• Switched for Networked FTI

      Cranley, Nikki; ACRA Control (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Ethernet technology offers numerous benefits for networked Flight Test Instrumentation (FTI) systems such as increased data rates, flexibility, scalability and most importantly interoperability owing to the inherent interface, protocol and technological standardization. In a networked FTI system, the switch is a key component that allows data to be routed between Data Acquisition Units (DAU's), networked recorders, data processing and analysis stations. This paper provides an introduction to network switching concepts with a focus on its operation in a networked FTI system. The features of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) and FTI switches are compared demonstrating the benefits of FTI switches in terms of reliability, routing, throughput, latency, and start-up delays.
    • A TDMA-MAC Protocol for a Seismic Telemetry-Network with Energy Constraints

      Mayer, Gerhard; Höller, Peter; Höller, Yvonne; University of Salzburg (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The requirements for a seismic telemetry-network are even more stringent than the well known problems of sensor networks. Existing medium access control (MAC) protocols suggest reducing energy consuming network activity by reducing costly transmissions and idle listening. Furthermore, it is required to set up communication patterns in different priority levels as well as ensuring fast handling of critical events. A protocol is proposed that operates with two parallel sets of time schedules in a time-division-multiple-access (TDMA) sense of periodic activity for listening and for transmitting. Synchronization packets sent from a central base station ensure optimal response times.
    • Telemetry Architectures for Future Earth Observation Missions: Over 1 Gbit/s in X-Band

      Guérin, A.; Lesthievent, G.; Issler, J.-L.; Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      High data rate payload telemetry of Earth Observation missions is classically done in the Earth Exploration Satellite (EES) X-band (8025-8400 MHz) with current max data rates about 600 Mbit/s. While higher frequency bands are often considered to offer higher data rates, this paper deals with on-board architectures that would allow data transmission at more than 1 Gbit/s in X-Band. It presents these new architectures based on spectrally efficient transmission systems and on simultaneous bipolarization transmission, their designs and their performances. Variable Coding and Modulation techniques are described. Interference between channels in cross-polarization is also evaluated.
    • Telemetry System for the Solar Miner VII

      Kosbar, Kurt; Guenther, Clinton; Mertens, Robert; Lewis, Adam; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This paper describes a telemetry system used in the Missouri S&T solar car, which competed in the American Solar Challenge. The system monitors parameters of a number of the on-board electronic and mechanical systems, and also the activities of the vehicle driver. This data is transmitted to a lead vehicle, where the support team analyzes the performance in real-time to optimize the vehicle's performance. In previous vehicles the data was displayed using a LabVIEW based user interface. In this work we will describe a custom software solution, which provides the team with additional flexibility to display and analyze the data.
    • The Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA) Enabling Technology for the Joint Mission Environment Test Capability (JMETC) in Live, Virtual, and Constructive (LVC) Environments

      Hudgins, Gene; Poch, Keith; Secondine, Juana; TENA Software Development Activity (SDA) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The Joint Mission Environment Test Capability (JMETC) is a distributed live, virtual, and constructive (LVC) testing capability developed to support the acquisition community and to demonstrate Net-Ready Key Performance Parameters (KPP) requirements in a customer-specific Joint Mission Environment (JME). JMETC, using the Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA), provides connectivity to the Services' distributed test capabilities and simulations, and Industry test resources. TENA is well-designed for supporting JMETC events through its architecture and software capabilities which enable interoperability among range instrumentation systems, facilities, and simulations. TENA, used in major exercises and distributed test events, is also interfacing with other emerging range systems.
    • Time Stamp Synchronization in Video Systems

      Yang, Hsueh-szu; Kupferschmidt, Benjamin; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Synchronized video is crucial for data acquisition and telecommunication applications. For real-time applications, out-of-sync video may cause jitter, choppiness and latency. For data analysis, it is important to synchronize multiple video channels and data that are acquired from PCM, MIL-STD-1553 and other sources. Nowadays, video codecs can be easily obtained to play most types of video. However, a great deal of effort is still required to develop the synchronization methods that are used in a data acquisition system. This paper will describe several methods that TTC has adopted in our system to improve the synchronization of multiple data sources.
    • Using Generic Telemetry Prognostic Algorithms for Launch Vehicle and Spacecraft Independent Failure Analysis Service

