• Sanitization of IRIG 106 Chapter 10 Storage Media

      Berard, Alfredo; Cogan, Catherine; Klein, Lorin; Massey, Heath; Williams, Rick; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      For the last 30-years, magnetic tape systems have served as the primary means of recording data from airborne instrumentation systems. The IRIG 106 Chapter 10 Digital Recording standard [1] introduced and developed by the Range Commanders Council (RCC) Telemetry Group (TG) has served as a common ground for industry to develop technology for replacing those tape-based recording systems with digital systems and recording data onto Solid State Devices. Data assurance and validation has been paramount in the development. This paper examines the challenge of sanitizing and downgrading media that is Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) and is utilized by test organization in the operational communities as well as the Major Range Test Facility Base (MRTFB) and other test ranges.
    • Launch Vehicle and Satellite Independent Failure Analysis Using Telemetry Prognostic Algorithms

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Unique vehicle designs encourage the use of the builder to complete its own failure analysis. Current failure analysis practices use telemetry and diagnostic technology developed over the past 100 years to identify root-cause. When telemetry isn't available speculation is used to create a list of prioritized, potential causes. Prognostic technology consists of generic algorithms that identify equipment that has failed and is going to fail while the equipment is still at the factory allowing the equipment to be repaired or replaced while it is still on the ground for any spacecraft, satellite, launch vehicle and missile.
    • Hardware Discussion of a MIMO Wireless Communication System Using Orthogonal Space Time Block Codes

      Potter, Chris; Kosbar, Kurt; Panagos, Adam; Missouri University of Science and Technology; Dynetics, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Although multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems have become increasingly popular, the existence of real time results to compare with those predicted by theory is still surprisingly limited. In this work the hardware description of a MIMO wireless communication system using orthogonal space time block codes (OSTBC) is discussed for two antennas at both the transmitter and receiver. A numerical example for a frequency flat time correlated channel is given to show the impact of channel estimation.
    • End-to-End Disruption-Tolerant Transport Protocol Issues and Design for Airborne Telemetry Networks

      Perrins, Erik; Sterbenz, James P. G.; Rohrer, Justin P.; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Networks of airborne nodes provide unique challenges to end-to-end communication, in particular due to the highly dynamic topology and time-varying connectivity of high velocity nodes, and unreliability of the wireless communication channel. This paper explores the issues and presents a design for a domain-specific transport protocol targeted to multihop network that interconnects high-velocity airborne nodes with the telemetry application of returning sensor data with high reliability.
    • Current Status of Adding GPS Tracking Capability to a Missile Telemetry Section

      Kujiroaoka, Scott R.; Fielder, Russell G.; Sandberg, Alvia D.; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Past presented papers have discussed the integration efforts of incorporating Central Test & Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) sponsored Joint Advanced Missile Instrumentation (JAMI) components (namely the JAMI TSPI Unit-JTU), Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) parts (e.g. ARTM Tier I SO-QPSK Transmitter, Encryptor and Thermal Battery), and in-house developed devices (such as PCM Encoder and Dual Band Antenna) into a five-inch diameter Missile Telemetry (TM) Section. A prototype of this TM Section has been built up and integrated into an All Up Round (AUR) Missile and twice flown as a Captive Carried Test Missile (CTM) on an F/A-18 jet with great success. This TM Section is in the process of undergoing flight qualification testing (including environmental and electro-magnetic interference-EMI tests). After which it will be ready for mass production. This paper will detail these current efforts. In addition, the effort to upgrade some Navy and Air Force Test Ranges (with JAMI Ground Stations and Decommutators/Demodulators) to track and gather data from this Missile containing the new TM section will be discussed. Future plans to incorporate Flight Termination System (FTS) capabilities into the TM section will be covered as well.
    • Spectral Analysis for Spacecraft Analog Telemetry Behavior

