• Distance Measures for QOS Performance Management in Mixed Networks

      Dean, Richard; Astatke, Yacob; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry effort (iNET) was launched to create a telemetry network that will enhance the traditional point-to-point telemetry link from test articles (TAs) to ground stations (GS). Two of the critical needs identified by the Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) are, "the need to be able to provide reliable coverage in potentially high capacity environments, even in Over-The-Horizon (OTH) settings", and "the need to make more efficient use of spectrum resources through dynamic sharing of said resources, based on instantaneous demand thereof". Research conducted at Morgan State University (MSU) has focused on providing solutions for both critical problems. The Mixed Network architecture developed by MSU has shown that a hybrid network can be used to provide coverage for TAs that are beyond the coverage area of the GS. The mixed network uses clustering techniques to partition the aggregate network into clusters or sub-networks based on properties of each TA, which currently include signal strengths, and location. The paper starts with a detailed analysis of two parameters that affect the performance of each sub-network: contention between the TAs in the mobile ad-hoc network, and queuing at the Gateway TAs that serve as the link between the mobile ad-hoc and the Cellular networks. Contention and queuing will be used to evaluate two performance (distance) measures for each sub-network: throughput and delay. We define a new distance measure known as "power", which is equal to the ratio of throughput over delay, and is used as a measure of performance of the mixed network for Quality of Service (QOS). This paper describes the analytical foundation used to prove that the "power" performance measure is an excellent tool for optimizing the clustering of a mixed network to provide QOS.
    • TENA in a Telemetry Network System

      Saylor, Kase J.; Malatesta, William A.; Abbott, Ben A.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) and Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA) projects are working to understand how TENA will perform in a Telemetry Network System. This paper discusses a demonstration prototype that is being used to investigate the use of TENA across a constrained test environment simulating iNET capabilities. Some of the key elements being evaluated are throughput, latency, memory utilization, memory footprint, and bandwidth. The results of these evaluations will be presented. Additionally, the paper briefly discusses modeling and metadata requirements for TENA and iNET.
    • Using the Ground Equipment Monitoring Service (GEMS) for Satellite Telemetry & Command Systems

      Andzik, Rob; RT Logic Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      As satellite ground systems migrate toward network-centric, distributed architectures, controlling remote ground equipment becomes a central issue. While many protocols and approaches exist that address remote control and status, there is little agreement on a common solution. Device vendors and system integrators commonly find themselves integrating multiple protocols to meet a wide range of requirements. Technologies change and new protocols evolve that result in yet more options to be considered. However, the fundamental aspects of device control remain constant. The Ground Equipment Monitoring Service (GEMS) seeks to define a standard model for device control independent of the underlying protocols and technologies. Using this approach, a wide range of protocols can be mapped to the GEMS model. Systems using different protocols can then rely on the common mapping and utilize translators to connect heterogeneous components with little integration costs. This paper describes the state of the specification and potential uses of the GEMS specification in Satellite Ground Systems. Interactions between the GEMS specification and other standards such as the CCSDS SLE Complex Management services are also presented.
    • Application of a High Data Rate Modem (HDRM)

      Orndorff, Tim; Puri, Amit; Smiley, Mike; Connell, John; CVG/Avtec Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      A traditional Receiver, Modulator, Bit Synchronizer, Frame Synchronizer and Front-End Processor (FEP) with local RAID storage from numerous satellite ground station equipment providers is typically used to satisfy current needs in mission ground stations. The development of Software Defined Radios (SDRs) with reprogrammable personalities has led to the consolidation of these processing elements, and will become the standard for years to follow. CVG-Avtec Systems, Inc. has been a pioneer in the SDR industry, integrating several ground station functions into a one system solution. Its High Data Rate Modem (HDRM) architecture replaces racks of previous generation equipment, providing greater functionality in a smaller footprint. The Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based HDRM is a one system solution that inputs Intermediate Frequency (IF) data and outputs packetized data over IP for data distribution. These new architectures are capitalizing on the revolution in electronics and networking technologies. This paper will discuss the architecture of the HDRM and how it optimizes ground station data processing in a high-rate environment.
    • Using the GNU Radio Platform to Implement a Telemetry Receiver

