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The purpose of this paper is to explain the process to implementing a wireless sensor network in order to improve situational awareness in a dense urban environment. Utilizing a system of wireless nodes with Global Positioning System (GPS) and heart rate sensors, a system was created that was able to give both position and general health conditions. By linking the nodes in a mesh network line of sight barriers were overcome to allow for operation even in an environment full of obstruction.
    • Aeronautical Channel Simulation in Network Simulators for Incorporation into OPNET

      Dean, Richard; Zhang, Tianyin; Jaber, Nur; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper discusses channel simulation using OPNET Modeler in support of iNET. It shows how wireless communication is simulated, how to simulate the special aeronautical channel of iNET, and how to deliver the aeronautical channel, test article, and ground station as reusable components for future simulation. Network simulation is a critical tool for iNET and it enables design decisions that cannot be made analytically due to the complexity of the problem. This work addresses the incorporation of the aeronautical channel into the OPNET Modeler tool set as this piece of iNET is unique and is not available in OPNET Modeler.
    • A New Standard for Temperature Measurement in an Aviation Environment

      Grossman, Hy; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Accurate temperature measurement is an essential requirement in modern aircraft data acquisition systems. Both thermocouples and Platinum resistance temperature detectors (RTD) are used for this purpose with the latter being both more accurate and more repeatable. To ensure that only the sensor limits the accuracy of a temperature measurement, end-to-end system accuracy forward of the sensor, should be significantly greater than that of the sensor itself. This paper describes a new digital signal processing (DSP) based system for providing precision RTD based temperature measurements with laboratory accuracy in an aviation environment. Advantages of the new system include, true 3-wire RTD measurement, linear temperature output, on-board ultra-precision resistance standards and transparent dynamic calibration.
    • Network System Integration: Migrating Legacy Systems into Network-Based Architectures

      Newton, Todd A.; Moodie, Myron L.; Thibodeaux, Ryan J.; Araujo, Maria S.; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The direction of future data acquisition systems is rapidly moving toward a network-based architecture. There is a handful of these network-based flight test systems already operating, and the current trend is catching on all over the flight test community. As vendors are churning out a whole new product line for networking capabilities, system engineers are left asking, "What do I do with all of this non-networked, legacy equipment?" Before overhauling an entire test system, one should look for a way to incorporate the legacy system components into the modern network architecture. Finding a way to integrate the two generations of systems can provide substantial savings in both cost and application development time. This paper discusses the advantages of integrating legacy equipment into a network-based architecture with examples from systems where this approach was utilized.
    • The Performance Evaluation of an OFDM-Based IP Transceiver at Eglin AFB

      Berard, Alfredo; Cook, Paul; Roach, John; Eglin Air Force Base; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The 46th Test Wing, 846th Test Support Squadron (846 TSS/TSI) at Eglin AFB is currently evaluating their airspace for the use of SOQPSK transmitters and receivers for telemetry. The Squadron will incorporate an IP-compatible OFDM transceiver from Teletronics Technology Corporation (TTC) that will provide a two-way communication channel for controlling configuration settings of the airborne SOQPSK transmitter and receiver. This provides an opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of an airborne network instrumentation system and measure some critical parameters, with an opportunity to assess the performance and reliability of streaming telemetry and OFDM-based IP communication systems. This paper describes the experimental test setup created for this evaluation and summarizes the measurement and evaluation process.
    • High Data Rate ARTM Tier II Telemetry Waveforms Receiver Analysis and Design

      Dourbal, Paul; Bouglo, Yuriy; Fleyshman, Val; Mayer, Robert; Okoro, Jerry; Shikhalev, Boris; L-3 Telemetry East (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      In this article we show how phase noise and demodulator complexity define the potential performance of high data rate telemetry receivers for ARTM continuous phase modulation (ARTM CPM) signals. Given a level of phase noise and demodulator complexity, we can predict the potential performance of a receiver. We also provide the results of actual receiver performance measurements (obtained using RCB-4000 Telemetry Receiver). We develop a simplified analytical model for an ARTM CPM signal transmission and present the resulting equation for phase increment difference between close signal sequences. The analysis of demodulator performance deterioration due to inter-symbol interference and due to receiver phase noise is then provided. Actual receiver phase noise data is included and is used to analyze demodulator performance.
    • A Reflection Type Phase Shifter for iNET Phase Array Antenna Applications

