• Adjacent Channel Interference for Turbo-Coded APSK

      Rice, Michael; Shaw, Christopher; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      A study of the effects of interference caused by adjacent channels on the performance of turbo-coded 16- and 32-APSK. Included in our discussion is the spectral regrowth in the nonlinear power amplifier when driven by a non-constant envelope modulation. Ultimately, we present a set of channel spacing guidelines when using turbo-coded APSK for aeronautical telemetry.
    • Automated Configuration and Validation of Instrumentation Networks

      Darr, Timothy; Fernandes, Ronald; Graul, Michael; Hamilton, John; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      This paper describes the design and implementation of a test instrumentation network configuration and verification system. Given a multivendor instrument part catalog that contains sensor, actuator, transducer and other instrument data; user requirements (including desired measurement functions) and technical specifications; the instrumentation network configurator will select and connect instruments from the catalog that meet the requirements and technical specifications. The instrumentation network configurator will enable the goal of mixing and matching hardware from multiple vendors to develop robust solutions and to reduce the total cost of ownership for creating and maintaining test instrumentation networks.
    • The Test and Training Enabling Architecture, TENA, Enabling Technology for the Joint Mission Environment Test Capability (JMETC) and Other Emerging Range Systems

      Hudgins, Gene; TENA Software Development Activity (SDA) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The Joint Mission Environment Test Capability (JMETC) is a distributed live, virtual, and constructive (LVC) testing capability developed to support the acquisition community and to demonstrate Net-Ready Key Performance Parameters (KPP) requirements in a customer-specific Joint Mission Environment (JME). JMETC, using the Test and Training Enabling Architecture, TENA, provides connectivity to the Services' distributed test capabilities and simulations, and industry test resources. TENA is well-designed for supporting JMETC events through its architecture and software capabilities which enable interoperability among range instrumentation systems, facilities, and simulations. TENA, used in major exercises and distributed test events, is also interfacing with other emerging range systems, such as iNET.
    • Integration Issues in Network-Based Flight Test Systems

      Smith, Rachel; Newton, Todd; Moodie, Myron; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The current paradigm for data acquisition and recording systems for flight test applications does not meet today's demand for high reliability and timing performance. Such systems are better served through a network-based approach that can provide the capacity at which systems must acquire, record, process, and telemeter data. As with any complex system, this approach does have challenges. This paper describes the methods used to develop a network-centric flight test system, including simulators, IEEE 1588 time synchronization, network message protocols, and addresses the integration issues involved such as network topology and reliable latency-bounded throughput. Solutions used in overcoming these integration issues in previous system designs are also presented.
    • TENA in a Telemetry Network System

      Saylor, Kase J.; Malatesta, William A.; Abbott, Ben A.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) and Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA) projects are working to understand how TENA will perform in a Telemetry Network System. This paper discusses a demonstration prototype that is being used to investigate the use of TENA across a constrained test environment simulating iNET capabilities. Some of the key elements being evaluated are throughput, latency, memory utilization, memory footprint, and bandwidth. The results of these evaluations will be presented. Additionally, the paper briefly discusses modeling and metadata requirements for TENA and iNET.
    • Distance Measures for QOS Performance Management in Mixed Networks

      Dean, Richard; Astatke, Yacob; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry effort (iNET) was launched to create a telemetry network that will enhance the traditional point-to-point telemetry link from test articles (TAs) to ground stations (GS). Two of the critical needs identified by the Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) are, "the need to be able to provide reliable coverage in potentially high capacity environments, even in Over-The-Horizon (OTH) settings", and "the need to make more efficient use of spectrum resources through dynamic sharing of said resources, based on instantaneous demand thereof". Research conducted at Morgan State University (MSU) has focused on providing solutions for both critical problems. The Mixed Network architecture developed by MSU has shown that a hybrid network can be used to provide coverage for TAs that are beyond the coverage area of the GS. The mixed network uses clustering techniques to partition the aggregate network into clusters or sub-networks based on properties of each TA, which currently include signal strengths, and location. The paper starts with a detailed analysis of two parameters that affect the performance of each sub-network: contention between the TAs in the mobile ad-hoc network, and queuing at the Gateway TAs that serve as the link between the mobile ad-hoc and the Cellular networks. Contention and queuing will be used to evaluate two performance (distance) measures for each sub-network: throughput and delay. We define a new distance measure known as "power", which is equal to the ratio of throughput over delay, and is used as a measure of performance of the mixed network for Quality of Service (QOS). This paper describes the analytical foundation used to prove that the "power" performance measure is an excellent tool for optimizing the clustering of a mixed network to provide QOS.
    • Migrating Airborne Instrumentation Systems from PCM to Network

