• International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 44 (2008)

      Unknown author (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
    • The Optimization of Node Configuration in a Mixed Network for Quality of Service

      Dean, Richard; St. Ange, Laurie; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Morgan State University's iNET project is the development of a complete network architecture to enhance telemetry performance. Existing telemetry standards employ an RF link standard which allows only unidirectional data transfer from a test article (TA) to a ground station over a dedicated channel per TA. This limits the capacity of the system as resources are not efficiently utilized. Additionally, this standard does not allow data exchange between Over the Horizon TAs and the ground station. Their data must be recorded for subsequent retrieval by test engineers. The growth of telemetry demands that spectrum resources are maximized to increase transfer capacity. Real time data exchange capability is essential to success in telemetry. Bidirectional streaming of data to both near and over the horizon TAs is desired with no compromise of Quality of Service for real time applications. The network approach addresses these demands by allowing telemetry data to be multiplexed over a shared radio channel to and from the TAs. A mixed cellular and mobile adhoc network (mixed network) has been shown to satisfy the capacity and coverage elements of iNET requirements. This paper begins with an introduction to the iNET objective, continues with some background information on the major technical elements applied in this endeavor and finally shows that an optimum node configuration can be achieved and maintained in this mixed network using clustering techniques to include the joint optimization of the Quality of Service, Signal-to-Noise ratio, and Interference requirements as outlined by the iNET Needs Discernment.
    • Using Labview to Design a Payload Control System

      Horan, Stephen; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      As part of a project to develop small satellites, we have developed a combined ground station and flight computer control software package using LabVIEW. These computer systems are used to acquire data from sensors, control communications links, provide automatic data acquisition capabilities, and provide a user interface. In this paper, we will look at the state machines that describe both sets of software, the challenges for the flight computer development given the PC/104 format, and show how the final product was deployed.
    • A Cross-Layered Protocol Architecture for Highly-Dynamic Multihop Airborne Telemetry Networks

      Perrins, Erik; Sterbenz, James P. G.; Jabbar, Abdul; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Highly-dynamic mobile wireless communication presents unique challenges to the network at all layers, and requires the design of new protocols and mechanisms. We discuss a cross-layer aware internetwork architecture and the various mechanisms to enable reliable communication in high-velocity multihop scenarios. We introduce AeroNP, an IP-compatible network protocol that is designed for telemetry applications in an aeronautical environment. A new routing algorithm is presented that leverages location information combined with snooping to forward packets in the absence of stable end-to-end routes along, with an implicit congestion control mechanism.
    • Low-Cost Semi-Active Laser Seekers for US Army Application

      Hubbard, Keith; Katulka, Gary; Lyon, Dave; Petrick, Doug; Fresconi, Frank; Horwath, T. G.; Aberdeen Proving Ground; Dr. T. G. Horwath Consulting, Inc.; Dynamics Sciences, Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is exploring technologies to provide low-cost precision fires, applicable across both direct and indirect fire weapon systems. One of these applications involves a forward observer (FO) designating the target with a laser spot and a seeker on-board the munition detecting the reflected energy to allow terminal guidance. This approach, referred to as semi-active laser (SAL) guidance, has been utilized on numerous air-delivered munitions to include bombs, missiles and projectiles. However, the cost of these systems, driven by high quality optics, high sensitivity detectors and specialized electronics, has hampered their migration into gun-fired munitions such as mortars, artillery and grenades. To explore, develop and demonstrate minimal cost solutions, ARL invested in an Army Technical Objective (ATO) called Smaller, Lighter, Cheaper Munition Components (SLCMC). Specifically, SAL seeker hardware, predicated upon commercial components (COTS) and mass production techniques, is being prototyped for use with gun launched projectiles and laser target designators. The seeker system is comprised of several printed circuit board boards, a microprocessor, a quad-photo detector and, a molded optical lens unit. This seeker is designed to rapidly update the projectile boresight angle, interface with other strap-down sensors, and feed data into an on-board guidance, navigation & control (G,N&C) system to allow for projectile maneuvers. The seeker design and basic characteristics are discussed and presented through-out the paper and presentation.
    • Non-Traditional Uses of the CCSDS Space Link Extension (SLE) Protocol