      Newcomb, Gregory; Punnoose, Ratish J.; Sandia National Laboratories (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      GNU Radio is a flexible software radio platform that enables custom radio development. It consists of open-source signal processing blocks that can be integrated into custom applications. The Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) is a hardware board that works well with the GNU Radio suite. The schematics and firmware on this board are also open-source. As such, this GNU Radio and the USRP hardware form a rapid prototype platform for software radio based telemetry receivers.
    • Antenna Array Beamforming Technology: Enabling Superior Aeronautical Communication Link Performance

      Lu, Cheng Y.; Zhang, Yimin; Wu, Jinsong; Cook, Paul; Li, Xin; Amin, Moeness; Teletronics Technology Inc.; Villanova University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      In this paper, we propose the exploitation of array beamforming technology in high-speed aeronautical communication applications, e.g., the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) system. By flexible steering of beams and nulls, an array can enhance desired signals whereas the undesired signals such as interference and jammers are suppressed. The proposed adaptive beamforming technology is DSP-based and network-aware, and is designed for the use at aerial vehicle platforms to increase transmission power efficiency, improve receiving signal sensitivity, mitigate interference/multipath effects, and extend the communication range.
    • Non-Traditional Uses of the CCSDS Space Link Extension (SLE) Protocol

      Safigan, Brian; Lokshin, Kirill; Puri, Amit; CVG/Avtec Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Space Link Extension (SLE) is a set of Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommended standards for extending the space link from ground stations to other spaceflight mission ground facilities over a ground network, allowing distributed access to space link telecommand and telemetry services. The currently defined and implemented SLE recommendations are oriented around a traditional CCSDS telecommand and telemetry protocol set, which uses discrete telecommand frames that are encapsulated in Communication Link Transmission Units (CLTUs) for transport over the ground segment, and telemetry data encapsulated in Transfer Frames at the spacecraft. This paper discusses several non-traditional uses of the SLE services. The applications addressed within lie outside the discrete packet telecommand/telemetry subset of the SLE recommendations that are fully defined by CCSDS. This paper will focus on the use of the currently implemented SLE model to enable the transport of other forms of data, which may be subject to various transmission constraints, across the ground segment.
    • A Constraint-Based Approach to Predictive Maintenance Model Development

      Gorman, Joe; Takata, Glenn; Patel, Subhash; Grecu, Dan; Charles River Analytics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Predictive maintenance is the combination of inspection and data analysis to perform maintenance when the need is indicated by unit performance. Significant cost savings are possible while preserving a high level of system performance and readiness. Identifying predictors of maintenance conditions requires expert knowledge and the ability to process large data sets. This paper describes a novel use of constraint-based data-mining to model exceedence conditions. The approach extends the extract, transformation, and load process with domain aggregate approximation to encode expert knowledge. A data-mining workbench enables an expert to pose hypotheses that constrain a multivariate data-mining process.
    • Spectral Analysis for Spacecraft Analog Telemetry Behavior

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Spectral analysis decomposes a signal into its frequency components. Engineers can use spectral analysis to decompose Satellite and spacecraft telemetry behavior from space to provide a new tool to advance space vehicle reliability. The same tools used by RF and digital signal design engineers for identify signal integrity offers new understanding for telemetry behavior from space. Analysis illustrates the harmonic properties of telemetry behavior as a function of time, amplitude, frequency and phase. Expanding spectral analysis to satellites and spacecraft illustrates their fundamental harmonic properties. This information can be used to improve vehicle reliability and define vehicle and ground station telemetry system design performance parameters and reduce risk of catastrophic satellite and spacecraft failure.
    • In-Bore Acceleration Measurements of an Electromagnetic Gun Launcher

      Bukowski, Edward F.; Brown, T. Gordon; Brosseau, Tim; Brandon, Fred J.; Aberdeen Proving Ground; Dynamic Science Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The US Army Research Laboratory has been involved in the design and implementation of electromagnetic gun technology for the past several years. One of the primary factors of this research is an accurate assessment of in-bore structural loads on the launch projectiles. This assessment is essential for the design of mass-efficient launch packages for electromagnetic guns. If not properly accounted for, projectile failure can result. In order to better understand the magnitude of the in-bore loads, a data-recorder was integrated with an armature and on-board payload that included tri-directional accelerometers and magnetic field sensors. Several packages were launched from an electromagnetic railgun located at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. Substantial effort was placed on soft-catching the rounds in order to facilitate data recovery. Analysis of the recovered data provided acceleration and magnetic field data acquired during the launch event.
    • Predicting Long-Term Telemetry Behavior for Lunar Orbiting, Deep Space, Planetary and Earth Orbiting Satellites