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Current failure analysis practices use diagnostic technology developed over the past 100 years of designing and manufacturing electrical and mechanical equipment to identify root cause of equipment failure requiring expertise with the equipment under analysis. If the equipment that failed had telemetry embedded, prognostic algorithms can be used to identify the deterministic behavior in completely normal appearing data from fully functional equipment used for identifying which equipment will fail within 1 year of use, can also identify when the presence of deterministic behavior was initiated for any equipment failure.
    • Using Oracol® for Predicting Long-Term Telemetry Behavior for Earth and Lunar Orbiting and Interplanetary Spacecraft

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Providing normal telemetry behavior predictions prior to and post launch will help to stop surprise catastrophic satellite and spacecraft equipment failures. In-orbit spacecraft fail from surprise equipment failures that can result from not having normal telemetry behavior available for comparison with actual behavior catching satellite engineers by surprise. Some surprise equipment failures lead to the total loss of the satellite or spacecraft. Some recovery actions from a surprise equipment failure increase spacecraft risk and involve decisions requiring a level of experience far beyond the responsible engineers.
    • Using Telemetry to Measure Equipment Reliability and Upgrading the Satellite and Launch Vehicle Factory ATP

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Satellite and launch vehicles continues to suffer from catastrophic infant mortality failures. NASA now requires satellite suppliers to provide on-orbit satellite delivery and a free satellite and launch vehicle in the event of a catastrophic infant mortality failure. The infant mortality failure rate remains high demonstrating that the factory acceptance test program alone is inadequate for producing 100% reliability space vehicle equipment. This inadequacy is caused from personnel only measuring equipment performance during ATP and performance is unrelated to reliability. Prognostic technology uses pro-active diagnostics, active reasoning and proprietary algorithms that illustrate deterministic data for prognosticians to identify piece-parts, components and assemblies that will fail within the first year of use allowing this equipment to be repaired or replaced while still on the ground. Prognostic technology prevents equipment failures and so is pro-active. Adding prognostic technology will identify all unreliable equipment prior to shipment to the launch pad producing 100% reliable equipment and will eliminate launch failures, launch pad delays, on-orbit infant mortalities, surprise in-orbit failures. Moving to the 100% reliable equipment extends on-orbit equipment usable life.
    • Using Variable Coding and Modulation to Increase Remote Sensing Downlink Capacity

      Sinyard, David; ViaSat, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Remote sensing satellites are typically low earth orbit, and often transmit the data gathered with the remote sensors to ground stations at locations on earth. These transmissions are band limited, and must operate within a 375 MHz bandwidth in the X-Band spectrum. This can present a limitation to the amount of data that can be transmitted during the short duration of a pass (typically less than 15 minutes). It is then highly desirable to increase the bandwidth efficiency of a system for data transmission in a remote sensing downlink. This paper describes a method of achieving higher efficiency by pre-programming the satellite to adjust the modulation and coding based in at least part on the slant range to the receiving ground station. The system uses variable coding and modulation to adjust to the slant range to the ground station to achieve a throughput increase of more than 50% of the data transferred during a pass using the currently accepted technology.
    • Verification, Validation and Completeness Support for Metadata Traceability

      Darr, Timothy; Fernandes, Ronald; Hamilton, John; Jones, Charles; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      The complexity of modern test and evaluation (T&E) processes has resulted in an explosion of the quantity and diversity of metadata used to describe end-to-end T&E processes. Ideally, it would be possible to integrate metadata in such a way that disparate systems can seamlessly access the metadata and easily interoperate with other systems. Unfortunately, there are several barriers to achieving this goal: metadata is often designed for use with specific tools or specific purposes; metadata exists in a variety of formats (legacy, non-legacy, structured and unstructured metadata); and the same information is represented in multiple ways across different metadata formats.
    • A VHDL Implementation of the Soft Output Viterbi Algorithm

      Perrins, Erik; Werling, Brett W.; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      In this paper we present a VHDL implementation of the soft output Viterbi algorithm (SOVA). We discuss the usefulness of the SOVA in a serially concatenated convolutional code (SCCC) system. We explore various hardware design decisions along with their implications. Finally, we compare the simulated performance of the hardware implementation to a software reference model over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel for several bit widths and traceback window lengths.
    • Visually Lossless Compression Based on JPEG2000 for Efficient Transmission of High Resolution Color Aerial Images

