• International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 46 (2010)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10
    • Introduction to XidML 3.0 An Open XML Standard for Flight Test Instrumentation Description

      Cooke, Alan; Herbepin, Christian; ACRA Control; Eurocopter (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      A few years ago XidML was introduced as an open XML standard for capturing the meta-data associated with flight test instrumentation (FTI). This meta-data schema was broken down into elements for Parameter (name, range, units, offset-binary), Instrument (name, serial number, misses-to loss), Package (bits per word, words per minor-frame, rate) and Link (name, type) and so on. XidML remains one of the only published schema for FTI meta-data and with XidML 3.0 many simplifications have been introduced along with support for nested tree structures and a single instrument schema allowing anyone to define the validation for instruments from any vendor. This paper introduces the XidML schema and describers the benefits of XidML 3.0 in particular. It begins by giving a brief description of what XidML is and describes its history and motivation. The paper then outlines the main differences between XidML-3.0 and earlier versions, and how the XidML schema has been further refined to meet the challenges faced by the FTI community. As an example of usage the FTIManager software developed at Eurocopter will be briefly presented in order to illustrate the XidML ability to describe a multi-vendor FTI configuration.
    • L-3 Communications 3rd Generation Telemetry Transmitter ST-5000 L/S/C Band Architecture and Design Efforts

      Wang, Wearn-Juhn; Martz, David; Hutzel, Kevin; L-3 Communications Telemetry East; L-3 Communications Nova Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper presents the architecture and design efforts for L-3 3rd generation telemetry transmitter ST-5000. A Modulator/Upconverter with a low phase noise PLL synthesizer, a highly efficient and rugged power amplifier module with the multistage GaN HEMT devices and a high power density buck-boost power supply are discussed.
    • L-Band Coplanar Slot Loop Antenna for iNET Applications

      Nithianandam, Jeyasingh; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      In this article we present a design of an L-band slot loop antenna with a dielectric loaded conductor backed coplanar waveguide (CBCPW) feed. The coplanar slot loop antenna has a transmission line resonator in series. We used full wave electromagnetic simulations with Ansoft's high frequency structure simulator (HFSS) software in the design of the coplanar slot loop antenna. The series transmission line resonator helps to tune the coplanar slot loop antenna and reduce its size. We present here results on return loss and radiations patterns of coplanar slot loop antenna obtained from HFSS simulations.
    • Latest Status on Adding FTS Capability to a Missile Telemetry Section

      Kujiraoka, Scott; Fielder, Russell; Jones, Johnathan; Sandberg, Aliva; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Development is currently underway to produce a dual redundant Flight Termination System (FTS) capable Missile Telemetry Section. This FTS will mainly consist of a conformal wraparound antenna, two flight termination safe & arm (FTS&A) devices, two flight termination receivers (FTR), two explosive foil initiators (EFI) and destruct charge. This paper will discuss the current status of the development of these FTS components along with the process of obtaining the Flight Certification from Range and System Safety to fly this newly outfitted missile on a governmental test range.
    • Localization Using CDMA-MIMO Radar

      Iltis, Ronald A.; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      A MIMO radar system for target localization is presented which uses direct-sequence CDMA (DS-CDMA) waveforms. The received DS-CDMA signal at each antenna is expressed directly in terms of the target positions. The waveforms employed are Gold sequences, and hence are not exactly orthogonal. A generalized successive interference cancellation (GSIC) approach is used to resolve multiple scatterers and reduce clutter. Simulation results are presented which suggest the capability to detect weak scatterers in the presence of clutter using the cancellation method.
    • A Low Cost, Quick Reaction TM Acquisition System Solution for Deployed Testing

      Pozmantier, Ronald; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Design, development, fabrication, and deployment of an austere, deployable telemetry (TM) system, in only 3 1/2 weeks, will be discussed. This austere approach will be compared to a standard approach. TM candidate systems will be discussed along with exigencies and limitations (test geometry, link analysis, multiple test areas, schedule, cost, fabrication ...) that shaped their selection. Utilization of existing Radio Frequency (RF) systems in "unintended" applications will be discussed. System setup and BER testing with a simulated 'aircraft' will be presented, including observed multipath effects during testing, versus actual performance. Finally, benefits and test efficiencies garnered by having vehicle TM, real- time TM acquisition, processing and display, while deployed to a test area with no range instrumentation, will be presented.
    • Low-Complexity Finite Precision Decoders for Low-Density Parity-Check Codes