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Spectral analysis decomposes a signal into its frequency components. Engineers can use spectral analysis to decompose Satellite and spacecraft telemetry behavior from space to provide a new tool to advance space vehicle reliability. The same tools used by RF and digital signal design engineers for identify signal integrity offers new understanding for telemetry behavior from space. Analysis illustrates the harmonic properties of telemetry behavior as a function of time, amplitude, frequency and phase. Expanding spectral analysis to satellites and spacecraft illustrates their fundamental harmonic properties. This information can be used to improve vehicle reliability and define vehicle and ground station telemetry system design performance parameters and reduce risk of catastrophic satellite and spacecraft failure.
    • In-Bore Acceleration Measurements of an Electromagnetic Gun Launcher

      Bukowski, Edward F.; Brown, T. Gordon; Brosseau, Tim; Brandon, Fred J.; Aberdeen Proving Ground; Dynamic Science Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The US Army Research Laboratory has been involved in the design and implementation of electromagnetic gun technology for the past several years. One of the primary factors of this research is an accurate assessment of in-bore structural loads on the launch projectiles. This assessment is essential for the design of mass-efficient launch packages for electromagnetic guns. If not properly accounted for, projectile failure can result. In order to better understand the magnitude of the in-bore loads, a data-recorder was integrated with an armature and on-board payload that included tri-directional accelerometers and magnetic field sensors. Several packages were launched from an electromagnetic railgun located at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. Substantial effort was placed on soft-catching the rounds in order to facilitate data recovery. Analysis of the recovered data provided acceleration and magnetic field data acquired during the launch event.
    • Non-Traditional Uses of the CCSDS Space Link Extension (SLE) Protocol

      Safigan, Brian; Lokshin, Kirill; Puri, Amit; CVG/Avtec Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Space Link Extension (SLE) is a set of Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommended standards for extending the space link from ground stations to other spaceflight mission ground facilities over a ground network, allowing distributed access to space link telecommand and telemetry services. The currently defined and implemented SLE recommendations are oriented around a traditional CCSDS telecommand and telemetry protocol set, which uses discrete telecommand frames that are encapsulated in Communication Link Transmission Units (CLTUs) for transport over the ground segment, and telemetry data encapsulated in Transfer Frames at the spacecraft. This paper discusses several non-traditional uses of the SLE services. The applications addressed within lie outside the discrete packet telecommand/telemetry subset of the SLE recommendations that are fully defined by CCSDS. This paper will focus on the use of the currently implemented SLE model to enable the transport of other forms of data, which may be subject to various transmission constraints, across the ground segment.
    • Key Components in a Networked Data Acquisition System

      Corry, Diarmuid; ACRA Control Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      With the growing interest in networked data acquisition there has been a lot of focus on networked data acquisition systems. However, the requirements of a flight test instrumentation system go beyond networked DAU's. For example, a FTI network fabric has particular requirements for switches, time grandmasters, recorders, data servers and network terminals to the ground. This paper discusses these components and how they inter-operate in a single, fully networked system and discusses some FTI oriented requirements for same. Where relevant, we discuss the results of some experiments with network latencies; packet losses etc. and discuss some enhancements that can contribute to improved efficiency for flight test programs.
    • A Constraint-Based Approach to Predictive Maintenance Model Development

      Gorman, Joe; Takata, Glenn; Patel, Subhash; Grecu, Dan; Charles River Analytics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Predictive maintenance is the combination of inspection and data analysis to perform maintenance when the need is indicated by unit performance. Significant cost savings are possible while preserving a high level of system performance and readiness. Identifying predictors of maintenance conditions requires expert knowledge and the ability to process large data sets. This paper describes a novel use of constraint-based data-mining to model exceedence conditions. The approach extends the extract, transformation, and load process with domain aggregate approximation to encode expert knowledge. A data-mining workbench enables an expert to pose hypotheses that constrain a multivariate data-mining process.
    • An Economic Method to Increase Equipment Rack Shielding