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Providing normal telemetry behavior predictions prior to and post launch will help to stop surprise catastrophic satellite and spacecraft equipment failures. In-orbit spacecraft fail from surprise equipment failures that can result from not having normal telemetry behavior available for comparison with actual behavior catching satellite engineers by surprise. Some surprise equipment failures lead to the total loss of the satellite or spacecraft. Some recovery actions as a consequence of a surprise equipment failure are high risk and involve decisions requiring a level of experience far beyond the responsible engineers.
    • Managing Instrumentation Networks

      Pesciotta, Eric; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      As traditional data acquisition systems give way to network-based data acquisition systems a new approach to instrumentation configuration, management and analysis is required. Today, most flight test programs are supported by traditional instrumentation systems and software. Pockets of network-based systems exist but are typically entirely new, closed systems. Relatively soon, test articles will emerge with a mixture of equipment. The merger of traditional and networked instrumentation is inevitable. Bridging the gap in software tools is a non-trivial task. Network-based data acquisition systems provide expanded flexibility and capabilities well beyond traditional systems. Yet pre-existing equipment requires traditional configuration and analysis tools. Traditional flight test software alone cannot fully exploit the added benefits gained from such mergers. The need exists for a new type of flight test software that handles existing instrumentation while also providing additional features to manage a network of devices. Network management is new to flight test software but a thoughtful implementation can facilitate easy transition to these modern systems. This paper explores the technologies required to satisfy traditional system configuration as well as the less understood aspects of network management and analysis. Examples of software that meet or exceed these requirements are provided.
    • A Data-Oriented Software Architecture for Telemetry

      Joshi, Rajive; Real-Time Innovations, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Building modern telemetry systems is fraught with challenges involving subsystem integration, the role and management of data, scalability issues, disparate technologies, concerns about cost-effectiveness and more. This article addresses today's challenges with a solution based on adopting a data-oriented architecture and relying on a standards-based, integrated high-performance middleware platform with standards-based programmable components. Key to the solution is integrating around the system information model instead of the application or technology infrastructure. A standards-based middleware infrastructure that breaks away from traditional assumptions is at the core of this approach. The article also presents successful applications of data-oriented architecture using standards-based middleware.
    • Key Components in a Networked Data Acquisition System

      Corry, Diarmuid; ACRA Control Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      With the growing interest in networked data acquisition there has been a lot of focus on networked data acquisition systems. However, the requirements of a flight test instrumentation system go beyond networked DAU's. For example, a FTI network fabric has particular requirements for switches, time grandmasters, recorders, data servers and network terminals to the ground. This paper discusses these components and how they inter-operate in a single, fully networked system and discusses some FTI oriented requirements for same. Where relevant, we discuss the results of some experiments with network latencies; packet losses etc. and discuss some enhancements that can contribute to improved efficiency for flight test programs.
    • Approaches to Mitigate Disruption of Telemetry During Directed Energy Testing

      Keidar, Michael; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Kim, Minkwan; Boyd, Iain D.; Jones, Charles H.; Mork, Brian; The George Washington University; University of Michigan; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Testing of directed-energy weapon systems requires continuous radio-wave telemetry in order to characterize in situ the effect of irradiation on a target. The telemetry in these cases might be disrupted due to plasma formation causing communication blackout. In this paper several mitigation approaches, namely electrostatic and electromagnetic, are considered. The electrostatic mitigation approach takes into account that an electron depleted sheath is formed around the negatively biased electrode. This creates a 'hole' in the electron density distribution allowing radio communication through the plasma. The electromagnetic approach is based on formation of the ExB layer in the plasma, consequent plasma acceleration, and resulting decrease in the plasma density. In order to assess these mitigation approaches, one needs to characterize the plasma which is created as a result of laser irradiation on different target materials and under various laser beam power levels. We developed a model of the plasma formation which is based on a kinetic description of the Knudsen layer and a hydrodynamic description of the collision-dominated plasma region which is coupled with analyses of the heat transfer in the target material. The overall model describes the absorption of the laser energy by the target and the resulting temperature rise in the surface. This temperature rise then induces ablation of the target material. Laser energy absorption by the plasma plume created above the surface is also considered. Analysis of the ablation rate of various targets subject to directed energy impact was performed. We considered a typical multilayer structure consisting of black paint, titanium, and aluminum layers. For instance, it was found that the aluminum layer has the highest ablation rate, while the black pain layer has the smallest rate for a given surface temperature.
    • Analytic Redundancy of Navigation Systems for Flight Test Data Validation

