• Mapping Traffic Flow for Telemetry System Planning

      Kosbar, Kurt; Rivera, Grant; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Telemetry receivers must typically be located so that obstacles do not block the signal path. This can be challenging in geometrically complex indoor environments, such as factories, health care facilities, or offices. An accurate method for estimating the paths followed by typical telemetry transmitters in these environments can assist in system planning. It may be acceptable to provide marginal coverage to areas which are rarely visited, or areas which transmitters quickly transit. This paper discusses the use of the ant colony optimization and its application to the telemetry system planning problem.
    • A Mathematical Model for Instrumentation Configuration

      Jones, Charles H.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper describes a model of how to configure settings on instrumentation. For any given instrument there may be 100s of settings that can be set to various values. However, randomly selecting values for each setting is not likely to produce a valid configuration. By "valid" we mean a set of setting values that can be implemented by each instrument. The valid configurations must satisfy a set of dependency rules between the settings and other constraints. The formalization provided allows for identification of different sets of configurations settings under control by different systems and organizations. Similarly, different rule sets are identified. A primary application of this model is in the context of a multi-vendor system especially when including vendors that maintain proprietary rules governing their systems. This thus leads to a discussion of an application user interface (API) between different systems with different rules and settings.
    • Microcontroller Based Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Transmitter

      Kosbar, Kurt; Kanday, Balaji Madapuci; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper describes how a microcontroller based system can be used to generate the signals needed in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system transmitter. The limited computational speed of the microcontroller, along with other tasks which the controller may need to handle, places limits on the throughput of the system, and the complexity of the MIMO signal design. However this can be a low cost design, and the microcontroller can be used to perform other operations in the system, which may make it attractive in some applications.
    • Mixed Network Clustering with Multiple Ground Stations and Nodes Preferences

      Dean, Richard; Traore, Oumar; Gwanvoma, Stephen; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper presents a method for managing a Mixed Network with multiple ground stations and Test Articles (TA) preferences. The main difference between a Ground Station (cellular) network and the over the horizon (ad-hoc) network is that the ad-hoc method has no fixed infrastructure. This paper presents the computation and performance of a clustering technique for mobile nodes within the simulated mixed network environment with multiple ground stations and users preferences for those ground stations. This includes organization for multiple ground stations and for TA's gravitating toward a ground station of their choice on the basis of service and performance.
    • Mixed Network Interference Management with Multi-Distortion Measures

      Dean, Richard; Traore, Abdoulaye S.; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper presents a methodology for the management of interference and spectrum for iNET. It anticipates a need for heavily loaded test environments with Test Articles (TAs) operating over the horizon. In such cases, it is anticipated that fixed and ad hoc networks will be employed, and where spectrum reuse and interference will limit performance. The methodology presented here demonstrates how this can be accomplished in mixed networks.
    • Modular Field Programmable Gate Array Implementation of a MIMO Transmitter

      Kosbar, Kurt; Shekhar, Richa; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems have at least two transmitting antennas, each generating unique signals. However some applications may require three, four, or more transmitting devices to achieve the desired system performance. This paper describes the design of a scalable MIMO transmitter, based on field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology. Each module contains a FPGA, and associated digital-to-analog converters, I/Q modulators, and RF amplifiers needed to power one of the MIMO transmitters. The system was designed to handle up to a 10 Mbps data rate, and transmit signals in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz ISM band.
    • Multi-Band (L/S/C) Nested Concentric Cavity Coaxial Mode RF Feed for Autotrack Telemetry Systems

      Blake, George R.; Shea, Don F.; Hoory, Yossi; Krepner, Itzik; Pein, Joe; Nahshon, Ofir; Orbit Communications Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Recognizing the current and future requirements of extending Telemetry, TT&C, Earth Resources operations into the C-Band (4400-5200 MHZ) arena, Orbit Communication Systems and Orbit Communication Ltd. are currently designing and testing a Tri-Band auto-tracking / receive / transmit feed technology combining dual polarization with multiple frequency band coverage (L/S/C) into a single feed that can be fitted onto new or existing antenna systems. This technology reduces footprint and minimizes life cycle cost, both of which are important considerations for both our commercial and military customers. This technology has been applied to a number of systems, including flyaway, fixed (or teleport) and shipboard, and is readily applicable to ground and mobile applications. The multiband feed design consists of coaxial, concentric waveguide cavities operating in TE11 and TE21 modes (Patent Pending). The large outermost cavities of the feed operate in the L/S frequency band while the innermost cavities operate at C-Band. The antenna is fed with orthogonally polarized inputs/outputs enabling polarization diversity in all bands. The coaxial cavity feed is ideal for this application because the feed produces high-efficiency, near-optimum illumination patterns and coincident phase centers in all three bands simultaneously. Because it is a waveguide design, the input power levels used in Telemetry and Satellite systems do not present breakdown problems. This type of feed has proved to be an ideal multiband illuminator for parabolic reflectors, and therefore could be used in many military and commercial applications that require multiband operation.
    • Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Systems for Spinning Vehicles