      Vasic, Bane; Declercq, David; Marcellin, Michael W.; Planjery, Shiva Kumar; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      We present a new class of finite-precision decoders for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. These decoders are much lower in complexity compared to conventional floating-point decoders such as the belief propagation (BP) decoder, but they have the potential to outperform BP. The messages utilized by the decoders assume values (or levels) from a finite discrete set. We discuss the implementation aspects as well as describe the underlying philosophy in designing these decoders. We also provide results to show that in some cases, only 3 bits are required in the proposed decoders to outperform floating-point BP.
    • Mapping Traffic Flow for Telemetry System Planning

      Kosbar, Kurt; Rivera, Grant; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Telemetry receivers must typically be located so that obstacles do not block the signal path. This can be challenging in geometrically complex indoor environments, such as factories, health care facilities, or offices. An accurate method for estimating the paths followed by typical telemetry transmitters in these environments can assist in system planning. It may be acceptable to provide marginal coverage to areas which are rarely visited, or areas which transmitters quickly transit. This paper discusses the use of the ant colony optimization and its application to the telemetry system planning problem.
    • A Mathematical Model for Instrumentation Configuration

      Jones, Charles H.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper describes a model of how to configure settings on instrumentation. For any given instrument there may be 100s of settings that can be set to various values. However, randomly selecting values for each setting is not likely to produce a valid configuration. By "valid" we mean a set of setting values that can be implemented by each instrument. The valid configurations must satisfy a set of dependency rules between the settings and other constraints. The formalization provided allows for identification of different sets of configurations settings under control by different systems and organizations. Similarly, different rule sets are identified. A primary application of this model is in the context of a multi-vendor system especially when including vendors that maintain proprietary rules governing their systems. This thus leads to a discussion of an application user interface (API) between different systems with different rules and settings.
    • Microcontroller Based Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Transmitter

      Kosbar, Kurt; Kanday, Balaji Madapuci; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper describes how a microcontroller based system can be used to generate the signals needed in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system transmitter. The limited computational speed of the microcontroller, along with other tasks which the controller may need to handle, places limits on the throughput of the system, and the complexity of the MIMO signal design. However this can be a low cost design, and the microcontroller can be used to perform other operations in the system, which may make it attractive in some applications.
    • Mixed Network Clustering with Multiple Ground Stations and Nodes Preferences

      Dean, Richard; Traore, Oumar; Gwanvoma, Stephen; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper presents a method for managing a Mixed Network with multiple ground stations and Test Articles (TA) preferences. The main difference between a Ground Station (cellular) network and the over the horizon (ad-hoc) network is that the ad-hoc method has no fixed infrastructure. This paper presents the computation and performance of a clustering technique for mobile nodes within the simulated mixed network environment with multiple ground stations and users preferences for those ground stations. This includes organization for multiple ground stations and for TA's gravitating toward a ground station of their choice on the basis of service and performance.
    • Mixed Network Interference Management with Multi-Distortion Measures

      Dean, Richard; Traore, Abdoulaye S.; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper presents a methodology for the management of interference and spectrum for iNET. It anticipates a need for heavily loaded test environments with Test Articles (TAs) operating over the horizon. In such cases, it is anticipated that fixed and ad hoc networks will be employed, and where spectrum reuse and interference will limit performance. The methodology presented here demonstrates how this can be accomplished in mixed networks.
    • Modular Field Programmable Gate Array Implementation of a MIMO Transmitter

      Kosbar, Kurt; Shekhar, Richa; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems have at least two transmitting antennas, each generating unique signals. However some applications may require three, four, or more transmitting devices to achieve the desired system performance. This paper describes the design of a scalable MIMO transmitter, based on field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology. Each module contains a FPGA, and associated digital-to-analog converters, I/Q modulators, and RF amplifiers needed to power one of the MIMO transmitters. The system was designed to handle up to a 10 Mbps data rate, and transmit signals in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz ISM band.
    • Multi-Band (L/S/C) Nested Concentric Cavity Coaxial Mode RF Feed for Autotrack Telemetry Systems

