• International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 44 (2008)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10
    • Networked Data Acquisition Systems for the Army FCS Program

      Pesciotta, Eric; Roach, John; Sadia, Nathan; Yang, Hsueh-szu; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Teletronics Technology Corp. has been involved in the research and development of networked data acquisition systems for use in airborne instrumentation for several years. Recently, TTC successfully applied the advanced technology that was developed during these airborne efforts to a terrestrial application involving Army ground vehicles. The Future Combat Systems Program (FCS) for the U.S. Army recently solicited a networked-based solution to the problem of acquiring real-time data specific to the training of soldiers operating visual targeting systems within Bradley Armored Vehicles and Abrams Battle Tanks. This paper describes the High-Speed Digital Recording system, a network-based data acquisition system designed to allow for the recording of high-resolution (up to 1600x1280) RGB video, user-selected Ethernet packets, along with audio and GPS time information.
    • An Economic Method to Increase Equipment Rack Shielding

      Ridgeway, Robert; Newton, Henry; Digi International Inc.; National Radio Astronomy Observatory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The ALMA Project is developing a 66 antenna radio astronomy array on a 5000 meter mountain in Chile. Radio astronomy depends on a radio frequency quiet area. The remote mountain top is ideal for such a radio astronomy array. However, RFI from equipment inside one type of antenna had a path loss of 13 dB to its feed area, when measured at 100 GHz. Carbon filled foam is being used to enhance shielding to reduce the negative effect of local radio frequency interference (RFI). This foam has been measured and verified to be effective from 1 to 100 GHz.
    • A Cross-Layered Protocol Architecture for Highly-Dynamic Multihop Airborne Telemetry Networks

      Perrins, Erik; Sterbenz, James P. G.; Jabbar, Abdul; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Highly-dynamic mobile wireless communication presents unique challenges to the network at all layers, and requires the design of new protocols and mechanisms. We discuss a cross-layer aware internetwork architecture and the various mechanisms to enable reliable communication in high-velocity multihop scenarios. We introduce AeroNP, an IP-compatible network protocol that is designed for telemetry applications in an aeronautical environment. A new routing algorithm is presented that leverages location information combined with snooping to forward packets in the absence of stable end-to-end routes along, with an implicit congestion control mechanism.
    • Non-Traditional Uses of the CCSDS Space Link Extension (SLE) Protocol

      Safigan, Brian; Lokshin, Kirill; Puri, Amit; CVG/Avtec Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Space Link Extension (SLE) is a set of Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommended standards for extending the space link from ground stations to other spaceflight mission ground facilities over a ground network, allowing distributed access to space link telecommand and telemetry services. The currently defined and implemented SLE recommendations are oriented around a traditional CCSDS telecommand and telemetry protocol set, which uses discrete telecommand frames that are encapsulated in Communication Link Transmission Units (CLTUs) for transport over the ground segment, and telemetry data encapsulated in Transfer Frames at the spacecraft. This paper discusses several non-traditional uses of the SLE services. The applications addressed within lie outside the discrete packet telecommand/telemetry subset of the SLE recommendations that are fully defined by CCSDS. This paper will focus on the use of the currently implemented SLE model to enable the transport of other forms of data, which may be subject to various transmission constraints, across the ground segment.
    • Sanitization of IRIG 106 Chapter 10 Storage Media

      Berard, Alfredo; Cogan, Catherine; Klein, Lorin; Massey, Heath; Williams, Rick; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      For the last 30-years, magnetic tape systems have served as the primary means of recording data from airborne instrumentation systems. The IRIG 106 Chapter 10 Digital Recording standard [1] introduced and developed by the Range Commanders Council (RCC) Telemetry Group (TG) has served as a common ground for industry to develop technology for replacing those tape-based recording systems with digital systems and recording data onto Solid State Devices. Data assurance and validation has been paramount in the development. This paper examines the challenge of sanitizing and downgrading media that is Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) and is utilized by test organization in the operational communities as well as the Major Range Test Facility Base (MRTFB) and other test ranges.
    • Design Considerations for a Variable sample Rate Signal Conditioning Module

      Lee, Jeffrey C.; L-3 Communications - Telemetry-West (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Modern telemetry systems require flexible sampling rates for analog signal conditioning within telemetry encoders in order to optimize mission formats for varying data acquisition needs and data rate constraints. Implementing a variable sample rate signal conditioning module for a telemetry encoder requires consideration of several possible architectural topologies that place different system requirements on data acquisition modules within the encoder in order to maintain adequate signal fidelity of sensor information. This paper focuses on the requirements, design considerations and tradeoffs associated with differing architectural topologies for implementing a variable sample rate signal conditioning module and the resulting implications on the encoder system's data acquisition units.
    • The Test and Training Enabling Architecture, TENA, Enabling Technology for the Joint Mission Environment Test Capability (JMETC) and Other Emerging Range Systems

