• Tracking the Human Body Via a Wireless Network of Pyroelectric Sensor Arrays

      Kosbar, Kurt; Jolly, James; Bishop, Joe; Nanni, Emilio; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      This paper describes the design and construction of a low-cost wireless sensor network (WSN) intended to track a human body walking upright through its physical topology. The network consists of arrays of pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensors that can detect a moving body up to five meters away within a semicircular field of view. Data is gathered from these arrays and transmitted to a central processor that triangulates the body's position. Important characteristics of both the PIR sensors and the network's asynchronous nature are elaborated upon to illustrate how they affect the interpretation of the data.
    • A Cost Effective Residential Telemetry Network

      Kosbar, Kurt; Byland, Sean; Clarke, Craig; Gegg, Matt; Schumacher, Ryan; Strehl, Chris; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      As cost and power consumption of wireless devices decreases, it becomes increasingly practical to use wireless communications and control in residential settings. These networks share some of the same challenges and constraints as conventional telemetry networks. This particular project focused on using a commercial, off-the-shelf router to implement a residential automation system using Z-Wave wireless devices. The router can communicate status, and accept commands over a conventional 802.11 network, but does not require a remote host to operate the network. The router was reprogrammed using open source software, so it could issue commands, collect data, and monitor the Z-Wave network.
    • Wireless Sensor System for Airborne Applications

      Pellarin, Steve; Grossman, Hy; Musteric, Steven; Teletronics Technology Corporation; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Adding an instrumentation / telemetry system to a test article has historically required an intrusive installation. Power, wiring, and available space typically present significant challenges. There has been a long-standing need in the test and training community for a non-intrusive, flexible and modular instrumentation and telemetry system that can be installed on an aircraft or other test article without the need for permanent modifications. In addition, as available space in aircraft weapon bays, small weapons, and unmanned vehicles becomes a premium, the miniaturization of remote sensors and telemetry units becomes critical. This paper describes the current status of the Advanced Subminiature Telemetry System (ASMT) Initial Test Capability Project. It discusses the progress to date in fielding an operational, wireless sensor system that may be installed on the aircraft skin using an Electro-Cleavable adhesive as an alternative to conventional mounting methods. The wireless sensor utilizes the Wireless Communications Standard for Wireless Personal Area Network™ (WPAN™) IEEE 802.15 Working Group standard (commonly referred to as Bluetooth) to establish communication between the sensor and controller modules. Results of aircraft ground testing for EMI compatibility with aircraft systems will be presented. It is also expected that actual flight test results will be available by the time the paper goes to publication.
    • Wireless Sensor Networks: A Grocery Store Application

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Xin, Hao; Chaves, Andrea; Mayoral, Bruno; Park, Hyun-Jin; Tsang, Mark; Tunell, Sean; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      This paper explains the development of a wireless network system implemented to streamline grocery store checkout procedures. The design employs a wireless telemetry network consisting of a base station and wireless motes (Micaz MPR2400) that will be located on certain aisles, and attached to shopping carts. This system allows customers to scan items while they shop and uses cashiers for payment purposes only. The objective is to minimize the amount of processing performed by cashiers in order to reduce waiting times in line. The system was tested in a simulation environment and waiting times were reduced by 65%.
    • On Guaranteed Error Correction Capability of GLDPC Codes

      Vasic, Bane; Marcellin, Michael W.; Chilappagari, Shashi Kiran; Nguyen, Dung Viet; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      In this paper, it is shown that generalized LDPC codes can correct a linear fraction of errors under the parallel bit flipping algorithm when the underlying Tanner graph is a good expander. A lower bound on the size of variable node sets which have required expansion is established as a function of the column weight of the code, the girth of the Tanner graph and the error correction capability of the sub-code. It is also shown that the bound on the required expansion cannot be improved when the column weight is even by studying a class of trapping sets. An upper bound on the guaranteed error correction capability is found by investigating the size of smallest possible trapping sets.
    • An Analysis on the Coverage Distance of LDPC-Coded Free-Space Optical Links

      Borah, Deva K.; Luna, Ricardo; Tapse, Hrishikesh; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      We design irregular Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes for free-space optical (FSO) channels for different transmitter-receiver link distances and analyze the error performance for different atmospheric conditions. The design considers atmospheric absorption, laser beam divergence, and random intensity fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence. It is found that, for the same transmit power, a system using the designed codes works over much longer link distances than a system that employs regular LDPC codes. Our analysis is particularly useful for portable optical transceivers and mobile links.
    • Spectrally Efficient Concatenated Convolutional Codes with Continuous Phase Modulations