      Shrestha, Bikram; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      In this article we present results from modeling and simulation of a L-band reflection type phase shifter (RTPS) that provides continuous phase shift of 0° to 360°. The RTPS circuit uses a 90º hybrid coupler and two reflective load networks consisting of varactor diodes and inductors. Proper design of 90° hybrid coupler is critical in realizing maximum phase shift. The RTPS circuit implemented on a Rogers Duroid substrate is large in size. We discuss methods to reduce the size of L-band RTPS.
    • Adapting Fourier Analysis for Predicting Earth, Mars and Lunar Orbiting Satellite's Telemetry Behavior

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Prognostic technology uses a series of algorithms, combined forms a prognostic-based inference engine (PBIE) for the identification of deterministic behavior embedded in completely normal appearing telemetry from fully functional equipment. The algorithms used to define normal behavior in the PBIE from which deterministic behavior is identified can be adapted to quantify normal spacecraft telemetry behavior while in orbit about a moon or planet or during interplanetary travel. Time-series analog engineering data (telemetry) from orbiting satellites and interplanetary spacecraft are defined by harmonic and non-harmonic influences, which shape it behavior. Spectrum analysis can be used to understand and quantify the fundamental behavior of spacecraft analog telemetry and relate the behavior's frequency and phase to its time-series behavior through Fourier analysis.
    • IHAL and Web Service Interfaces to Vendor Configuration Engines

      Hamilton, John; Darr, Timothy; Fernandes, Ronald; Sulewski, Joe; Jones, Charles; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; L-3 Telemetry East; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      In this paper, we present an approach towards achieving standards-based multi-vendor hardware configuration. This approach uses the Instrumentation Hardware Abstraction Language (IHAL) and a standardized web service Application Programming Interface (API) specification to allow any Instrumentation Support System (ISS) to control instrumentation hardware in a vendor neutral way without requiring non-disclosure agreements or knowledge of proprietary information. Additionally, we will describe a real-world implementation of this approach using KBSI‟s InstrumentMap application and an implementation of the web service API by L-3 Communications Telemetry East.
    • Describing Telemetry Systems with the Metadata Description Language

      Moore, Michael S.; Price, Jeremy C.; Cormier, Andrew R.; Thibodeaux, Ryan J.; Abbott, Ben A.; Malatesta, William A.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The integrated Network-Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project has developed standards to enhance telemetry systems for the twenty-first century. A foundational component of these standards is the Metadata Description Language (MDL). MDL is an eXtensible Markup Language (XML)-based language for describing requirements, design choices, and configuration parameters of a Telemetry Network System (TmNS). Within a TmNS, MDL guides the exchange of information between applications and the configuration of network devices. Recent initial evaluations assessed MDL in terms of the expressive power of the language and the level of effort in developing applications that utilize MDL Instance Documents. Performing these initial evaluations required the generation of MDL Instance Documents to describe scenarios representative of both near-term and future telemetry systems that express different levels of iNET interoperability. These initial evaluations determined quantitative metrics such as file size, memory requirements, and required parsing time for MDL Instance Documents, and further evaluations judged the efficacy and complexity of MDL for describing and configuring a TmNS.
    • iNET Standards Validation: End-to-End Performance Assessment

      Moodie, Myron L.; Araujo, Maria S.; Grace, Thomas B.; Malatesta, William A.; Abbott, Ben A.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The integrated Network-Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project has developed standards for network-based telemetry systems. While these standards are based largely on the existing body of commercial networking protocols, the Telemetry Network System (TmNS) has more stringent performance requirements in the areas of latency, throughput, operation over constrained links, and quality of service (QoS) than typical networked applications. A variety of initial evaluations were undertaken to exercise the interfaces of the current standards and determine real-world performance. The core end-to-end performance initial evaluations focus collectively on the movement of telemetry data through the TmNS. These initial evaluations addressed two areas: end-to-end data delivery and parametric data extraction. This paper presents the approach taken by these ongoing efforts and provides initial results. The latest results will be presented at ITC 2010.