      Berdugo, Albert; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The majority of currently operating flight test programs around the world utilize PCM-based airborne instrumentation systems. Most instrumentation engineers are very comfortable with PCM-based data acquisition systems, and feel uncomfortable when talking about network implementations and the adoption of iNET. In order for these engineers to embrace this new technology, migrating from a PCM to network topology must be done in an evolutionary manner that provides for the preservation of capital investment while introducing new system concepts that enhance current instrumentation systems. This paper describes hardware components that enable instrumentation engineers to migrate their existing PCM-based instrumentation system to a network-based system. Several of these components are discussed to illustrate how they provide a controlled migration path to a network-based system. These components include time distribution, gateways, network data selectors, network switches, transmitters, transceivers, and recorders.
    • Using the Ground Equipment Monitoring Service (GEMS) for Satellite Telemetry & Command Systems

      Andzik, Rob; RT Logic Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      As satellite ground systems migrate toward network-centric, distributed architectures, controlling remote ground equipment becomes a central issue. While many protocols and approaches exist that address remote control and status, there is little agreement on a common solution. Device vendors and system integrators commonly find themselves integrating multiple protocols to meet a wide range of requirements. Technologies change and new protocols evolve that result in yet more options to be considered. However, the fundamental aspects of device control remain constant. The Ground Equipment Monitoring Service (GEMS) seeks to define a standard model for device control independent of the underlying protocols and technologies. Using this approach, a wide range of protocols can be mapped to the GEMS model. Systems using different protocols can then rely on the common mapping and utilize translators to connect heterogeneous components with little integration costs. This paper describes the state of the specification and potential uses of the GEMS specification in Satellite Ground Systems. Interactions between the GEMS specification and other standards such as the CCSDS SLE Complex Management services are also presented.
    • The Design of a High-Performance Network Transceiver for iNET

      Lu, Cheng; Cook, Paul; Hildin, John; Roach, John; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      A critical element of the proposed iNET architecture is the development of a telemetry network that provides two-way communication between multiple nodes on both the ground and in the air. Conventional airborne telemetry is based on IRIG-106 Chapter 4 and provides only a serial streaming data path from the aircraft to the ground. The network-centric architecture of iNET requires not only a duplex communication link between the ground and the test article, but also a communication link that provides higher bandwidth performance, higher spectrum efficiency, and a transport environment that is capable of fully packetized Internet Protocol. This paper describes the development path followed by TTC in the implementation of its nXCVR-2000G, an OFDM 802-11a-based iNET-ready IP transceiver.
    • Quantifying Coding Gain from Telemetry Data Combining

      Forman, Michael A.; Condreva, Ken; Kirchner, Gary; Lam, Kevin; Sandia National Laboratories (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      A method for combining telemetry data and quantifying the resulting coding gain for a ballistic missile test flight is presented. Data received from five ground stations in 54 data files with 18 million intermittent frames is combined, to create a single file with 1.5 million continuous frames. Coding gain provided by data combining is as high as 30 dB, with a useful improvement of 5 dB at boost and terminal stages. With frame reconstruction techniques, erroneous words in a frame are reduced from 2.1% to 0.12 %.
    • Integrating Heterogeneous Systems in an FTI Environment