      Perrins, Erik; Damodaran, Kanagaraj; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      We develop bandwidth-efficient serially concatenated coded (SCC) continuous phasemodulation (CPM) techniques for aeronautical telemetry. The concatenated code consists of an inner and an outer code, separated by an interleaver, and is decoded using relatively simple near-optimum iterative decoding algorithms. CPM waveforms such as shaped-offset quadrature phase shift keying (SOQPSK) and pulse code modulation/ frequency modulation (PCM/FM), which are currently used in military satellite and aeronautical telemetry standards, can be viewed as inner codes due to their recursive nature. For the outer codes, we apply serially concatenated convolutional codes (SCCC) because of their large coding gains, high coding rates, and because their decoding algorithms are readily implemented. High-rate codes are of special interest in aeronautical telemetry applications due to recent reductions in available spectrum and ever-increasing demands on data rates. We evaluate the proposed coding schemes with a large set of numerical simulation results and make a number of recommendations based on these results.
    • Turbo Product Code with Continuous Phase Modulation

      Perrins, Erik; Damodaran, Kanagaraj; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      A basic problem statement in aeronautical telemetry has been to develop communication systems with good detection efficiency coupled with good spectral efficiency. Shaped-offset quadrature phase shift keying (SOQPSK) is a spectrally more efficient form of continuous phase modulation (CPM) as opposed to pulse code modulation/frequency modulation (PCM/FM). With these modulation techniques, we propose concatenated turbo product code (TPC) with CPM as a solution to our above problem statement. The performance of this turbo product coded CPM (TPC-CPM) system is simulated under coherent and non-coherent demodulation. Finally we present simulation results showing impressive coding gain performance of TPC-CPM over the AWGN channel.
    • Adjacent Channel Interference for Turbo-Coded APSK

      Rice, Michael; Shaw, Christopher; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      A study of the effects of interference caused by adjacent channels on the performance of turbo-coded 16- and 32-APSK. Included in our discussion is the spectral regrowth in the nonlinear power amplifier when driven by a non-constant envelope modulation. Ultimately, we present a set of channel spacing guidelines when using turbo-coded APSK for aeronautical telemetry.
    • WSMR Telemetry Capabilities: Today's Technology in Telemetry

      Aguirre, Zoe; Beltran, Gabe; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      White Sands Missile Range is the largest overland test range in North America occupying over 3,200 square miles in Southern New Mexico and nearby territory. One of the most critical test elements at White Sand Missile Range is it's capabilities in the telemetry field. Much significant advancement in technology has given WSMR and the entire electronics world the ability to achieve new levels of data acquisition that were not achievable a decade ago. And as attention to our nation's defense is of high priority, White Sands Missile Range provides to highest levels of telemetry competence in the Western Hemisphere.
    • Integration Issues in Network-Based Flight Test Systems

      Smith, Rachel; Newton, Todd; Moodie, Myron; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The current paradigm for data acquisition and recording systems for flight test applications does not meet today's demand for high reliability and timing performance. Such systems are better served through a network-based approach that can provide the capacity at which systems must acquire, record, process, and telemeter data. As with any complex system, this approach does have challenges. This paper describes the methods used to develop a network-centric flight test system, including simulators, IEEE 1588 time synchronization, network message protocols, and addresses the integration issues involved such as network topology and reliable latency-bounded throughput. Solutions used in overcoming these integration issues in previous system designs are also presented.
    • The Test and Training Enabling Architecture, TENA, Enabling Technology for the Joint Mission Environment Test Capability (JMETC) and Other Emerging Range Systems

      Hudgins, Gene; TENA Software Development Activity (SDA) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The Joint Mission Environment Test Capability (JMETC) is a distributed live, virtual, and constructive (LVC) testing capability developed to support the acquisition community and to demonstrate Net-Ready Key Performance Parameters (KPP) requirements in a customer-specific Joint Mission Environment (JME). JMETC, using the Test and Training Enabling Architecture, TENA, provides connectivity to the Services' distributed test capabilities and simulations, and industry test resources. TENA is well-designed for supporting JMETC events through its architecture and software capabilities which enable interoperability among range instrumentation systems, facilities, and simulations. TENA, used in major exercises and distributed test events, is also interfacing with other emerging range systems, such as iNET.
    • Automated Configuration and Validation of Instrumentation Networks

      Darr, Timothy; Fernandes, Ronald; Graul, Michael; Hamilton, John; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      This paper describes the design and implementation of a test instrumentation network configuration and verification system. Given a multivendor instrument part catalog that contains sensor, actuator, transducer and other instrument data; user requirements (including desired measurement functions) and technical specifications; the instrumentation network configurator will select and connect instruments from the catalog that meet the requirements and technical specifications. The instrumentation network configurator will enable the goal of mixing and matching hardware from multiple vendors to develop robust solutions and to reduce the total cost of ownership for creating and maintaining test instrumentation networks.
    • Extensions to the Instrument Hardware Abstraction Language (IHAL)