      Blake, George R.; Shea, Don F.; Hoory, Yossi; Krepner, Itzik; Pein, Joe; Nahshon, Ofir; Orbit Communications Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Recognizing the current and future requirements of extending Telemetry, TT&C, Earth Resources operations into the C-Band (4400-5200 MHZ) arena, Orbit Communication Systems and Orbit Communication Ltd. are currently designing and testing a Tri-Band auto-tracking / receive / transmit feed technology combining dual polarization with multiple frequency band coverage (L/S/C) into a single feed that can be fitted onto new or existing antenna systems. This technology reduces footprint and minimizes life cycle cost, both of which are important considerations for both our commercial and military customers. This technology has been applied to a number of systems, including flyaway, fixed (or teleport) and shipboard, and is readily applicable to ground and mobile applications. The multiband feed design consists of coaxial, concentric waveguide cavities operating in TE11 and TE21 modes (Patent Pending). The large outermost cavities of the feed operate in the L/S frequency band while the innermost cavities operate at C-Band. The antenna is fed with orthogonally polarized inputs/outputs enabling polarization diversity in all bands. The coaxial cavity feed is ideal for this application because the feed produces high-efficiency, near-optimum illumination patterns and coincident phase centers in all three bands simultaneously. Because it is a waveguide design, the input power levels used in Telemetry and Satellite systems do not present breakdown problems. This type of feed has proved to be an ideal multiband illuminator for parabolic reflectors, and therefore could be used in many military and commercial applications that require multiband operation.
    • Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Systems for Spinning Vehicles

      Kosbar, Kurt; Petersen, Samuel; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper investigates the performance of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) digital communication system, when the transmitter is located on a spinning vehicle. In particular, a 2x2 MIMO system is used, with Alamouti coding at the transmitter. Both Rayleigh and Rayleigh plus line-of-sight, or Rician, models combined with a deterministic model to simulate the channel. The spinning of the transmitting vehicle, relative to the stationary receive antennas, modulates the signal, and complicates the decoding and channel parameter estimation processes. The simulated system bit error rate is the primary performance metric used. The Alamouti channel code is shown to perform better than the maximal ratio receiver combining (MRRC) and single receiver (2x1) system in some circumstances and performs similarly to the MRRC in the broadside case.
    • Network System Integration: Migrating Legacy Systems into Network-Based Architectures

      Newton, Todd A.; Moodie, Myron L.; Thibodeaux, Ryan J.; Araujo, Maria S.; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The direction of future data acquisition systems is rapidly moving toward a network-based architecture. There is a handful of these network-based flight test systems already operating, and the current trend is catching on all over the flight test community. As vendors are churning out a whole new product line for networking capabilities, system engineers are left asking, "What do I do with all of this non-networked, legacy equipment?" Before overhauling an entire test system, one should look for a way to incorporate the legacy system components into the modern network architecture. Finding a way to integrate the two generations of systems can provide substantial savings in both cost and application development time. This paper discusses the advantages of integrating legacy equipment into a network-based architecture with examples from systems where this approach was utilized.
    • A New Standard for Temperature Measurement in an Aviation Environment

      Grossman, Hy; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Accurate temperature measurement is an essential requirement in modern aircraft data acquisition systems. Both thermocouples and Platinum resistance temperature detectors (RTD) are used for this purpose with the latter being both more accurate and more repeatable. To ensure that only the sensor limits the accuracy of a temperature measurement, end-to-end system accuracy forward of the sensor, should be significantly greater than that of the sensor itself. This paper describes a new digital signal processing (DSP) based system for providing precision RTD based temperature measurements with laboratory accuracy in an aviation environment. Advantages of the new system include, true 3-wire RTD measurement, linear temperature output, on-board ultra-precision resistance standards and transparent dynamic calibration.
    • Novel Angle of Arrival Algorithm for Use in Acoustical Positioning Systems with Non Uniform Receiver Arrays

      Lee, Hua; Utley, Christopher; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Traditional angle of arrival algorithms operate with uniform receiver arrays. Non-uniform arrays typically introduce significant elevation of computation complexity. This paper utilizes the double-integration method for the accurate estimation of the angle of arrival with non-uniform receiver arrays, while maintaining high computation efficiency. Because of the simplicity, the double-integration method is not significantly affected by the increase of the number of receivers or the non-uniform configuration. This approach allows us to perform high-speed high-accuracy estimation of the two-dimensional bearing angle without the constraints of structured receiver arrays, which is important to the realization of real-time tracking of mobile acoustic sources.
    • A Novel Antenna Design for Size Constrained Applications Requiring a Thin Conformal Antenna

      Cirineo, Anthony; David, Rick; Naval Air Warfare Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper will discuss the design of a new antenna element for use on vehicles requiring a thin conformal antenna such as on missiles or targets. The new element employs a partial shorted edge, which reduces the size of the element compared to a traditional microwave patch, while maintaining the impedance bandwidth.