• Adjacent Channel Interference for Turbo-Coded APSK

      Rice, Michael; Shaw, Christopher; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      A study of the effects of interference caused by adjacent channels on the performance of turbo-coded 16- and 32-APSK. Included in our discussion is the spectral regrowth in the nonlinear power amplifier when driven by a non-constant envelope modulation. Ultimately, we present a set of channel spacing guidelines when using turbo-coded APSK for aeronautical telemetry.
    • An Airborne Network Telemetry Link for the iNET Technical Demonstration System

      Temple, Kip; Laird, Daniel; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      A previous paper was presented detailing the design and testing of the first networked demonstration system (ITC 2006) for iNET. This paper extends that work by testing a commercial off the shelf (COTS) solution for the wireless network connection of the Telemetry Network System (TmNS). This paper will briefly discuss specific pieces of the airborne and ground station system but will concentrate on the new wireless network link, how it was tested, and how well it performed. Flight testing results will be presented accessing the performance of the wireless network link.
    • Analysis and Application Scenarios for Telemetry Data Transmission and Synchronisation over Wireless LAN

      Cranley, Nikki; Corry, Diarmuid; ACRA Control Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The use of IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN (WLAN) technology offers numerous advantages over wired Ethernet including high bandwidth, device mobility, and the elimination of network wiring within the aircraft. With such benefits, there are certain caveats associated with the ability and performance of WLAN technology to carry time-sensitive and critical telemetry data using current IEEE 802.11 WLAN standards. In this paper, the limitations of WLAN for real-time data transmission are experimentally investigated. In particular, it will be shown how the fundamental wireless access mechanism and contention impact on the WLANs ability to carry real-time data. Although telemetry data is constant, the wireless access mechanism causes the WLAN throughput and per-packet delays to vary over time. Moreover, with the increased popularity of the IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP), the ability of the WLAN to provide time synchronisation is investigated. It is shown that asymmetric data loads on the uplink and downlink introduce synchronization errors. To mitigate some of these issues, this paper will discuss how the Quality of Service (QoS) Enabling WLAN standard, IEEE 802.11e, can be used to provide differentiated services and prioritised transmission for critical data.
    • An Analysis on the Coverage Distance of LDPC-Coded Free-Space Optical Links

      Borah, Deva K.; Luna, Ricardo; Tapse, Hrishikesh; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      We design irregular Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes for free-space optical (FSO) channels for different transmitter-receiver link distances and analyze the error performance for different atmospheric conditions. The design considers atmospheric absorption, laser beam divergence, and random intensity fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence. It is found that, for the same transmit power, a system using the designed codes works over much longer link distances than a system that employs regular LDPC codes. Our analysis is particularly useful for portable optical transceivers and mobile links.
    • Analytic Redundancy of Navigation Systems for Flight Test Data Validation

      Williamson, Walton R.; Speyer, Jason L.; Glenn, Greg; Dang, Vu; Xiao, Terri; Sysense, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Health monitoring during flight tests provides a means of data validation in flight. It is possible to design a data acquisition system such that the available instruments incorporate redundancy through analytic relationships. This analytic redundancy may be exploited in order to assess individual sensor system health and to validate accuracy claims. A practical example is presented in which an air data set is compared with GPS in order to isolate failures in the pressure and temperature transducers.
    • Antenna Array Beamforming Technology: Enabling Superior Aeronautical Communication Link Performance

      Lu, Cheng Y.; Zhang, Yimin; Wu, Jinsong; Cook, Paul; Li, Xin; Amin, Moeness; Teletronics Technology Inc.; Villanova University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      In this paper, we propose the exploitation of array beamforming technology in high-speed aeronautical communication applications, e.g., the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) system. By flexible steering of beams and nulls, an array can enhance desired signals whereas the undesired signals such as interference and jammers are suppressed. The proposed adaptive beamforming technology is DSP-based and network-aware, and is designed for the use at aerial vehicle platforms to increase transmission power efficiency, improve receiving signal sensitivity, mitigate interference/multipath effects, and extend the communication range.
    • Application of a High Data Rate Modem (HDRM)