      Ridgeway, Robert; Newton, Henry; Digi International Inc.; National Radio Astronomy Observatory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The ALMA Project is developing a 66 antenna radio astronomy array on a 5000 meter mountain in Chile. Radio astronomy depends on a radio frequency quiet area. The remote mountain top is ideal for such a radio astronomy array. However, RFI from equipment inside one type of antenna had a path loss of 13 dB to its feed area, when measured at 100 GHz. Carbon filled foam is being used to enhance shielding to reduce the negative effect of local radio frequency interference (RFI). This foam has been measured and verified to be effective from 1 to 100 GHz.
    • Technology Trades for Management of Telemetry Network Systems

      Bertrand, Allison R.; Grace, Thomas B.; Abbott, Ben A.; Saylor, Kase J.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The Integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) Project established a standards working group to address the integrated management of telemetry network systems and to ensure interoperability among various pieces of equipment. The group has been studying the benefits and drawbacks of various system management technologies with the goal of identifying a set of management interfaces which will provide long-range benefit to a large and diverse telemetry test system. This paper discusses control, configuration, status, performance, and fault management. It addresses these from several viewpoints such as multi-test articles, multi-ranges, and dynamic test environments.
    • System Management in Network-Based Telemetry Systems

      Bertrand, Allison R.; Moore, Michael S.; Abbott, Ben A.; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Network-based telemetry systems are increasingly being used to improve the flexibility and longevity of flight test systems. Modern network-based flight test systems utilize large numbers of devices including high-speed network switches, data acquisition devices, recorders, and telemetry interfaces, all of which must be managed in a coordinated fashion. The move to network-based testing provides the ability to build a standards-based System Management interface which can status and control a diverse set of devices. The benefits include the ability to easily tailor System Management tools to support many different styles of user interactions and to quickly integrate new types of devices. While the new capabilities presented by System Management are exciting, the very openness of the system presents challenges to ensure that future growth will be seamlessly supported. This paper will discuss issues encountered while implementing flight test System Management tools for a network-based telemetry system.
    • Managing Instrumentation Networks

      Pesciotta, Eric; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      As traditional data acquisition systems give way to network-based data acquisition systems a new approach to instrumentation configuration, management and analysis is required. Today, most flight test programs are supported by traditional instrumentation systems and software. Pockets of network-based systems exist but are typically entirely new, closed systems. Relatively soon, test articles will emerge with a mixture of equipment. The merger of traditional and networked instrumentation is inevitable. Bridging the gap in software tools is a non-trivial task. Network-based data acquisition systems provide expanded flexibility and capabilities well beyond traditional systems. Yet pre-existing equipment requires traditional configuration and analysis tools. Traditional flight test software alone cannot fully exploit the added benefits gained from such mergers. The need exists for a new type of flight test software that handles existing instrumentation while also providing additional features to manage a network of devices. Network management is new to flight test software but a thoughtful implementation can facilitate easy transition to these modern systems. This paper explores the technologies required to satisfy traditional system configuration as well as the less understood aspects of network management and analysis. Examples of software that meet or exceed these requirements are provided.
    • IP-Based Networking as Part of the Design of a Payload Control System

      Horan, Stephen; Aaronscooke, Ryan; Jaramillo, Daniel; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      As part of a project to develop small satellites, we have developed a combined ground station and flight computer that use IP-based networking for the command and telemetry data communications. The network uses a private IP network between the payload and the ground-station. Commands are sent to the payload as UDP short message packets. Status and real-time telemetry are sent as UDP text strings. Production data are sent as files using a ftp-type of data exchange. Production data types include numeric data (sensor data) and JPEG-formatted picture data (full pictures and thumbnails). Details of the software used, challenges of making the system work over a low-quality radio link, and integration with the operating system will be discussed.
    • Analysis and Application Scenarios for Telemetry Data Transmission and Synchronisation over Wireless LAN

