• OPTIMAL CONFIGURATION FOR NODES IN MIXED CELLULAR AND MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK FOR INET

      Dean, Richard; Babalola, Olusola; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      As part of Morgan’s iNET development, the Mixed Cellular and Mobile Ad hoc Network (MCMN) architecture has been 1proposed to provide coverage to over-the horizon test articles. Nodes in MCMN are assigned to one of three possible modes- Ad hoc, Cellular or Gateway. We present architecture for the proposed MCMN and some performance analysis to characterize the network. The problem of organizing nodes in this mixed network with optimal configuration is significant. This configuration gives nodes ability to know the best mode to operate and communicate with other nodes. Node organization is critical to the performance of the mixed network and to improve communication. The configuration of nodes required to optimally organize nodes in MCMN is demonstrated. The problem of evaluating configuration parameters for nodes in a mixed network is a nonlinear and complex one. This is due to the various components like the number of nodes, geographical location, signal strength, mobility, connectivity and others that are involved. Clustering techniques and algorithms have been used in literature to partition networks into clusters to support routing and network management. A clustering technique is employed to dynamically partition the aggregate network into Cluster Cells (CCs). A gateway node is selected for each CC which relays traffic from the cellular to the Ad hoc and vice versa. A trade-off analysis of the cellular boundary is presented using the maximum of the minimum data rate in the network. Numerical analysis and experiments are provided to show that the coverage can be extended to test articles in over-the-horizon region. It is also shown that, when the network is well organized, performance is improved.
    • WIRELESS SENSOR SYSTEM FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS

      Pellarin, Steve; Musteric, Steven; Teletronics Technology Corporation; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Adding an instrumentation / telemetry system to a test article has historically required an intrusive installation. Power, wiring, and available space typically present significant challenges. There has been a long-standing need in the test and training community for a non-intrusive, flexible and modular instrumentation and telemetry system that can be installed on an aircraft or other test article without the need for permanent modifications. In addition, as available space in aircraft weapon bays, small weapons, and unmanned vehicles becomes a premium, the miniaturization of remote sensors and telemetry units becomes critical. This paper describes the current status of the Advanced Subminiature Telemetry System (ASMT) Initial Test Capability Project. It discusses the challenges that have been overcome in developing a wireless sensor network system for use in an airborne test environment. These include wireless sensor packaging design, selection of operating frequencies, COTS wireless devices, batteries, system synchronization and data bandwidth calculations. The paper will also document the progress to date including preliminary test results.
    • DESIGN OF A CONFIGURATIONAND MANAGEMENT TOOL FORINSTRUMENTATION NETWORKS

      Roach, John; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The development of network-based data acquisition systems has resulted in a new architecture for supporting flight instrumentation that has the potential to revolutionize the way we test our aircraft. However, the inherent capability and flexibility in a networked test architecture can only be realized by the flight engineer if a sufficiently powerful toolset is available that can configure and manage the system. This paper introduces the concept of an instrumentation configuration and management system (ICMS) that acts as the central resource for configuring, controlling, and monitoring the instrumentation network. Typically, the ICMS supports a graphical user interface into the workings of the instrumentation network, providing the user with a friendly and efficient way to verify the operation of the system. Statistics being gathered at different peripherals within the network would be collected by this tool and formatted for interpretation by the user. Any error conditions or out-of-bounds situations would be detected by the ICMS and signaled to the user. Changes made to the operation of any of the peripherals in the network (if permitted) would be managed by the ICMS to ensure consistency of the system. Furthermore, the ICMS could guarantee that the appropriate procedures were being followed and that the operator had the required privileges needed to make any changes. This paper describes the high-level design of a modular and multi-platform ICMS and its use within the measurement-centric aircraft instrumentation network architecture under development by the Network Products Division at Teletronics.
    • SOFT RECOVERY RECORDING SYSTEM FOR INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR BALLISTICS CHARACTERIZATION