      Williamson, Walton R.; Speyer, Jason L.; Glenn, Greg; Dang, Vu; Xiao, Terri; Sysense, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Health monitoring during flight tests provides a means of data validation in flight. It is possible to design a data acquisition system such that the available instruments incorporate redundancy through analytic relationships. This analytic redundancy may be exploited in order to assess individual sensor system health and to validate accuracy claims. A practical example is presented in which an air data set is compared with GPS in order to isolate failures in the pressure and temperature transducers.
    • Space-Time Shaped Offset QPSK

      Rice, Michael; Dang, Xiaoyu; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      This paper describes the use of orthogonal space-time block codes to overcome the performance and complexity difficulties associated with the use of Shaped Offset QPSK (SOQPSK) modulation, a ternary continuous phase modulation (CPM), in multiple-input multiple-output telemetry systems. The orthogonal space-time block code is applied to SOQPSK waveforms in the same way it would be applied to symbols. The procedure allows the receiver to orthogonalize the link. The main benefits of this orthogonalization are the easy realization of the transmit diversity for the offset-featured SQOSPK, and the removal of the noise correlation at the input to the space-time decoder and the elimination of I/Q interference when space time orthogonalization is applied to the symbol level.
    • Low-Cost Semi-Active Laser Seekers for US Army Application

      Hubbard, Keith; Katulka, Gary; Lyon, Dave; Petrick, Doug; Fresconi, Frank; Horwath, T. G.; Aberdeen Proving Ground; Dr. T. G. Horwath Consulting, Inc.; Dynamics Sciences, Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is exploring technologies to provide low-cost precision fires, applicable across both direct and indirect fire weapon systems. One of these applications involves a forward observer (FO) designating the target with a laser spot and a seeker on-board the munition detecting the reflected energy to allow terminal guidance. This approach, referred to as semi-active laser (SAL) guidance, has been utilized on numerous air-delivered munitions to include bombs, missiles and projectiles. However, the cost of these systems, driven by high quality optics, high sensitivity detectors and specialized electronics, has hampered their migration into gun-fired munitions such as mortars, artillery and grenades. To explore, develop and demonstrate minimal cost solutions, ARL invested in an Army Technical Objective (ATO) called Smaller, Lighter, Cheaper Munition Components (SLCMC). Specifically, SAL seeker hardware, predicated upon commercial components (COTS) and mass production techniques, is being prototyped for use with gun launched projectiles and laser target designators. The seeker system is comprised of several printed circuit board boards, a microprocessor, a quad-photo detector and, a molded optical lens unit. This seeker is designed to rapidly update the projectile boresight angle, interface with other strap-down sensors, and feed data into an on-board guidance, navigation & control (G,N&C) system to allow for projectile maneuvers. The seeker design and basic characteristics are discussed and presented through-out the paper and presentation.
    • Automated Configuration and Validation of Instrumentation Networks

      Darr, Timothy; Fernandes, Ronald; Graul, Michael; Hamilton, John; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      This paper describes the design and implementation of a test instrumentation network configuration and verification system. Given a multivendor instrument part catalog that contains sensor, actuator, transducer and other instrument data; user requirements (including desired measurement functions) and technical specifications; the instrumentation network configurator will select and connect instruments from the catalog that meet the requirements and technical specifications. The instrumentation network configurator will enable the goal of mixing and matching hardware from multiple vendors to develop robust solutions and to reduce the total cost of ownership for creating and maintaining test instrumentation networks.
    • The Test and Training Enabling Architecture, TENA, Enabling Technology for the Joint Mission Environment Test Capability (JMETC) and Other Emerging Range Systems

      Hudgins, Gene; TENA Software Development Activity (SDA) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The Joint Mission Environment Test Capability (JMETC) is a distributed live, virtual, and constructive (LVC) testing capability developed to support the acquisition community and to demonstrate Net-Ready Key Performance Parameters (KPP) requirements in a customer-specific Joint Mission Environment (JME). JMETC, using the Test and Training Enabling Architecture, TENA, provides connectivity to the Services' distributed test capabilities and simulations, and industry test resources. TENA is well-designed for supporting JMETC events through its architecture and software capabilities which enable interoperability among range instrumentation systems, facilities, and simulations. TENA, used in major exercises and distributed test events, is also interfacing with other emerging range systems, such as iNET.