• FTI Network Discover, Health, and Status Monitoring

      Cranley, Nikki; ACRA Control (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
    • Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Systems for Spinning Vehicles

      Kosbar, Kurt; Petersen, Samuel; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper investigates the performance of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) digital communication system, when the transmitter is located on a spinning vehicle. In particular, a 2x2 MIMO system is used, with Alamouti coding at the transmitter. Both Rayleigh and Rayleigh plus line-of-sight, or Rician, models combined with a deterministic model to simulate the channel. The spinning of the transmitting vehicle, relative to the stationary receive antennas, modulates the signal, and complicates the decoding and channel parameter estimation processes. The simulated system bit error rate is the primary performance metric used. The Alamouti channel code is shown to perform better than the maximal ratio receiver combining (MRRC) and single receiver (2x1) system in some circumstances and performs similarly to the MRRC in the broadside case.
    • An Enhancement of Existing RF Data Links Using Advanced Diversity Techniques

      Melicher, Milos; ACRA Control (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The theoretical capacity of communication channel in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) as defined by Shannon's channel capacity theorem has been well understood since 1940s. This theorem bounds the bit error rate (BER) of RF data links achievable for a particular noise level. The development in digital technology over the last decade has made it possible not just to design devices that operate close to the Shannon's limit, but also to explore techniques, such as best source and best data selectors, for further improvements in performance of RF data links where frequency, spatial or polar diverse reception is possible. This paper discusses an approach to improving quality of data links using an advanced diversity technique that does not select one source at a time but aligns and combines soft values from each. It shows how the overall bit error rate of RF data link can be improved by combining signals from multiple receivers and/or transmitters. Test results showing practical performance improvements are presented and discussed.
    • Web Service Applications in Future T&E Scenarios

      Sulewski, Joe; Hamilton, John; Darr, Timothy; Fernandes, Ronald; L-3 Telemetry East; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      In this paper, we discuss ways in which web services can be used in future T&E scenarios, from the initial hardware setup to making dynamic configuration changes and data requests. We offer a comparison of this approach to other standards such as SNMP, FTP, and RTSP, describing the pros and cons of each as well as how these standards can be used together for certain applications.
    • Switched for Networked FTI

      Cranley, Nikki; ACRA Control (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Ethernet technology offers numerous benefits for networked Flight Test Instrumentation (FTI) systems such as increased data rates, flexibility, scalability and most importantly interoperability owing to the inherent interface, protocol and technological standardization. In a networked FTI system, the switch is a key component that allows data to be routed between Data Acquisition Units (DAU's), networked recorders, data processing and analysis stations. This paper provides an introduction to network switching concepts with a focus on its operation in a networked FTI system. The features of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) and FTI switches are compared demonstrating the benefits of FTI switches in terms of reliability, routing, throughput, latency, and start-up delays.
    • L-Band Coplanar Slot Loop Antenna for iNET Applications

      Nithianandam, Jeyasingh; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      In this article we present a design of an L-band slot loop antenna with a dielectric loaded conductor backed coplanar waveguide (CBCPW) feed. The coplanar slot loop antenna has a transmission line resonator in series. We used full wave electromagnetic simulations with Ansoft's high frequency structure simulator (HFSS) software in the design of the coplanar slot loop antenna. The series transmission line resonator helps to tune the coplanar slot loop antenna and reduce its size. We present here results on return loss and radiations patterns of coplanar slot loop antenna obtained from HFSS simulations.
    • Refraction Effects for Tracking Error at C- & S-Band Frequencies

      Oh, Chang Yul; Lee, Hyo Keun; Oh, Seung Hyeub; Korea Aerospace Research Institute; Chungnam National University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This document is focused on the examination of the tracking angular error due to the radio refraction for the target in low altitude of less than 5km and in low elevation angle. The real measured data using the GPS and the tracking systems of C- and S-band frequency in NARO Space centre, Korea are used for the analysis. The analysis shows couple of conclusions on the radio refraction effects; there are angular errors due to the radio refraction which is not to be neglected comparing the accuracy of the tracking system but to be considered for the precise measurement of the target position. Also, the refraction errors are dependent on the target altitude, but not on the frequency.
    • A400M: Instrumentation Architecture for Flight Test

      Freaud, Gilles; Airbus (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The Airbus A400M military transport plane carried out its first flight on December 2009 in Sevilla (Spain). This paper presents the flight and ground architecture designed to perform the flights tests campaign in Spain and in France. The core of the onboard flight test instrumentation is based on distributed network architecture already developed for A380 program. Airbus adapted civilian tests equipment for the A400M military program and various specific items have been designed specifically for this program. Two interconnected flight tests centres located in Sevilla (Spain) and Toulouse (France) are used for the flight tests campaign to ensure interoperability during the tests.
    • Remote Imaging System Acquisition (RISA) Space Environment Multispectral Imager