      Orndorff, Tim; Puri, Amit; Smiley, Mike; Connell, John; CVG/Avtec Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      A traditional Receiver, Modulator, Bit Synchronizer, Frame Synchronizer and Front-End Processor (FEP) with local RAID storage from numerous satellite ground station equipment providers is typically used to satisfy current needs in mission ground stations. The development of Software Defined Radios (SDRs) with reprogrammable personalities has led to the consolidation of these processing elements, and will become the standard for years to follow. CVG-Avtec Systems, Inc. has been a pioneer in the SDR industry, integrating several ground station functions into a one system solution. Its High Data Rate Modem (HDRM) architecture replaces racks of previous generation equipment, providing greater functionality in a smaller footprint. The Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based HDRM is a one system solution that inputs Intermediate Frequency (IF) data and outputs packetized data over IP for data distribution. These new architectures are capitalizing on the revolution in electronics and networking technologies. This paper will discuss the architecture of the HDRM and how it optimizes ground station data processing in a high-rate environment.
    • Approaches to Mitigate Disruption of Telemetry During Directed Energy Testing

      Keidar, Michael; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Kim, Minkwan; Boyd, Iain D.; Jones, Charles H.; Mork, Brian; The George Washington University; University of Michigan; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Testing of directed-energy weapon systems requires continuous radio-wave telemetry in order to characterize in situ the effect of irradiation on a target. The telemetry in these cases might be disrupted due to plasma formation causing communication blackout. In this paper several mitigation approaches, namely electrostatic and electromagnetic, are considered. The electrostatic mitigation approach takes into account that an electron depleted sheath is formed around the negatively biased electrode. This creates a 'hole' in the electron density distribution allowing radio communication through the plasma. The electromagnetic approach is based on formation of the ExB layer in the plasma, consequent plasma acceleration, and resulting decrease in the plasma density. In order to assess these mitigation approaches, one needs to characterize the plasma which is created as a result of laser irradiation on different target materials and under various laser beam power levels. We developed a model of the plasma formation which is based on a kinetic description of the Knudsen layer and a hydrodynamic description of the collision-dominated plasma region which is coupled with analyses of the heat transfer in the target material. The overall model describes the absorption of the laser energy by the target and the resulting temperature rise in the surface. This temperature rise then induces ablation of the target material. Laser energy absorption by the plasma plume created above the surface is also considered. Analysis of the ablation rate of various targets subject to directed energy impact was performed. We considered a typical multilayer structure consisting of black paint, titanium, and aluminum layers. For instance, it was found that the aluminum layer has the highest ablation rate, while the black pain layer has the smallest rate for a given surface temperature.
    • Automated Configuration and Validation of Instrumentation Networks

      Darr, Timothy; Fernandes, Ronald; Graul, Michael; Hamilton, John; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      This paper describes the design and implementation of a test instrumentation network configuration and verification system. Given a multivendor instrument part catalog that contains sensor, actuator, transducer and other instrument data; user requirements (including desired measurement functions) and technical specifications; the instrumentation network configurator will select and connect instruments from the catalog that meet the requirements and technical specifications. The instrumentation network configurator will enable the goal of mixing and matching hardware from multiple vendors to develop robust solutions and to reduce the total cost of ownership for creating and maintaining test instrumentation networks.
    • Connecting Network-Based Data Acquisition Nodes to the Network

      Hildin, John; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Unlike communications protocols that are bus-based or multi-drop (e.g., CAIS Bus, Fibre Channel, RS-485), Ethernet relies on a point-to-point connection topology. One reason for this approach is to allow network nodes to negotiate their individual mode of communication with the network, i.e., link speed and duplexity. The goals of this paper are twofold. The first goal is to describe the process of link negotiation between nodes. This will include some of the details of how two physical layer devices establish communication. The second goal is to show how networked data acquisition nodes are physically connected within the overall system.
    • Considerations for Deploying IEEE 1588 V2 in Network-Centric Data Acquisition and Telemetry Systems