      Cooke, Alan; ACRA Control (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Typically, FTI projects utilise acquisition hardware from multiple vendors. There are at least three ways of facilitating their integration. The first option is to implement a series of ad hoc mechanisms customised to the software interfaces provided by each specific FTI vendor. The second option is to define a meta-data format that can be used to define hardware setup and configuration in a common way. The final option is to define a common software architecture that prescribes a set of interfaces and services through which vendor hardware can be configured, and measurement data retrieved. This paper discusses the pros and cons of each approach and outlines the level of difficulty associated with each.
    • Game Theory and Adaptive Modulation for Cognitive Radios

      Sharma, Guarav (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      In a multi-user cognitive radio network, there arises a need for coordination among the network users for efficient utilization of the available electromagnetic spectrum. While adaptive modulation alone helps cognitive radios actively determine the channel quality metric for the next transmission, Game theory combined with an adaptive modulation system helps them achieve mutual coordination among channel users and avoids any possible confusion about transmitting/receiving through a channel in the future. This paper highlights how the concepts of game theory and adaptive modulation can be incorporated in a cognitive radio framework to achieve better communication for telemetry applications.
    • Technology Trades for Management of Telemetry Network Systems

      Bertrand, Allison R.; Grace, Thomas B.; Abbott, Ben A.; Saylor, Kase J.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The Integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) Project established a standards working group to address the integrated management of telemetry network systems and to ensure interoperability among various pieces of equipment. The group has been studying the benefits and drawbacks of various system management technologies with the goal of identifying a set of management interfaces which will provide long-range benefit to a large and diverse telemetry test system. This paper discusses control, configuration, status, performance, and fault management. It addresses these from several viewpoints such as multi-test articles, multi-ranges, and dynamic test environments.
    • Predicting Long-Term Telemetry Behavior for Lunar Orbiting, Deep Space, Planetary and Earth Orbiting Satellites

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Providing normal telemetry behavior predictions prior to and post launch will help to stop surprise catastrophic satellite and spacecraft equipment failures. In-orbit spacecraft fail from surprise equipment failures that can result from not having normal telemetry behavior available for comparison with actual behavior catching satellite engineers by surprise. Some surprise equipment failures lead to the total loss of the satellite or spacecraft. Some recovery actions as a consequence of a surprise equipment failure are high risk and involve decisions requiring a level of experience far beyond the responsible engineers.
    • Low-Cost Semi-Active Laser Seekers for US Army Application

      Hubbard, Keith; Katulka, Gary; Lyon, Dave; Petrick, Doug; Fresconi, Frank; Horwath, T. G.; Aberdeen Proving Ground; Dr. T. G. Horwath Consulting, Inc.; Dynamics Sciences, Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is exploring technologies to provide low-cost precision fires, applicable across both direct and indirect fire weapon systems. One of these applications involves a forward observer (FO) designating the target with a laser spot and a seeker on-board the munition detecting the reflected energy to allow terminal guidance. This approach, referred to as semi-active laser (SAL) guidance, has been utilized on numerous air-delivered munitions to include bombs, missiles and projectiles. However, the cost of these systems, driven by high quality optics, high sensitivity detectors and specialized electronics, has hampered their migration into gun-fired munitions such as mortars, artillery and grenades. To explore, develop and demonstrate minimal cost solutions, ARL invested in an Army Technical Objective (ATO) called Smaller, Lighter, Cheaper Munition Components (SLCMC). Specifically, SAL seeker hardware, predicated upon commercial components (COTS) and mass production techniques, is being prototyped for use with gun launched projectiles and laser target designators. The seeker system is comprised of several printed circuit board boards, a microprocessor, a quad-photo detector and, a molded optical lens unit. This seeker is designed to rapidly update the projectile boresight angle, interface with other strap-down sensors, and feed data into an on-board guidance, navigation & control (G,N&C) system to allow for projectile maneuvers. The seeker design and basic characteristics are discussed and presented through-out the paper and presentation.
    • Spectral Analysis for Spacecraft Analog Telemetry Behavior