      Grubbs, Elmer; Marcellin, Michael; Lizarrage, Adrian; Lynn, Brittany; Lange, Jeremiah; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The purpose of the NASA Remote Imaging System Acquisition space camera prototype is to integrate multiple optical instruments into a small wireless system using radiation tolerant components. This stage of prototyping was the development of a broadband variable-focus camera that can transmit data wirelessly. A liquid lens in conjunction with a cerium doped double gauss eliminates traditional focusing mechanisms.
    • Accessing Chapter 10 Recorder Media from Windows PCs

      Kupferschmidt, Benjamin; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The RCC IRIG Chapter 10 standard requires that Chapter 10 recorders use the STANAG- 4575 (NATO Advanced Data Storage Interface) file system to store data files. The STANAG-4575 standard defines a linear file system in which each file is stored in a single contiguous block of disk space. There is a small directory listing at the beginning of the disk. This listing stores the starting position and length for each file. It also stores the file's name and its creation date and time. This file system is very efficient for storing files that are recorded sequentially because it does not require the disk to constantly update a file allocation table on each write. Unfortunately, the STANAG-4575 file system is not directly supported by Microsoft Windows. This means that it is not possible to simply attach a recorder's disk to a PC and copy the files directly using Windows Explorer. This paper will discuss an approach that allows the contents of a STANAG formatted disk to be read from a standard Windows PC. In addition to copying files from the disk, this approach allows several other useful operations to be performed on the disk. These operations include advanced copy options such as partial file copies and splitting files into multiple pieces. It can also provide a mechanism for deleting files, reformatting the disk and performing a sanitization procedure on a disk to declassify it.
    • Verification, Validation and Completeness Support for Metadata Traceability

      Darr, Timothy; Fernandes, Ronald; Hamilton, John; Jones, Charles; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The complexity of modern test and evaluation (T&E) processes has resulted in an explosion of the quantity and diversity of metadata used to describe end-to-end T&E processes. Ideally, it would be possible to integrate metadata in such a way that disparate systems can seamlessly access the metadata and easily interoperate with other systems. Unfortunately, there are several barriers to achieving this goal: metadata is often designed for use with specific tools or specific purposes; metadata exists in a variety of formats (legacy, non-legacy, structured and unstructured metadata); and the same information is represented in multiple ways across different metadata formats.
    • iNET System Management Scaling

      Bertrand, Allison R.; Newton, Todd A.; Grace, Thomas B.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The integration of standard networking technologies into the test range allows for more capable and complex systems. As System Management provides the capability for dynamic allocation of resources, it is critical to support the level of network flexibility envisioned by the integrated Network-Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project. This paper investigates the practical performance of managing the Telemetry Network System (TmNS) using the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). It discusses the impacts and benefits of System Management as the size of the TmNS scales from small to large and as distributed and centralized management styles are applied. To support dynamic network states, it is necessary to be able to both collect the current status of the network and command (or modify the configuration of) the network. The management data needs to travel both ways over the telemetry link (in limited bandwidth) without interfering with critical data streams. It is important that the TmNS's status is collected in a timely manner so that the engineers are aware of any equipment failures or other problems; it is also imperative that System Management does not adversely affect the real-time delivery of data. This paper discusses measurements of SNMP traffic under various loading conditions. Statistics considered will include the performance of SNMP commands, queries, and events under various test article and telemetry network loads and the bandwidth consumed by SNMP commands, queries, and events under various conditions (e.g., pre-configuration, normal operation, and device error).
    • Performance Comparison of Aeronautical Telemetry in S-Band and C-Band

      Temple, Kip; Selbrede, Robert; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper compares telemetry link performance of the PCM/FM waveform when simultaneously transmitting in two different frequency bands, S-Band and C-Band. A description of the aircraft and ground station is presented followed by flight test results. These results are presented in the form of received signal strength and accumulated bit errors, versus time and link availability, over the flight paths. Conclusions are drawn based upon the presented flight test results.
    • Development and Analysis Cloud

      Self, Lance; Kirtland Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The development and analysis cloud is a rapid development system being designed to support the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) Simulation & Technology Assessment Branch. The purpose is to isolate research, development, test, and evaluation of unique software within a Zone D enclave [1] to allow researchers and analysts to develop and test software free of the many IT requirements that hamper development and without risk of contaminating the overall Air Force network. The cloud system is being designed so researchers and analysts will utilize Software as a Service (SaaS) models. Such a model makes it transparent to users such things as where the software originates and any licensing concerns. Utilities, tools, and other enhancing software that users need are published and using them frees the developer to focus on their specific development efforts versus tertiary development modules.
    • Performance Evaluation of a TDMA MAC Protocol in Airborne Telemetry Networks