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Bilgin, Ali; Oh, Han; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Aerial image collections have experienced exponential growth in size in recent years. These high resolution images are often viewed at a variety of scales. When an image is displayed at reduced scale, maximum quantization step sizes for visually lossless quality become larger. However, previous visually lossless coding algorithms quantize the image with a single set of quantization step sizes, optimized for display at the full resolution level. This implies that if the image is rendered at reduced resolution, there are significant amounts of extraneous information in the codestream. Thus, in this paper, we propose a method which effectively incorporates multiple quantization step sizes, for various display resolutions, into the JPEG2000 framework. If images are browsed from a remote location, this method can significantly reduce bandwidth usage by only transmitting the portion of the codestream required for visually lossless reconstruction at the desired resolution. Experimental results for high resolution color aerial images are presented.
    • Web Service Applications in Future T&E Scenarios

      Sulewski, Joe; Hamilton, John; Darr, Timothy; Fernandes, Ronald; L-3 Telemetry East; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      In this paper, we discuss ways in which web services can be used in future T&E scenarios, from the initial hardware setup to making dynamic configuration changes and data requests. We offer a comparison of this approach to other standards such as SNMP, FTP, and RTSP, describing the pros and cons of each as well as how these standards can be used together for certain applications.
    • A Wideband Stacked Microstrip Patch Antenna for Telemetry Applications

      Nithianandam, Jeyasingh; Hategekimana, Bayezi; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      This research article reports a design of a wide band multilayer microstrip patch antenna (MSPA). Positions of a coaxial probe feed to main patch of the multilayer MSPA, widths and lengths of main and parasitic patches, and height of a Rohacell foam layer in the multilayer MSPA were optimized to achieve desired performance in L-band. The work also reports a design of a two-by-two array of multilayer MSPA. We present results on antenna radiation patterns and return loss obtained with full wave finite element simulations with Ansoft HFSS software and measurements with a vector network analyzer.
    • Wireless Power Transmission Using Microwave Technology

      Xin, Hao; Marcellin, Michael; Fuller, Robert; Nastase, Ryan; Elliott, Kaoru; Salhab, Anas; Campbell, Jonathan; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      As part of the Senior Capstone class held at the University of Arizona in the College of Engineering, the team was tasked to build a prototype that could power a simple electronic device wirelessly. The team succeeded in doing so and has proven that wireless power transmission could be a valuable tool for future use. There are a few difficulties to note and specifics will be given in the body of the report.
    • Wireless Tire Temperature Sensor Patch and System for Aircraft Landing Gear Testing

      Sulcs, Peter; Palmer, Carl; Naber, John; Jackson, Doug; Fuller, Lynn; Jones, Charles H.; Impact Technologies LLC; University of Louisville; Rochester Institute of Technology; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      Testing aircraft brake and tire systems often results in tire temperatures that makes the aircraft unsafe to approach (due to explosion risk) for up to 45 minutes; this complicates cost effective test execution. This paper describes work on a wireless sensor system that measures multiple tire temperatures and transmits the data to someone at a safe distance (>300 ft). The solution consists of a sensor patch adhered directly to the tire which measures the tire temperature. The patch transmits these measurements to off-tire reader/relay nodes that subsequently sends the data to a system controller and display device.
    • X-Tools: A Case Study in Building World Class Software

      Cooke, Alan; ACRA Control (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2010-10)
      X-Tools is a collection of utilities for validation, translation, editing and report generation designed to enable the Flight Test Instrumentation (FTI) community to quickly adopt the XidML 3.0 meta-data standard. This paper discusses the challenges of developing such software that meets the current and future needs of the FTI community, and meets the increasingly high quality standards expected of modern software. The paper first starts by discussing the needs of the FTI community and the specific functional requirements of software. These include the ability to fit in with legacy systems, the ability to handle many tens of thousands of parameters, support for new networked-based technologies and support for hardware from any vendor. The non-functional requirements of FTI orientated software are also described and it is suggested that the key non-functional requirements include testability, modifiability, extensibility and maintainability. Finally, as a case study, the X-Tools from ACRA CONTROL are presented. The paper discusses their design, and the tactics used to meet the functional and non-functional requirements of the FTI industry. The paper then outlines how the rigorous quality standards were met and describes the specific mechanisms used to verify the quality of the software.