      Kosbar, Kurt; Petersen, Samuel; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper investigates the performance of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) digital communication system, when the transmitter is located on a spinning vehicle. In particular, a 2x2 MIMO system is used, with Alamouti coding at the transmitter. Both Rayleigh and Rayleigh plus line-of-sight, or Rician, models combined with a deterministic model to simulate the channel. The spinning of the transmitting vehicle, relative to the stationary receive antennas, modulates the signal, and complicates the decoding and channel parameter estimation processes. The simulated system bit error rate is the primary performance metric used. The Alamouti channel code is shown to perform better than the maximal ratio receiver combining (MRRC) and single receiver (2x1) system in some circumstances and performs similarly to the MRRC in the broadside case.
    • Network System Integration: Migrating Legacy Systems into Network-Based Architectures

      Newton, Todd A.; Moodie, Myron L.; Thibodeaux, Ryan J.; Araujo, Maria S.; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The direction of future data acquisition systems is rapidly moving toward a network-based architecture. There is a handful of these network-based flight test systems already operating, and the current trend is catching on all over the flight test community. As vendors are churning out a whole new product line for networking capabilities, system engineers are left asking, "What do I do with all of this non-networked, legacy equipment?" Before overhauling an entire test system, one should look for a way to incorporate the legacy system components into the modern network architecture. Finding a way to integrate the two generations of systems can provide substantial savings in both cost and application development time. This paper discusses the advantages of integrating legacy equipment into a network-based architecture with examples from systems where this approach was utilized.
    • A New Standard for Temperature Measurement in an Aviation Environment

      Grossman, Hy; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Accurate temperature measurement is an essential requirement in modern aircraft data acquisition systems. Both thermocouples and Platinum resistance temperature detectors (RTD) are used for this purpose with the latter being both more accurate and more repeatable. To ensure that only the sensor limits the accuracy of a temperature measurement, end-to-end system accuracy forward of the sensor, should be significantly greater than that of the sensor itself. This paper describes a new digital signal processing (DSP) based system for providing precision RTD based temperature measurements with laboratory accuracy in an aviation environment. Advantages of the new system include, true 3-wire RTD measurement, linear temperature output, on-board ultra-precision resistance standards and transparent dynamic calibration.
    • Novel Angle of Arrival Algorithm for Use in Acoustical Positioning Systems with Non Uniform Receiver Arrays

      Lee, Hua; Utley, Christopher; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Traditional angle of arrival algorithms operate with uniform receiver arrays. Non-uniform arrays typically introduce significant elevation of computation complexity. This paper utilizes the double-integration method for the accurate estimation of the angle of arrival with non-uniform receiver arrays, while maintaining high computation efficiency. Because of the simplicity, the double-integration method is not significantly affected by the increase of the number of receivers or the non-uniform configuration. This approach allows us to perform high-speed high-accuracy estimation of the two-dimensional bearing angle without the constraints of structured receiver arrays, which is important to the realization of real-time tracking of mobile acoustic sources.
    • A Novel Antenna Design for Size Constrained Applications Requiring a Thin Conformal Antenna

      Cirineo, Anthony; David, Rick; Naval Air Warfare Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper will discuss the design of a new antenna element for use on vehicles requiring a thin conformal antenna such as on missiles or targets. The new element employs a partial shorted edge, which reduces the size of the element compared to a traditional microwave patch, while maintaining the impedance bandwidth.
    • On the Performance of Spectrally Efficient DPM-OFDMA for Aeronautical Telemetry

      Wylie, Marilynn; Green, Glenn; Gem Direct Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      In this paper, we discuss CPM-OFDMA (Continuous Phase Modulation - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) - a novel modulation that maps a discrete-time CPM into a spectrally efficient DFT-spread OFDMA transmission. Three CPM-OFDMA schemes are developed based on discrete-time variants of PCM/FM, SOQPSK-TG and ARTM-CPM telemetry modulations. Simulations reveal that spectrally efficient CPM-OFDMA schemes can outperform the conventionally defined telemetry schemes in the AWGN environment. For example, maximum likelihood sequence detection of conventional PCM/FM yields a BER of 10⁻⁵ at an E(b)/N(0) of 8:4 dB while the least complex CPM-OFDMA scheme that is based on sampling a PCM/FM waveform once per symbol interval achieves the same BER at an E(b)/N(0) of 7:8 dB. Finally, an extensive search to find a subset of the best performing binary schemes shows that there exist very low complexity schemes that can achieve a BER of 10⁻⁶ at an E(b)/N(0) of 7:8 dB, which is an order of magnitude improvement over the performance of PCM/FM at the same E(b)/N(0).
    • On the Use of Rapid Prototyping for Designing PCM/FM Demodulators in FPGAS