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Spectral analysis decomposes a signal into its frequency components. Engineers can use spectral analysis to decompose Satellite and spacecraft telemetry behavior from space to provide a new tool to advance space vehicle reliability. The same tools used by RF and digital signal design engineers for identify signal integrity offers new understanding for telemetry behavior from space. Analysis illustrates the harmonic properties of telemetry behavior as a function of time, amplitude, frequency and phase. Expanding spectral analysis to satellites and spacecraft illustrates their fundamental harmonic properties. This information can be used to improve vehicle reliability and define vehicle and ground station telemetry system design performance parameters and reduce risk of catastrophic satellite and spacecraft failure.
    • In-Bore Acceleration Measurements of an Electromagnetic Gun Launcher

      Bukowski, Edward F.; Brown, T. Gordon; Brosseau, Tim; Brandon, Fred J.; Aberdeen Proving Ground; Dynamic Science Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The US Army Research Laboratory has been involved in the design and implementation of electromagnetic gun technology for the past several years. One of the primary factors of this research is an accurate assessment of in-bore structural loads on the launch projectiles. This assessment is essential for the design of mass-efficient launch packages for electromagnetic guns. If not properly accounted for, projectile failure can result. In order to better understand the magnitude of the in-bore loads, a data-recorder was integrated with an armature and on-board payload that included tri-directional accelerometers and magnetic field sensors. Several packages were launched from an electromagnetic railgun located at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. Substantial effort was placed on soft-catching the rounds in order to facilitate data recovery. Analysis of the recovered data provided acceleration and magnetic field data acquired during the launch event.
    • Launch Vehicle and Satellite Independent Failure Analysis Using Telemetry Prognostic Algorithms

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Unique vehicle designs encourage the use of the builder to complete its own failure analysis. Current failure analysis practices use telemetry and diagnostic technology developed over the past 100 years to identify root-cause. When telemetry isn't available speculation is used to create a list of prioritized, potential causes. Prognostic technology consists of generic algorithms that identify equipment that has failed and is going to fail while the equipment is still at the factory allowing the equipment to be repaired or replaced while it is still on the ground for any spacecraft, satellite, launch vehicle and missile.
    • PAM-Based Timing Synchronization for ARTM Modulations

      Perrins, Erik; Bose, Sayak; Wylie-Green, Marilynn P.; University of Kansas; Nokie Siemens Networks (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      A reduced-complexity decision-directed timing recovery method for continuous phase modulation (CPM) is presented. The timing recovery method is based on the pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) representation - or Laurent representation - of CPM, and is applied to the family of three telemetry modulations: PCM/FM, SOQPSKTG, and ARTM CPM. This work is the next step in an ongoing effort to develop reduced-complexity PAM-based receiver methods for aeronautical telemetry. We quantify the steady-state tracking accuracy of the proposed timing recovery method and show that it performs very close to the theoretical limit given by the modified Cramer-Rao bound (MCRB).We also demonstrate that the proposed method is free of false-lock points for all three modulations.
    • Real-Time Transport Protocols for Telemetry Data and Signaling

      Cranley, Nikki; Corry, Diarmuid; ACRA Control Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      There are many network transport and application layer protocols that have been developed and designed for the delivery of time-sensitive and critical data over best-effort Ethernet networks. Choosing the appropriate protocols is crucial to ensuring the performance of the network for data transmission. Network layer protocols, such as TCP/IP or UDP/IP, determine the reliability of the data transmission while application layer protocols are designed to enhance the services of the underlying transport protocol. This paper will compare the Quality of Service (QoS) tradeoffs for both UDP and TCP. In this paper it is shown that UDP or TCP alone is insufficient to meet the transmission requirements of telemetry data and to overcome these limitations, an application layer protocol is required to enhance the delivery of real-time sensitive data. This paper presents the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) and proposes a RTP telemetry profile payload definition that provides complete payload self-description and up to 98% packetization efficiency.