• Helicopter Slip Ring Replacement System

      Adamson, Alan; Berdugo, Albert; Flight Test Instrumentation; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Most helicopter programs require the acquisition of parameters from the rotating systems. Historically, these systems made use of electromechanical slip rings for the transfer of power, control, and data from within the helicopter's cabin to the rotating hardware. Slip rings are primarily used in dedicated instrumentation vehicles and are not commonly used in production platforms that may require instrumentation of the rotating systems for in-service load and fatigue monitoring. Additionally, the use of slip rings requires time and money to integrate the hardware and equipment into the aircraft in order to perform rotor data acquisition. The time needed to perform modifications to transmissions and drive trains plays a big factor in the increased costs of aircraft development. Less intrusive installations would minimize the need for mechanical changes and would improve the time needed to install the instrumentation. This paper describes a wireless system approach to perform the test without the slip ring, and provides performance data that validates this new method of instrumenting unobtrusively to save time and money without sacrificing data integrity.
    • End-to-End ARQ: Transport-Layer Reliability for Airborne Telemetry Networks

      Sterbenz, James P. G.; Pathapati, Kamakshi Sirisha; Rohrer, Justin P.; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Due to the mission-critical nature of command-and-control traffic in the telemetry environment, it is imperative that reliable transfer be supported. The AeroTP disruption-tolerant transport protocol is intended for this environment. The mechanism for reliable transfer is ARQ with end-to-end acknowledgments. This has significant performance limitations resulting from the highly-dynamic nature of airborne telemetry networks, since end-to-end paths may not persist long enough for retransmissions to be received. We use ns-3 to analyze the AeroTP ARQ mechanism, along with tunable parameters that may improve performance in reliable transfer mode.
    • Performance Comparison of Aeronautical Telemetry in S-Band and C-Band

      Temple, Kip; Selbrede, Robert; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper compares telemetry link performance of the PCM/FM waveform when simultaneously transmitting in two different frequency bands, S-Band and C-Band. A description of the aircraft and ground station is presented followed by flight test results. These results are presented in the form of received signal strength and accumulated bit errors, versus time and link availability, over the flight paths. Conclusions are drawn based upon the presented flight test results.
    • Remote Imaging System Acquisition (RISA) Space Environment Multispectral Imager

      Grubbs, Elmer; Marcellin, Michael; Lizarrage, Adrian; Lynn, Brittany; Lange, Jeremiah; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The purpose of the NASA Remote Imaging System Acquisition space camera prototype is to integrate multiple optical instruments into a small wireless system using radiation tolerant components. This stage of prototyping was the development of a broadband variable-focus camera that can transmit data wirelessly. A liquid lens in conjunction with a cerium doped double gauss eliminates traditional focusing mechanisms.
    • Role of a Small Switch in a Network-Based Data Acquisition System

      Hildin, John; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Network switches are an integral part of most network-based data acquisition systems. Switches fall into the category of network infrastructure. They support the interconnection of nodes and the movement of data in the overall network. Unlike endpoints such as data acquisition units, recorders, and display modules, switches do not collect, store or process data. They are a necessary expense required to build the network. The goal of this paper is to show how a small integrated network switch can be used to maximize the value proposition of a given switch port in the network. This can be accomplished by maximizing the bandwidth utilization of individual network segments and minimizing the necessary wiring needed to connect all the network components.
    • Web Service Applications in Future T&E Scenarios

      Sulewski, Joe; Hamilton, John; Darr, Timothy; Fernandes, Ronald; L-3 Telemetry East; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      In this paper, we discuss ways in which web services can be used in future T&E scenarios, from the initial hardware setup to making dynamic configuration changes and data requests. We offer a comparison of this approach to other standards such as SNMP, FTP, and RTSP, describing the pros and cons of each as well as how these standards can be used together for certain applications.
    • Wireless Power Transmission Using Microwave Technology

      Xin, Hao; Marcellin, Michael; Fuller, Robert; Nastase, Ryan; Elliott, Kaoru; Salhab, Anas; Campbell, Jonathan; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      As part of the Senior Capstone class held at the University of Arizona in the College of Engineering, the team was tasked to build a prototype that could power a simple electronic device wirelessly. The team succeeded in doing so and has proven that wireless power transmission could be a valuable tool for future use. There are a few difficulties to note and specifics will be given in the body of the report.
    • Adapting Fourier Analysis for Predicting Earth, Mars and Lunar Orbiting Satellite's Telemetry Behavior