      Hudgins, Gene; TENA Software Development Activity (SDA) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The Joint Mission Environment Test Capability (JMETC) is a distributed live, virtual, and constructive (LVC) testing capability developed to support the acquisition community and to demonstrate Net-Ready Key Performance Parameters (KPP) requirements in a customer-specific Joint Mission Environment (JME). JMETC, using the Test and Training Enabling Architecture, TENA, provides connectivity to the Services' distributed test capabilities and simulations, and industry test resources. TENA is well-designed for supporting JMETC events through its architecture and software capabilities which enable interoperability among range instrumentation systems, facilities, and simulations. TENA, used in major exercises and distributed test events, is also interfacing with other emerging range systems, such as iNET.
    • Integration Issues in Network-Based Flight Test Systems

      Smith, Rachel; Newton, Todd; Moodie, Myron; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The current paradigm for data acquisition and recording systems for flight test applications does not meet today's demand for high reliability and timing performance. Such systems are better served through a network-based approach that can provide the capacity at which systems must acquire, record, process, and telemeter data. As with any complex system, this approach does have challenges. This paper describes the methods used to develop a network-centric flight test system, including simulators, IEEE 1588 time synchronization, network message protocols, and addresses the integration issues involved such as network topology and reliable latency-bounded throughput. Solutions used in overcoming these integration issues in previous system designs are also presented.
    • XML Data Modeling for Network-Based Telemetry Systems

      Price, Jeremy C.; Moore, Michael S.; Malatesta, Bill A.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Network-based telemetry systems are often made up of many components from multiple vendors. The complexity involved in coordinating the design, integration, configuration, and operation of these systems has required instrumentation engineers to become experts in the tools and hardware from various vendors. Interoperation between the various tools and systems is very limited. One approach toward a more efficient method of managing these systems is to define a common language for describing the goals of the test, the measurements to be acquired, and the equipment that is available to compose a system. Through an open working group process, the iNET program is defining an eXtensible Markup Language (XML)-based language for describing instrumentation and telemetry systems. The language is designed with multiple aspects that allow filtered views into the instrumentation system, making the creation of the various parts of the documents more straight-forward and understandable to the type of user providing the information. This paper will describe the iNET metadata project, the model-driven approach that is being pursued, and the current state of the iNET metadata language.
    • A Constraint-Based Approach to Predictive Maintenance Model Development

      Gorman, Joe; Takata, Glenn; Patel, Subhash; Grecu, Dan; Charles River Analytics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Predictive maintenance is the combination of inspection and data analysis to perform maintenance when the need is indicated by unit performance. Significant cost savings are possible while preserving a high level of system performance and readiness. Identifying predictors of maintenance conditions requires expert knowledge and the ability to process large data sets. This paper describes a novel use of constraint-based data-mining to model exceedence conditions. The approach extends the extract, transformation, and load process with domain aggregate approximation to encode expert knowledge. A data-mining workbench enables an expert to pose hypotheses that constrain a multivariate data-mining process.
    • High-Precision Geolocation Algorithms for UAV and UUV Applications in Navigation and Collision Avoidance

      Lee, Hua; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      UUV homing and docking and UAV collision avoidance are two seemingly separate research topics for different applications. Upon close examination, these two are a pair of dual problems, with interesting correspondences and commonality. In this paper, we present the theoretical analysis, signal processing, and the field experiments of these two algorithms in UAV and UUV applications in homing and docking as well as collision avoidance.
    • Dual Antenna Use on a GPS Receiver

      Altan, Han; Honeywell International (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Due to vehicle dynamics in mobile systems, GPS signal reception may be blocked by the body of the vehicle. This paper discusses various studies made on some vehicles such as the Space Shuttle, various aircraft, and analyzes the implementation of dual GPS antenna systems. Constructive and destructive interference characteristics of signal combining are considered. The author suggests an approach which uses a delay line on one of the antennas while analyzing the front end C/N0 needed for L1 GPS reception. An embedded Excel spreadsheet provides a front-end Noise Figure (NF) calculation tool based on user selected parameters.
    • An Analysis on the Coverage Distance of LDPC-Coded Free-Space Optical Links

      Borah, Deva K.; Luna, Ricardo; Tapse, Hrishikesh; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      We design irregular Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes for free-space optical (FSO) channels for different transmitter-receiver link distances and analyze the error performance for different atmospheric conditions. The design considers atmospheric absorption, laser beam divergence, and random intensity fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence. It is found that, for the same transmit power, a system using the designed codes works over much longer link distances than a system that employs regular LDPC codes. Our analysis is particularly useful for portable optical transceivers and mobile links.
    • Tracking the Human Body Via a Wireless Network of Pyroelectric Sensor Arrays

      Kosbar, Kurt; Jolly, James; Bishop, Joe; Nanni, Emilio; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      This paper describes the design and construction of a low-cost wireless sensor network (WSN) intended to track a human body walking upright through its physical topology. The network consists of arrays of pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensors that can detect a moving body up to five meters away within a semicircular field of view. Data is gathered from these arrays and transmitted to a central processor that triangulates the body's position. Important characteristics of both the PIR sensors and the network's asynchronous nature are elaborated upon to illustrate how they affect the interpretation of the data.
    • A Cost Effective Residential Telemetry Network