      Safigan, Brian; Lokshin, Kirill; Puri, Amit; CVG/Avtec Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Space Link Extension (SLE) is a set of Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommended standards for extending the space link from ground stations to other spaceflight mission ground facilities over a ground network, allowing distributed access to space link telecommand and telemetry services. The currently defined and implemented SLE recommendations are oriented around a traditional CCSDS telecommand and telemetry protocol set, which uses discrete telecommand frames that are encapsulated in Communication Link Transmission Units (CLTUs) for transport over the ground segment, and telemetry data encapsulated in Transfer Frames at the spacecraft. This paper discusses several non-traditional uses of the SLE services. The applications addressed within lie outside the discrete packet telecommand/telemetry subset of the SLE recommendations that are fully defined by CCSDS. This paper will focus on the use of the currently implemented SLE model to enable the transport of other forms of data, which may be subject to various transmission constraints, across the ground segment.
    • Tracking the Human Body Via a Wireless Network of Pyroelectric Sensor Arrays

      Kosbar, Kurt; Jolly, James; Bishop, Joe; Nanni, Emilio; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      This paper describes the design and construction of a low-cost wireless sensor network (WSN) intended to track a human body walking upright through its physical topology. The network consists of arrays of pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensors that can detect a moving body up to five meters away within a semicircular field of view. Data is gathered from these arrays and transmitted to a central processor that triangulates the body's position. Important characteristics of both the PIR sensors and the network's asynchronous nature are elaborated upon to illustrate how they affect the interpretation of the data.
    • Design Considerations for a Variable sample Rate Signal Conditioning Module

      Lee, Jeffrey C.; L-3 Communications - Telemetry-West (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Modern telemetry systems require flexible sampling rates for analog signal conditioning within telemetry encoders in order to optimize mission formats for varying data acquisition needs and data rate constraints. Implementing a variable sample rate signal conditioning module for a telemetry encoder requires consideration of several possible architectural topologies that place different system requirements on data acquisition modules within the encoder in order to maintain adequate signal fidelity of sensor information. This paper focuses on the requirements, design considerations and tradeoffs associated with differing architectural topologies for implementing a variable sample rate signal conditioning module and the resulting implications on the encoder system's data acquisition units.
    • XML Data Modeling for Network-Based Telemetry Systems

      Price, Jeremy C.; Moore, Michael S.; Malatesta, Bill A.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Network-based telemetry systems are often made up of many components from multiple vendors. The complexity involved in coordinating the design, integration, configuration, and operation of these systems has required instrumentation engineers to become experts in the tools and hardware from various vendors. Interoperation between the various tools and systems is very limited. One approach toward a more efficient method of managing these systems is to define a common language for describing the goals of the test, the measurements to be acquired, and the equipment that is available to compose a system. Through an open working group process, the iNET program is defining an eXtensible Markup Language (XML)-based language for describing instrumentation and telemetry systems. The language is designed with multiple aspects that allow filtered views into the instrumentation system, making the creation of the various parts of the documents more straight-forward and understandable to the type of user providing the information. This paper will describe the iNET metadata project, the model-driven approach that is being pursued, and the current state of the iNET metadata language.
    • The Test and Training Enabling Architecture, TENA, Enabling Technology for the Joint Mission Environment Test Capability (JMETC) and Other Emerging Range Systems