      Rice, Michael; Nelson, Brent; Padilla, Marc; Havican, Jared; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper describes the use of an efficient FPGA design flow, called Ogre, developed at BYU to design and implement PCM/FM demodulators. Ogre exploits the notion of reuse by taking advantage of a library of specially designed cores parameterized by XML metadata. A judicious choice of library cores, targeted to signal processing functions common to sampled data modulators and demodulators, reduces the design and test cycle time. We demonstrate this by using the tool to construct rapid prototypes of three different versions of FM demodulators and show that the bit error rate performance is comparable to demodulators on the market today.
    • An Open Architecture Approach to Networked Telemetry System

      Woolridge, Daniel 'Shane'; GDP Space Systems; Delta Digital Video (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      When designing data transport systems, Telemetry and Communications engineers always face the risk that their chosen hardware will not be available or supported soon after the hardware has been installed. The best way to reduce this risk and ensure the longevity of the system is to select an open architecture standard that is supported by multiple manufacturers. This open architecture should also have the ability to be easily upgraded and provide for all of the features and flexibility that are required to be a reliable carrier-grade edge-device. The PCI Industrial Computer Manufacturers Group (PICMG) developed the MicroTCA open standard to address the specific needs of these Communications and Network System Engineers. This paper describes the MicroTCA architecture and how it can be applied as the ideal edge-device solution for Networked Telemetry Systems applications.
    • Optical Links Capacity for LEO Satellites Over European Ground Networks

      Guérin, A.; Lacoste, F.; Laurens, A.; Azéma, G.; Périard, C.; Grimal, D.; Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES); Thales, Solutions de Securité et Services; Météo-France (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Free-space optical communications offer the technology breakthrough required by future Earth Exploration Satellites for their High Rate Payload Telemetry, while they required clear sky propagation conditions leading to locate receiving optical ground stations on favorable sites in terms of atmospheric propagation and to use site diversity to reach classical system availability requirements. This paper presents a methodology that can be used to optimize such a network relying on experimental meteorological satellite data. It also presents quantitative results in terms of link availability over a European ground network and the associated downlink capacity considering possible future Low Earth Orbit satellites.
    • Performance Analysis of iNET Using Forward Error Correction and OFDM

      Dean, Richard A.; Cole-Rhodes, Arlene; Boru, Sileshi; Maitra, Diptasree; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper shows the improvement in performance for OFDM modulation on aeronautical channels with the addition of convolution coding. OFDM is envisioned for use on the Integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (INET) on aeronautical channels that experience multipath fading which causes inter-symbol interference (ISI). Forward error correction coding, such as convolution coding (cc), significantly improves the bit error rate (BER) of OFDM with multipath fading. Theoretical and simulated results show a performance increase of up to 10dB with the introduction of coding gain and the cyclic prefix (cp). Such improvements can be applied to reduce errors or increase data rates for INET.
    • Performance Comparison of Aeronautical Telemetry in S-Band and C-Band

      Temple, Kip; Selbrede, Robert; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper compares telemetry link performance of the PCM/FM waveform when simultaneously transmitting in two different frequency bands, S-Band and C-Band. A description of the aircraft and ground station is presented followed by flight test results. These results are presented in the form of received signal strength and accumulated bit errors, versus time and link availability, over the flight paths. Conclusions are drawn based upon the presented flight test results.
    • Performance Evaluation of a TDMA MAC Protocol in Airborne Telemetry Networks

      Perrins, Erik; Sterbenz, James P. G.; Tunç, Muharrem Ali; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Emerging airborne telemetry networks are going beyond traditional point-to-point communication. The iNET telemetry architecture uses a TDMA MAC with relay nodes that enable multi-hop communication. We analyze the performance of the iNET TDMA MAC protocol with respect to various parameters such as number of nodes, flight range, number of relays, and number of hops via mathematical modeling. We also discuss the role of cross-layer optimizations with the AeroNP, AeroRP, and AeroTP aeronautical protocols.
    • The Performance Evaluation of an OFDM-Based IP Transceiver at Eglin AFB

      Berard, Alfredo; Cook, Paul; Roach, John; Eglin Air Force Base; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The 46th Test Wing, 846th Test Support Squadron (846 TSS/TSI) at Eglin AFB is currently evaluating their airspace for the use of SOQPSK transmitters and receivers for telemetry. The Squadron will incorporate an IP-compatible OFDM transceiver from Teletronics Technology Corporation (TTC) that will provide a two-way communication channel for controlling configuration settings of the airborne SOQPSK transmitter and receiver. This provides an opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of an airborne network instrumentation system and measure some critical parameters, with an opportunity to assess the performance and reliability of streaming telemetry and OFDM-based IP communication systems. This paper describes the experimental test setup created for this evaluation and summarizes the measurement and evaluation process.