      Guevara, Mauricio; Flyash, Boris; Army Research Development and Engineering Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The US ARMY, ARDEC; in cooperation with AMCOM AMRDEC, Missile Guidance and Engineering Directorates; the Office of Naval Research; Naval Surface Fire Support; and the Naval Surface Weapon Center, requires multiphase development of a common, low-cost, high G survivable, high accuracy, Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and Common, Deeply Integrated, Guidance and Navigation Unit (DI-GNU) for DoD gun launched guided munition and missile applications. The challenge for the Precision Munition Instrumentation Division (PMID) was to develop a Telemetry System to record the interior and exterior ballistics of a M831 TP-T projectile, which will be used as a carrier for soft recovery testing of IMUs and GNUs. This valuable data that would help The Government and contractors develop and validate multiple MEMS IMU design efforts, culminating with live fire verification performance test of pre-production in the Army’s 155-mm Soft Recovery Vehicle (SRVs) and missiles airframes.
    • THE TEST AND TRAINING ENABLING ARCHITECTURE, TENA, AN IMPORTANT COMPONENT IN JOINT MISSION ENVIRONMENT TEST CAPABILITY (JMETC) SUCCESSES

      Hudgins, Gene; TENA Software Development Activity (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The Joint Mission Environment Test Capability (JMETC) is a distributed live, virtual, and constructive (LVC) testing capability developed to support the acquisition community and to demonstrate Net-Ready Key Performance Parameters (KPP) requirements in a customer-specific Joint Mission Environment (JME). JMETC provides connectivity to the Services’ distributed test capabilities and simulations, as well as industry test resources. JMETC uses the Test and Training Enabling Architecture, TENA, which is well-designed for supporting JMETC events. TENA provides the architecture and software capabilities necessary to enable interoperability among range instrumentation systems, facilities, and simulations. TENA, used in major field exercises and numerous distributed test events, provides JMETC with a technology already being deployed in DoD.
    • UNLEASHING THE POWER OF XML

      Corry, Diarmuid; ACRA CONTROL Inc (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Over the last few years XML has been growing in importance as a language for describing the meta-data associated with a complete flight test. Three years ago ACRA CONTROL introduced XidML as an open, published XML standard describing flight test data acquisition from the air to the ground. Recently, XML has been adopted by the TMATS RCC committee and is currently being studied by iNET. While many papers have focused on what XML is and why it is a powerful language, few have related this to practical benefits for the end user. This paper attempts to address this gap. The paper describes simple cost effective tools for generating XML through an intuitive GUI, validating XML information against a schema and transforming XML into useful reports. In particular a suite of value added tools for XidML is described.
    • TCP PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OVER IRIDIUM

      Torgerson, Leigh; Hutcherson, Joseph; McKelvey, James; California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      In support of iNET maturation, NASA-JPL has collaborated with NASA-Dryden to develop, test and demonstrate an over-the-horizon vehicle-to-ground networking capability, using Iridium as the vehicle-to-ground communications link for relaying critical vehicle telemetry. To ensure reliability concerns are met, the Space Communications Protocol Standards (SCPS) transport protocol was investigated for its performance characteristics in this environment. In particular, the SCPS-TP software performance was compared to that of the standard Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) over the Internet Protocol (IP). This paper will report on the results of this work.
    • PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF SOQPSK DETECTORS: COHERENT VS. NONCOHERENT

      Bruns, Tom; L-3 Communications Nova Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Shaped Offset Quadrature Shift Keying (SOQPSK) is a spectrally efficient modulation that has been promoted in the airborne telemetry community as a more spectrally efficient alternative for legacy PCM/FM. First generation demodulators for SOQPSK use coherent detectors which achieve good bit error rates at the expense of long synchronization times. This paper examines the performance of a noncoherent SOQPSK detector which significantly improves the signal acquisition times without impacting BER performance in the AWGN environment. The two detection methods are also compared in their ability to combat other channel impairments, such as adjacent and on-channel interference.
    • MODELING OF THE PLASMA FORMATION DUE TO LASER IRRADIENCE DURING DIRECTED-ENERGY TESTING