      Cranley, Nikki; Corry, Diarmuid; ACRA Control Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The use of IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN (WLAN) technology offers numerous advantages over wired Ethernet including high bandwidth, device mobility, and the elimination of network wiring within the aircraft. With such benefits, there are certain caveats associated with the ability and performance of WLAN technology to carry time-sensitive and critical telemetry data using current IEEE 802.11 WLAN standards. In this paper, the limitations of WLAN for real-time data transmission are experimentally investigated. In particular, it will be shown how the fundamental wireless access mechanism and contention impact on the WLANs ability to carry real-time data. Although telemetry data is constant, the wireless access mechanism causes the WLAN throughput and per-packet delays to vary over time. Moreover, with the increased popularity of the IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP), the ability of the WLAN to provide time synchronisation is investigated. It is shown that asymmetric data loads on the uplink and downlink introduce synchronization errors. To mitigate some of these issues, this paper will discuss how the Quality of Service (QoS) Enabling WLAN standard, IEEE 802.11e, can be used to provide differentiated services and prioritised transmission for critical data.
    • Networked Data Acquisition Systems for the Army FCS Program

      Pesciotta, Eric; Roach, John; Sadia, Nathan; Yang, Hsueh-szu; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Teletronics Technology Corp. has been involved in the research and development of networked data acquisition systems for use in airborne instrumentation for several years. Recently, TTC successfully applied the advanced technology that was developed during these airborne efforts to a terrestrial application involving Army ground vehicles. The Future Combat Systems Program (FCS) for the U.S. Army recently solicited a networked-based solution to the problem of acquiring real-time data specific to the training of soldiers operating visual targeting systems within Bradley Armored Vehicles and Abrams Battle Tanks. This paper describes the High-Speed Digital Recording system, a network-based data acquisition system designed to allow for the recording of high-resolution (up to 1600x1280) RGB video, user-selected Ethernet packets, along with audio and GPS time information.
    • A Data-Oriented Software Architecture for Telemetry

      Joshi, Rajive; Real-Time Innovations, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Building modern telemetry systems is fraught with challenges involving subsystem integration, the role and management of data, scalability issues, disparate technologies, concerns about cost-effectiveness and more. This article addresses today's challenges with a solution based on adopting a data-oriented architecture and relying on a standards-based, integrated high-performance middleware platform with standards-based programmable components. Key to the solution is integrating around the system information model instead of the application or technology infrastructure. A standards-based middleware infrastructure that breaks away from traditional assumptions is at the core of this approach. The article also presents successful applications of data-oriented architecture using standards-based middleware.
    • A Cross-Layered Protocol Architecture for Highly-Dynamic Multihop Airborne Telemetry Networks

      Perrins, Erik; Sterbenz, James P. G.; Jabbar, Abdul; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Highly-dynamic mobile wireless communication presents unique challenges to the network at all layers, and requires the design of new protocols and mechanisms. We discuss a cross-layer aware internetwork architecture and the various mechanisms to enable reliable communication in high-velocity multihop scenarios. We introduce AeroNP, an IP-compatible network protocol that is designed for telemetry applications in an aeronautical environment. A new routing algorithm is presented that leverages location information combined with snooping to forward packets in the absence of stable end-to-end routes along, with an implicit congestion control mechanism.
    • Real-Time Transport Protocols for Telemetry Data and Signaling

      Cranley, Nikki; Corry, Diarmuid; ACRA Control Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      There are many network transport and application layer protocols that have been developed and designed for the delivery of time-sensitive and critical data over best-effort Ethernet networks. Choosing the appropriate protocols is crucial to ensuring the performance of the network for data transmission. Network layer protocols, such as TCP/IP or UDP/IP, determine the reliability of the data transmission while application layer protocols are designed to enhance the services of the underlying transport protocol. This paper will compare the Quality of Service (QoS) tradeoffs for both UDP and TCP. In this paper it is shown that UDP or TCP alone is insufficient to meet the transmission requirements of telemetry data and to overcome these limitations, an application layer protocol is required to enhance the delivery of real-time sensitive data. This paper presents the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) and proposes a RTP telemetry profile payload definition that provides complete payload self-description and up to 98% packetization efficiency.