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Prognostic technology uses a series of algorithms, combined forms a prognostic-based inference engine (PBIE) for the identification of deterministic behavior embedded in completely normal appearing telemetry from fully functional equipment. The algorithms used to define normal behavior in the PBIE from which deterministic behavior is identified can be adapted to quantify normal spacecraft telemetry behavior while in orbit about a moon or planet or during interplanetary travel. Time-series analog engineering data (telemetry) from orbiting satellites and interplanetary spacecraft are defined by harmonic and non-harmonic influences, which shape it behavior. Spectrum analysis can be used to understand and quantify the fundamental behavior of spacecraft analog telemetry and relate the behavior's frequency and phase to its time-series behavior through Fourier analysis.
    • The Design of an Application Used for Aircraft Stability Evaluation

      Leite, Nelson Paiva Oliveira; Lopes, Leonardo Mauricio de Faria; Walter, Fernando; Grupo Especial de Ensaios em Vôo; Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      One of the most important characteristics of an aircraft is its capability to return to its stable trimmed flight state after the occurrence of a disturbance or gust without the pilot intervention. The evaluation of such behavior, known as the aircraft stability, is divided into three sections: Lateral; Directional; and Longitudinal stabilities. The determination of the stability of an experimental aircraft requires the execution of a Flight Test Campaign (FTC). For the stability FTC the test bed should be equipped with a complete Flight Test Instrumentation (FTI) System which is typically composed by: a Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Data Acquisition System (DAS); A sensor set; An airborne transmitter; and A data recorder. In the real-time operations, live data received over the Telemetry Link, that are processed, distributed and displayed at the Ground Telemetry System (GTS) enhances the FTC safety level and efficiency. The due to the lack of reliability, recorded data is retrieved in the post mission operations to allow the execution of data reduction analysis. This process is time consuming because recorded data has to be downloaded, converted to Engineering Units (EU), sliced, filtered and processed. The reason for the usage of this less efficient process relies in the fact that the real-time Telemetry data is less reliable as compared to recorded data (i.e. noisier). The upcoming iNET technology could provide a very reliable Telemetry Link. Therefore the data reduction analysis can be executed with live telemetry data in quasi-real time after the receipt of all valid tests points. In this sense the Brazilian Flight Test Group (GEEV) along with EMBRAER and with the support of Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP) started the development of several applications. This paper presents the design of a tool used in the Longitudinal Static Stability Flight Tests Campaign. The application receives the Telemetry data over either a TCP/IP or a SCRAMnet Network, performs data analysis and test point validation in real time and when all points are gathered it performs the data reduction analysis and automatically creates Hyper Terminal Markup Language (HTML) formatted tests reports. The tool evaluation was executed with the instruction flights for the 2009 Brazilian Flight Test School (CEV). The result shows an efficiency gain for the overall FTC.
    • Development and Analysis Cloud

      Self, Lance; Kirtland Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The development and analysis cloud is a rapid development system being designed to support the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) Simulation & Technology Assessment Branch. The purpose is to isolate research, development, test, and evaluation of unique software within a Zone D enclave [1] to allow researchers and analysts to develop and test software free of the many IT requirements that hamper development and without risk of contaminating the overall Air Force network. The cloud system is being designed so researchers and analysts will utilize Software as a Service (SaaS) models. Such a model makes it transparent to users such things as where the software originates and any licensing concerns. Utilities, tools, and other enhancing software that users need are published and using them frees the developer to focus on their specific development efforts versus tertiary development modules.
    • A VHDL Implementation of the Soft Output Viterbi Algorithm

      Perrins, Erik; Werling, Brett W.; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      In this paper we present a VHDL implementation of the soft output Viterbi algorithm (SOVA). We discuss the usefulness of the SOVA in a serially concatenated convolutional code (SCCC) system. We explore various hardware design decisions along with their implications. Finally, we compare the simulated performance of the hardware implementation to a software reference model over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel for several bit widths and traceback window lengths.
    • A Mathematical Model for Instrumentation Configuration

      Jones, Charles H.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper describes a model of how to configure settings on instrumentation. For any given instrument there may be 100s of settings that can be set to various values. However, randomly selecting values for each setting is not likely to produce a valid configuration. By "valid" we mean a set of setting values that can be implemented by each instrument. The valid configurations must satisfy a set of dependency rules between the settings and other constraints. The formalization provided allows for identification of different sets of configurations settings under control by different systems and organizations. Similarly, different rule sets are identified. A primary application of this model is in the context of a multi-vendor system especially when including vendors that maintain proprietary rules governing their systems. This thus leads to a discussion of an application user interface (API) between different systems with different rules and settings.
    • Mixed Network Clustering with Multiple Ground Stations and Nodes Preferences