      Hudgins, Gene; TENA Software Development Activity (SDA) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The Joint Mission Environment Test Capability (JMETC) is a distributed live, virtual, and constructive (LVC) testing capability developed to support the acquisition community and to demonstrate Net-Ready Key Performance Parameters (KPP) requirements in a customer-specific Joint Mission Environment (JME). JMETC, using the Test and Training Enabling Architecture, TENA, provides connectivity to the Services' distributed test capabilities and simulations, and industry test resources. TENA is well-designed for supporting JMETC events through its architecture and software capabilities which enable interoperability among range instrumentation systems, facilities, and simulations. TENA, used in major exercises and distributed test events, is also interfacing with other emerging range systems, such as iNET.
    • Automated Configuration and Validation of Instrumentation Networks

      Darr, Timothy; Fernandes, Ronald; Graul, Michael; Hamilton, John; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      This paper describes the design and implementation of a test instrumentation network configuration and verification system. Given a multivendor instrument part catalog that contains sensor, actuator, transducer and other instrument data; user requirements (including desired measurement functions) and technical specifications; the instrumentation network configurator will select and connect instruments from the catalog that meet the requirements and technical specifications. The instrumentation network configurator will enable the goal of mixing and matching hardware from multiple vendors to develop robust solutions and to reduce the total cost of ownership for creating and maintaining test instrumentation networks.
    • Integration Issues in Network-Based Flight Test Systems

      Smith, Rachel; Newton, Todd; Moodie, Myron; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The current paradigm for data acquisition and recording systems for flight test applications does not meet today's demand for high reliability and timing performance. Such systems are better served through a network-based approach that can provide the capacity at which systems must acquire, record, process, and telemeter data. As with any complex system, this approach does have challenges. This paper describes the methods used to develop a network-centric flight test system, including simulators, IEEE 1588 time synchronization, network message protocols, and addresses the integration issues involved such as network topology and reliable latency-bounded throughput. Solutions used in overcoming these integration issues in previous system designs are also presented.
    • Networked Data Acquisition Systems for the Army FCS Program

      Pesciotta, Eric; Roach, John; Sadia, Nathan; Yang, Hsueh-szu; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Teletronics Technology Corp. has been involved in the research and development of networked data acquisition systems for use in airborne instrumentation for several years. Recently, TTC successfully applied the advanced technology that was developed during these airborne efforts to a terrestrial application involving Army ground vehicles. The Future Combat Systems Program (FCS) for the U.S. Army recently solicited a networked-based solution to the problem of acquiring real-time data specific to the training of soldiers operating visual targeting systems within Bradley Armored Vehicles and Abrams Battle Tanks. This paper describes the High-Speed Digital Recording system, a network-based data acquisition system designed to allow for the recording of high-resolution (up to 1600x1280) RGB video, user-selected Ethernet packets, along with audio and GPS time information.
    • An Economic Method to Increase Equipment Rack Shielding

      Ridgeway, Robert; Newton, Henry; Digi International Inc.; National Radio Astronomy Observatory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The ALMA Project is developing a 66 antenna radio astronomy array on a 5000 meter mountain in Chile. Radio astronomy depends on a radio frequency quiet area. The remote mountain top is ideal for such a radio astronomy array. However, RFI from equipment inside one type of antenna had a path loss of 13 dB to its feed area, when measured at 100 GHz. Carbon filled foam is being used to enhance shielding to reduce the negative effect of local radio frequency interference (RFI). This foam has been measured and verified to be effective from 1 to 100 GHz.
    • Using the GNU Radio Platform to Implement a Telemetry Receiver

      Newcomb, Gregory; Punnoose, Ratish J.; Sandia National Laboratories (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      GNU Radio is a flexible software radio platform that enables custom radio development. It consists of open-source signal processing blocks that can be integrated into custom applications. The Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) is a hardware board that works well with the GNU Radio suite. The schematics and firmware on this board are also open-source. As such, this GNU Radio and the USRP hardware form a rapid prototype platform for software radio based telemetry receivers.
    • Scalable Perceptual Image Coding for Remote Sensing Systems