      Perrins, Erik; Sterbenz, James P. G.; Tunç, Muharrem Ali; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Emerging airborne telemetry networks are going beyond traditional point-to-point communication. The iNET telemetry architecture uses a TDMA MAC with relay nodes that enable multi-hop communication. We analyze the performance of the iNET TDMA MAC protocol with respect to various parameters such as number of nodes, flight range, number of relays, and number of hops via mathematical modeling. We also discuss the role of cross-layer optimizations with the AeroNP, AeroRP, and AeroTP aeronautical protocols.
    • Helicopter Slip Ring Replacement System

      Adamson, Alan; Berdugo, Albert; Flight Test Instrumentation; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Most helicopter programs require the acquisition of parameters from the rotating systems. Historically, these systems made use of electromechanical slip rings for the transfer of power, control, and data from within the helicopter's cabin to the rotating hardware. Slip rings are primarily used in dedicated instrumentation vehicles and are not commonly used in production platforms that may require instrumentation of the rotating systems for in-service load and fatigue monitoring. Additionally, the use of slip rings requires time and money to integrate the hardware and equipment into the aircraft in order to perform rotor data acquisition. The time needed to perform modifications to transmissions and drive trains plays a big factor in the increased costs of aircraft development. Less intrusive installations would minimize the need for mechanical changes and would improve the time needed to install the instrumentation. This paper describes a wireless system approach to perform the test without the slip ring, and provides performance data that validates this new method of instrumenting unobtrusively to save time and money without sacrificing data integrity.
    • A Reflection Type Phase Shifter for iNET Phase Array Antenna Applications

      Shrestha, Bikram; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      In this article we present results from modeling and simulation of a L-band reflection type phase shifter (RTPS) that provides continuous phase shift of 0° to 360°. The RTPS circuit uses a 90º hybrid coupler and two reflective load networks consisting of varactor diodes and inductors. Proper design of 90° hybrid coupler is critical in realizing maximum phase shift. The RTPS circuit implemented on a Rogers Duroid substrate is large in size. We discuss methods to reduce the size of L-band RTPS.
    • Direct Spatial Antenna Modulation for Wideband Phase Control

      Uhl, Brecken; Invertix Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Direct spatial antenna modulation (DSAM) is a new approach to phased array control that opens up new "smart antenna" architecture possibilities. The DSAM technique leverages the inherent spatial differences of excitation in an antenna in a novel way to achieve the equivalent of conventional modulation and beam control effects. Smart antenna techniques are of potentially increasing importance to test range operations given a trend toward more flexible, internetworked, and autonomous test activities. The DSAM technique has been demonstrated through several generations of analysis, simulation, and prototyping, but has previously only been applied to narrowband antenna designs. Furthermore, the IQ DSAM approach in particular has not been previously implemented in hardware. This paper details the application of IQ DSAM to achieve wideband phase control using a commercial off the shelf (COTS) antenna. The phase control performance of IQ DSAM over a range of 1.5 GHz to 4 GHz is measured across relative field control angles of +/- 45 degrees. The measured IQ DSAM performance is compared to what could be expected from a conventional phased array element control architecture.
    • iNET System Operational Flows

      Grace, Thomas B.; Abbott, Ben A.; Moodie, Myron L.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The integrated Network-Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project is transitioning from standards development to deployment of systems. In fielding a Telemetry Network System (TmNS) demonstration system, one must choose and integrate technological building blocks from the suite of standards to implement new test capabilities. This paper describes the operation of a TmNS and identifies the management, configuration, control, acquisition, and distribution of information and operational flows. These items are discussed utilizing a notional system to walk through the mechanisms identified by the iNET standards. Note that at the time of this paper the efforts discussed are only at the very beginning of the design process and will likely evolve throughout the design process.
    • Using Oracol® for Predicting Long-Term Telemetry Behavior for Earth and Lunar Orbiting and Interplanetary Spacecraft

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Providing normal telemetry behavior predictions prior to and post launch will help to stop surprise catastrophic satellite and spacecraft equipment failures. In-orbit spacecraft fail from surprise equipment failures that can result from not having normal telemetry behavior available for comparison with actual behavior catching satellite engineers by surprise. Some surprise equipment failures lead to the total loss of the satellite or spacecraft. Some recovery actions from a surprise equipment failure increase spacecraft risk and involve decisions requiring a level of experience far beyond the responsible engineers.