      Dean, Richard; Traore, Oumar; Gwanvoma, Stephen; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper presents a method for managing a Mixed Network with multiple ground stations and Test Articles (TA) preferences. The main difference between a Ground Station (cellular) network and the over the horizon (ad-hoc) network is that the ad-hoc method has no fixed infrastructure. This paper presents the computation and performance of a clustering technique for mobile nodes within the simulated mixed network environment with multiple ground stations and users preferences for those ground stations. This includes organization for multiple ground stations and for TA's gravitating toward a ground station of their choice on the basis of service and performance.
    • Mixed Network Interference Management with Multi-Distortion Measures

      Dean, Richard; Traore, Abdoulaye S.; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper presents a methodology for the management of interference and spectrum for iNET. It anticipates a need for heavily loaded test environments with Test Articles (TAs) operating over the horizon. In such cases, it is anticipated that fixed and ad hoc networks will be employed, and where spectrum reuse and interference will limit performance. The methodology presented here demonstrates how this can be accomplished in mixed networks.
    • Performance Analysis of iNET Using Forward Error Correction and OFDM

      Dean, Richard A.; Cole-Rhodes, Arlene; Boru, Sileshi; Maitra, Diptasree; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper shows the improvement in performance for OFDM modulation on aeronautical channels with the addition of convolution coding. OFDM is envisioned for use on the Integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (INET) on aeronautical channels that experience multipath fading which causes inter-symbol interference (ISI). Forward error correction coding, such as convolution coding (cc), significantly improves the bit error rate (BER) of OFDM with multipath fading. Theoretical and simulated results show a performance increase of up to 10dB with the introduction of coding gain and the cyclic prefix (cp). Such improvements can be applied to reduce errors or increase data rates for INET.
    • A400M: Instrumentation Architecture for Flight Test

      Freaud, Gilles; Airbus (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The Airbus A400M military transport plane carried out its first flight on December 2009 in Sevilla (Spain). This paper presents the flight and ground architecture designed to perform the flights tests campaign in Spain and in France. The core of the onboard flight test instrumentation is based on distributed network architecture already developed for A380 program. Airbus adapted civilian tests equipment for the A400M military program and various specific items have been designed specifically for this program. Two interconnected flight tests centres located in Sevilla (Spain) and Toulouse (France) are used for the flight tests campaign to ensure interoperability during the tests.
    • Wireless Tire Temperature Sensor Patch and System for Aircraft Landing Gear Testing

      Sulcs, Peter; Palmer, Carl; Naber, John; Jackson, Doug; Fuller, Lynn; Jones, Charles H.; Impact Technologies LLC; University of Louisville; Rochester Institute of Technology; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Testing aircraft brake and tire systems often results in tire temperatures that makes the aircraft unsafe to approach (due to explosion risk) for up to 45 minutes; this complicates cost effective test execution. This paper describes work on a wireless sensor system that measures multiple tire temperatures and transmits the data to someone at a safe distance (>300 ft). The solution consists of a sensor patch adhered directly to the tire which measures the tire temperature. The patch transmits these measurements to off-tire reader/relay nodes that subsequently sends the data to a system controller and display device.
    • Design and Analysis of a 3-D Gauss-Markov Model for Highly Dynamic Airborne Networks

      Sterbenz, James P. G.; Broyles, Dan; Jabbar, Abdul; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Accurate mobility models are needed to simulate the physical movement of nodes in a highly-dynamic aeronautical network. The fundamental problem with many synthetic mobility models is their random, memoryless behavior. Airborne ad hoc networks require a flexible memory-based 3-dimensional mobility model. We present a new 3-dimensional implementation of the Gauss-Markov mobility model for airborne telemetry network simulations, and compare its behavior to memoryless models such as random waypoint and random walk using the ns-3 simulator.
    • On the Use of Rapid Prototyping for Designing PCM/FM Demodulators in FPGAS

      Rice, Michael; Nelson, Brent; Padilla, Marc; Havican, Jared; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper describes the use of an efficient FPGA design flow, called Ogre, developed at BYU to design and implement PCM/FM demodulators. Ogre exploits the notion of reuse by taking advantage of a library of specially designed cores parameterized by XML metadata. A judicious choice of library cores, targeted to signal processing functions common to sampled data modulators and demodulators, reduces the design and test cycle time. We demonstrate this by using the tool to construct rapid prototypes of three different versions of FM demodulators and show that the bit error rate performance is comparable to demodulators on the market today.
    • L-3 Communications 3rd Generation Telemetry Transmitter ST-5000 L/S/C Band Architecture and Design Efforts

      Wang, Wearn-Juhn; Martz, David; Hutzel, Kevin; L-3 Communications Telemetry East; L-3 Communications Nova Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper presents the architecture and design efforts for L-3 3rd generation telemetry transmitter ST-5000. A Modulator/Upconverter with a low phase noise PLL synthesizer, a highly efficient and rugged power amplifier module with the multistage GaN HEMT devices and a high power density buck-boost power supply are discussed.