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Bilgin, Ali; Oh, Han; Lalgudi, Hariharan G.; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      In this work, a scalable perceptual JPEG2000 encoder that exploits properties of the human visual system (HVS) is presented. The algorithm modifies the final three stages of a conventional JPEG2000 encoder. In the first stage, the quantization step size for each subband is chosen to be the inverse of the contrast sensitivity function (CSF). In bit-plane coding, two masking effects are considered during distortion calculation. In the final bitstream formation step, quality layers are formed corresponding to desired perceptual distortion thresholds. This modified encoder exhibits superior visual performance for remote sensing images compared to conventional JPEG2000 encoders. Additionally, it is completely JPEG2000 Part-1 compliant, and therefore can be decoded by any JPEG2000 decoder.
    • Technology Trades in IP-Based Telemetry Networks

      Kenney, Joshua D.; Moodie, Myron L.; Ragsdale, Gary L.; Grace, Thomas B.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project established a test article standards working group to define open standards for network components and interfaces for test articles in the aeronautical test environment. Its aim is to utilize the growth of Internet technologies for telemetry networks and ensure interoperability among network devices. This paper describes the technology background and the current technology trades of an IP-based network paradigm used in producing standards for test article networks. Specifically, the paper will include descriptions of selected network technologies as applied to test data and time distribution within test articles.
    • Designing an Object-Oriented Data Processing Network

      Yang, Hsueh-szu; Sadia, Nathan; Kupferschmidt, Benjamin; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      There are many challenging aspects to processing data from a modern high-performance data acquisition system. The sheer diversity of data formats and protocols makes it very difficult to create a data processing application that can properly decode and display all types of data. Many different tools need to be harnessed to process and display all types of data. Each type of data needs to be displayed on the correct type of display. In particular, it is very hard to synchronize the display of different types of data. This tends to be an error prone, complex and very time-consuming process. This paper discusses a solution to the problem of decoding and displaying many different types of data in the same system. This solution is based on the concept of a linked network of data processing nodes. Each node performs a particular task in the data decoding and/or analysis process. By chaining these nodes together in the proper sequence, we can define a complex decoder from a set of simple building blocks. This greatly increases the flexibility of the data visualization system while allowing for extensive code reuse.
    • A Constraint-Based Approach to Predictive Maintenance Model Development

      Gorman, Joe; Takata, Glenn; Patel, Subhash; Grecu, Dan; Charles River Analytics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Predictive maintenance is the combination of inspection and data analysis to perform maintenance when the need is indicated by unit performance. Significant cost savings are possible while preserving a high level of system performance and readiness. Identifying predictors of maintenance conditions requires expert knowledge and the ability to process large data sets. This paper describes a novel use of constraint-based data-mining to model exceedence conditions. The approach extends the extract, transformation, and load process with domain aggregate approximation to encode expert knowledge. A data-mining workbench enables an expert to pose hypotheses that constrain a multivariate data-mining process.
    • Application of a High Data Rate Modem (HDRM)

      Orndorff, Tim; Puri, Amit; Smiley, Mike; Connell, John; CVG/Avtec Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      A traditional Receiver, Modulator, Bit Synchronizer, Frame Synchronizer and Front-End Processor (FEP) with local RAID storage from numerous satellite ground station equipment providers is typically used to satisfy current needs in mission ground stations. The development of Software Defined Radios (SDRs) with reprogrammable personalities has led to the consolidation of these processing elements, and will become the standard for years to follow. CVG-Avtec Systems, Inc. has been a pioneer in the SDR industry, integrating several ground station functions into a one system solution. Its High Data Rate Modem (HDRM) architecture replaces racks of previous generation equipment, providing greater functionality in a smaller footprint. The Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based HDRM is a one system solution that inputs Intermediate Frequency (IF) data and outputs packetized data over IP for data distribution. These new architectures are capitalizing on the revolution in electronics and networking technologies. This paper will discuss the architecture of the HDRM and how it optimizes ground station data processing in a high-rate environment.