      Newton, Todd; Grim, Evan; Moodie, Myron; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Network-centric architectures continue to gain acceptance in data acquisition and telemetry systems. Though networks by nature impose non-deterministic transit time of data through a given link, the IEEE 1588 standard provides a means to remove this jitter by distributing time messages to the data acquisition units themselves. But like all standards, they evolve over time. The same is true with IEEE 1588, which is releasing its second version later this year. This paper discusses the challenges of the first version of the IEEE 1588 standard that Version 2 set out to address, potential challenges with Version 2, and interoperability issues that may arise when incorporating a mixture of Version 1 and Version 2 devices.
    • A Constraint-Based Approach to Predictive Maintenance Model Development

      Gorman, Joe; Takata, Glenn; Patel, Subhash; Grecu, Dan; Charles River Analytics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Predictive maintenance is the combination of inspection and data analysis to perform maintenance when the need is indicated by unit performance. Significant cost savings are possible while preserving a high level of system performance and readiness. Identifying predictors of maintenance conditions requires expert knowledge and the ability to process large data sets. This paper describes a novel use of constraint-based data-mining to model exceedence conditions. The approach extends the extract, transformation, and load process with domain aggregate approximation to encode expert knowledge. A data-mining workbench enables an expert to pose hypotheses that constrain a multivariate data-mining process.
    • A Cost Effective Residential Telemetry Network

      Kosbar, Kurt; Byland, Sean; Clarke, Craig; Gegg, Matt; Schumacher, Ryan; Strehl, Chris; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      As cost and power consumption of wireless devices decreases, it becomes increasingly practical to use wireless communications and control in residential settings. These networks share some of the same challenges and constraints as conventional telemetry networks. This particular project focused on using a commercial, off-the-shelf router to implement a residential automation system using Z-Wave wireless devices. The router can communicate status, and accept commands over a conventional 802.11 network, but does not require a remote host to operate the network. The router was reprogrammed using open source software, so it could issue commands, collect data, and monitor the Z-Wave network.
    • Cost-Effective, Focused Instrumentation for TT&C/COMMS Engineering

      Williams, Steve; RT Logic (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      The need for sophisticated tools in the expanding areas of Telemetry, Tracking and Control/Command (TT&C) and Communications (COMMS) system simulation, development, verification, analysis, maintenance, debug, and education is well understood. Emerging requirements for these toolsets include features, ease-of-use, performance, and price points that specifically address telemetry and signals work. And, while not yet as available, understood, or pervasively installed, these economical and focused tools are displacing high-cost, general-purpose Test and Measurement (T&M) equipment at an increasing rate.
    • A Cross-Layered Protocol Architecture for Highly-Dynamic Multihop Airborne Telemetry Networks

      Perrins, Erik; Sterbenz, James P. G.; Jabbar, Abdul; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Highly-dynamic mobile wireless communication presents unique challenges to the network at all layers, and requires the design of new protocols and mechanisms. We discuss a cross-layer aware internetwork architecture and the various mechanisms to enable reliable communication in high-velocity multihop scenarios. We introduce AeroNP, an IP-compatible network protocol that is designed for telemetry applications in an aeronautical environment. A new routing algorithm is presented that leverages location information combined with snooping to forward packets in the absence of stable end-to-end routes along, with an implicit congestion control mechanism.
    • Current Status of Adding GPS Tracking Capability to a Missile Telemetry Section