      Hamilton, John; Fernandes, Ronald; Graul, Michael; Darr, Timothy; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      In this paper we describe extensions to the Instrument Hardware Abstraction Language (IHAL). Since IHAL was first presented to ITC in 2006, a number of improvements were made to the design of IHAL. Major changes to the schema include splitting it into multiple XML Schema (XSD) files, separation of the description of instrumentation functions from the description of the hardware, and addition of a function pool.
    • XML Data Modeling for Network-Based Telemetry Systems

      Price, Jeremy C.; Moore, Michael S.; Malatesta, Bill A.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Network-based telemetry systems are often made up of many components from multiple vendors. The complexity involved in coordinating the design, integration, configuration, and operation of these systems has required instrumentation engineers to become experts in the tools and hardware from various vendors. Interoperation between the various tools and systems is very limited. One approach toward a more efficient method of managing these systems is to define a common language for describing the goals of the test, the measurements to be acquired, and the equipment that is available to compose a system. Through an open working group process, the iNET program is defining an eXtensible Markup Language (XML)-based language for describing instrumentation and telemetry systems. The language is designed with multiple aspects that allow filtered views into the instrumentation system, making the creation of the various parts of the documents more straight-forward and understandable to the type of user providing the information. This paper will describe the iNET metadata project, the model-driven approach that is being pursued, and the current state of the iNET metadata language.
    • Design Considerations for a Variable sample Rate Signal Conditioning Module

      Lee, Jeffrey C.; L-3 Communications - Telemetry-West (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Modern telemetry systems require flexible sampling rates for analog signal conditioning within telemetry encoders in order to optimize mission formats for varying data acquisition needs and data rate constraints. Implementing a variable sample rate signal conditioning module for a telemetry encoder requires consideration of several possible architectural topologies that place different system requirements on data acquisition modules within the encoder in order to maintain adequate signal fidelity of sensor information. This paper focuses on the requirements, design considerations and tradeoffs associated with differing architectural topologies for implementing a variable sample rate signal conditioning module and the resulting implications on the encoder system's data acquisition units.
    • Connecting Network-Based Data Acquisition Nodes to the Network

      Hildin, John; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Unlike communications protocols that are bus-based or multi-drop (e.g., CAIS Bus, Fibre Channel, RS-485), Ethernet relies on a point-to-point connection topology. One reason for this approach is to allow network nodes to negotiate their individual mode of communication with the network, i.e., link speed and duplexity. The goals of this paper are twofold. The first goal is to describe the process of link negotiation between nodes. This will include some of the details of how two physical layer devices establish communication. The second goal is to show how networked data acquisition nodes are physically connected within the overall system.
    • Using the GNU Radio Platform to Implement a Telemetry Receiver

      Newcomb, Gregory; Punnoose, Ratish J.; Sandia National Laboratories (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      GNU Radio is a flexible software radio platform that enables custom radio development. It consists of open-source signal processing blocks that can be integrated into custom applications. The Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) is a hardware board that works well with the GNU Radio suite. The schematics and firmware on this board are also open-source. As such, this GNU Radio and the USRP hardware form a rapid prototype platform for software radio based telemetry receivers.
    • Telemetry Re-Radiation System

      Cook, Paul; Natale, Louis; Teletronics Technology Corporation; Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Co. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Enclosed weapon bays on modern aircraft interfere with prelaunch, Flight Termination System verification during training test launches. Range safety personnel need to verify the functionality of the flight termination system prior to missile launch. The missile telemetry RF is highly attenuated when the aircraft missile bay doors are closed, limiting the range for which the aircraft can fly during training flights. Teletronics Technology Corporation and Lockheed Martin designed a system to provide telemetry data for these aircraft. The system re-radiates the telemetry from the missiles with the weapon bay doors closed. This paper describes the design considerations for this flexible system that accommodates multiple weapon systems in multiple weapon bay configurations.
    • Game Theory and Adaptive Modulation for Cognitive Radios

      Sharma, Guarav (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      In a multi-user cognitive radio network, there arises a need for coordination among the network users for efficient utilization of the available electromagnetic spectrum. While adaptive modulation alone helps cognitive radios actively determine the channel quality metric for the next transmission, Game theory combined with an adaptive modulation system helps them achieve mutual coordination among channel users and avoids any possible confusion about transmitting/receiving through a channel in the future. This paper highlights how the concepts of game theory and adaptive modulation can be incorporated in a cognitive radio framework to achieve better communication for telemetry applications.