      Kosbar, Kurt; Byland, Sean; Clarke, Craig; Gegg, Matt; Schumacher, Ryan; Strehl, Chris; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      As cost and power consumption of wireless devices decreases, it becomes increasingly practical to use wireless communications and control in residential settings. These networks share some of the same challenges and constraints as conventional telemetry networks. This particular project focused on using a commercial, off-the-shelf router to implement a residential automation system using Z-Wave wireless devices. The router can communicate status, and accept commands over a conventional 802.11 network, but does not require a remote host to operate the network. The router was reprogrammed using open source software, so it could issue commands, collect data, and monitor the Z-Wave network.
    • Space-Time Shaped Offset QPSK

      Rice, Michael; Dang, Xiaoyu; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      This paper describes the use of orthogonal space-time block codes to overcome the performance and complexity difficulties associated with the use of Shaped Offset QPSK (SOQPSK) modulation, a ternary continuous phase modulation (CPM), in multiple-input multiple-output telemetry systems. The orthogonal space-time block code is applied to SOQPSK waveforms in the same way it would be applied to symbols. The procedure allows the receiver to orthogonalize the link. The main benefits of this orthogonalization are the easy realization of the transmit diversity for the offset-featured SQOSPK, and the removal of the noise correlation at the input to the space-time decoder and the elimination of I/Q interference when space time orthogonalization is applied to the symbol level.
    • Current Status of Adding GPS Tracking Capability to a Missile Telemetry Section

      Kujiroaoka, Scott R.; Fielder, Russell G.; Sandberg, Alvia D.; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Past presented papers have discussed the integration efforts of incorporating Central Test & Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) sponsored Joint Advanced Missile Instrumentation (JAMI) components (namely the JAMI TSPI Unit-JTU), Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) parts (e.g. ARTM Tier I SO-QPSK Transmitter, Encryptor and Thermal Battery), and in-house developed devices (such as PCM Encoder and Dual Band Antenna) into a five-inch diameter Missile Telemetry (TM) Section. A prototype of this TM Section has been built up and integrated into an All Up Round (AUR) Missile and twice flown as a Captive Carried Test Missile (CTM) on an F/A-18 jet with great success. This TM Section is in the process of undergoing flight qualification testing (including environmental and electro-magnetic interference-EMI tests). After which it will be ready for mass production. This paper will detail these current efforts. In addition, the effort to upgrade some Navy and Air Force Test Ranges (with JAMI Ground Stations and Decommutators/Demodulators) to track and gather data from this Missile containing the new TM section will be discussed. Future plans to incorporate Flight Termination System (FTS) capabilities into the TM section will be covered as well.
    • Low-Cost Semi-Active Laser Seekers for US Army Application

      Hubbard, Keith; Katulka, Gary; Lyon, Dave; Petrick, Doug; Fresconi, Frank; Horwath, T. G.; Aberdeen Proving Ground; Dr. T. G. Horwath Consulting, Inc.; Dynamics Sciences, Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is exploring technologies to provide low-cost precision fires, applicable across both direct and indirect fire weapon systems. One of these applications involves a forward observer (FO) designating the target with a laser spot and a seeker on-board the munition detecting the reflected energy to allow terminal guidance. This approach, referred to as semi-active laser (SAL) guidance, has been utilized on numerous air-delivered munitions to include bombs, missiles and projectiles. However, the cost of these systems, driven by high quality optics, high sensitivity detectors and specialized electronics, has hampered their migration into gun-fired munitions such as mortars, artillery and grenades. To explore, develop and demonstrate minimal cost solutions, ARL invested in an Army Technical Objective (ATO) called Smaller, Lighter, Cheaper Munition Components (SLCMC). Specifically, SAL seeker hardware, predicated upon commercial components (COTS) and mass production techniques, is being prototyped for use with gun launched projectiles and laser target designators. The seeker system is comprised of several printed circuit board boards, a microprocessor, a quad-photo detector and, a molded optical lens unit. This seeker is designed to rapidly update the projectile boresight angle, interface with other strap-down sensors, and feed data into an on-board guidance, navigation & control (G,N&C) system to allow for projectile maneuvers. The seeker design and basic characteristics are discussed and presented through-out the paper and presentation.
    • Automated Configuration and Validation of Instrumentation Networks

      Darr, Timothy; Fernandes, Ronald; Graul, Michael; Hamilton, John; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      This paper describes the design and implementation of a test instrumentation network configuration and verification system. Given a multivendor instrument part catalog that contains sensor, actuator, transducer and other instrument data; user requirements (including desired measurement functions) and technical specifications; the instrumentation network configurator will select and connect instruments from the catalog that meet the requirements and technical specifications. The instrumentation network configurator will enable the goal of mixing and matching hardware from multiple vendors to develop robust solutions and to reduce the total cost of ownership for creating and maintaining test instrumentation networks.