      Kujiroaoka, Scott R.; Fielder, Russell G.; Sandberg, Alvia D.; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Past presented papers have discussed the integration efforts of incorporating Central Test & Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) sponsored Joint Advanced Missile Instrumentation (JAMI) components (namely the JAMI TSPI Unit-JTU), Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) parts (e.g. ARTM Tier I SO-QPSK Transmitter, Encryptor and Thermal Battery), and in-house developed devices (such as PCM Encoder and Dual Band Antenna) into a five-inch diameter Missile Telemetry (TM) Section. A prototype of this TM Section has been built up and integrated into an All Up Round (AUR) Missile and twice flown as a Captive Carried Test Missile (CTM) on an F/A-18 jet with great success. This TM Section is in the process of undergoing flight qualification testing (including environmental and electro-magnetic interference-EMI tests). After which it will be ready for mass production. This paper will detail these current efforts. In addition, the effort to upgrade some Navy and Air Force Test Ranges (with JAMI Ground Stations and Decommutators/Demodulators) to track and gather data from this Missile containing the new TM section will be discussed. Future plans to incorporate Flight Termination System (FTS) capabilities into the TM section will be covered as well.
    • A Data-Oriented Software Architecture for Telemetry

      Joshi, Rajive; Real-Time Innovations, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Building modern telemetry systems is fraught with challenges involving subsystem integration, the role and management of data, scalability issues, disparate technologies, concerns about cost-effectiveness and more. This article addresses today's challenges with a solution based on adopting a data-oriented architecture and relying on a standards-based, integrated high-performance middleware platform with standards-based programmable components. Key to the solution is integrating around the system information model instead of the application or technology infrastructure. A standards-based middleware infrastructure that breaks away from traditional assumptions is at the core of this approach. The article also presents successful applications of data-oriented architecture using standards-based middleware.
    • Design and Implementation of an Avionics Full Duplex Ethernet (A664) Data Acquisition System

      Perez, Alberto; Hildin, John; Roach, John; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      ARINC 664 presents the designers of data acquisition systems challenges not previously seen on other aircraft avionic buses. Among the biggest challenges are providing the test instrumentation system with the capacity to process two redundant Ethernet segments that may be carrying packet traffic at near wire-line speed. To achieve this level of performance, the hardware and software must not only perform mundane operations, like time stamping and simple virtual link MAC filtering, but also need to implement core ARINC 664 functions like redundancy management and integrity checking. Furthermore, other TCP/IP operations, such as IP header checksum, must also be offloaded to the hardware in order to maintain real-time operation. This paper describes the implementation path followed by TTC during its development of an ARINC 664 network monitor used in a large commercial aircraft flight test program.
    • Design Considerations for a Variable sample Rate Signal Conditioning Module

      Lee, Jeffrey C.; L-3 Communications - Telemetry-West (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      Modern telemetry systems require flexible sampling rates for analog signal conditioning within telemetry encoders in order to optimize mission formats for varying data acquisition needs and data rate constraints. Implementing a variable sample rate signal conditioning module for a telemetry encoder requires consideration of several possible architectural topologies that place different system requirements on data acquisition modules within the encoder in order to maintain adequate signal fidelity of sensor information. This paper focuses on the requirements, design considerations and tradeoffs associated with differing architectural topologies for implementing a variable sample rate signal conditioning module and the resulting implications on the encoder system's data acquisition units.
    • The Design of a High-Performance Network Transceiver for iNET

      Lu, Cheng; Cook, Paul; Hildin, John; Roach, John; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2008-10)
      A critical element of the proposed iNET architecture is the development of a telemetry network that provides two-way communication between multiple nodes on both the ground and in the air. Conventional airborne telemetry is based on IRIG-106 Chapter 4 and provides only a serial streaming data path from the aircraft to the ground. The network-centric architecture of iNET requires not only a duplex communication link between the ground and the test article, but also a communication link that provides higher bandwidth performance, higher spectrum efficiency, and a transport environment that is capable of fully packetized Internet Protocol. This paper describes the development path followed by TTC in the implementation of its nXCVR-2000G, an OFDM 802-11a-based iNET-ready IP transceiver.