      Rajendran, Saravanakanthan; Keidar, Michael; Boyd, Iain D.; Jones, Charles H.; Mork, Brian; University of Michigan; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Real-time transmission of airborne images to a ground station is highly desirable in many telemetering applications. Such transmission is often through an error prone, time varying wireless channel, possibly under jamming conditions. Hence, a fast, efficient, scalable, and error resilient image compression scheme is vital to realize the full potential of airborne reconnaisance. JPEG2000, the current international standard for image compression, offers most of these features. However, the computational complexity of JPEG2000 limits its use in some applications. Thus, we present a scalable low complexity coder (SLCC) that possesses many desirable features of JPEG2000, yet having high throughput. Continuous radio-wave telemetry is required during planned tests of directed-energy weapons systems in order to characterize in situ the effects of laser irradiation on different target materials. Unfortunately, the incident radiation can cause disruption of the radio signal during the directed-energy testing. Several phenomena associated with directed-energy impact can lead to communication path losses, such as ablation, charged particle emission, charring, and chemical changes in the target materials. Directed-energy impact on the target material leads to target heating and consequent ablation. In this paper, a numerical model has been developed to describe the laser induced ablation of metal surfaces. The model describes the absorption of the laser energy by the metal and the resulting temperature rise in the surface. This temperature rise then induces ablation of the target material. Results for an aluminum target irradiated with a KrF laser were obtained. Temperature profiles in the target material and surface temperature changes are presented along with the ablation rate as a function of time as the aluminum target is irradiated. This report presents results for cases when laser energy absorption by the plasma plume created above the surface is not significant.
    • SCALABLE LOW COMPLEXITY CODER FOR HIGH RESOLUTION AIRBORNE VIDEO

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Bilgin, Ali; Lalgudi, Hariharan G.; Marcellin, Michael W.; Bilgin, Ali; Nadar, Mariappan S.; University of Arizona; Siemens Corporate Research (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Real-time transmission of airborne images to a ground station is highly desirable in many telemetering applications. Such transmission is often through an error prone, time varying wireless channel, possibly under jamming conditions. Hence, a fast, efficient, scalable, and error resilient image compression scheme is vital to realize the full potential of airborne reconnaisance. JPEG2000, the current international standard for image compression, offers most of these features. However, the computational complexity of JPEG2000 limits its use in some applications. Thus, we present a scalable low complexity coder (SLCC) that possesses many desirable features of JPEG2000, yet having high throughput.
    • IDAPS CAD-BASED STORE SEPARATION ANALYSIS OF DEPLOYABLE SURFACES

      Paulick, Michael J.; TYBRIN Corporation; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The Image Data Automated Processing System (IDAPS), developed by the 96th Communications Group Test and Analysis Division at Eglin AFB, uses a CAD-based image matching technique to calculate a trajectory of a store separation event. The latest evolution of this system has been in production for several years and has proven to be both an accurate and a valuable tool for evaluating flight releases of bombs, fuel tanks, missiles, and other stores. This paper describes a prototype capability that is being developed for assessing fin and wing deployment angles.
    • PERFORMANCE OF UNITARY SPACE TIME CODES GENERATED BY GIVENS ROTATION MATRICES IN MULTIPLE-INPUT,MULTIPLEOUTPUT COMMUNICATION CHANNELS

      Kosbar, Kurt; Stanley, Seth; University of Missouri (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output (MIMO) communication systems promise to provide significantly higher data rates at no increase in transmitted power or bandwidth. Unfortunately it is challenging to locate space-time codes which achieve these gains. It was recently shown that codes based on Givens Rotation Matrices (GRM) out perform many of the more conventional space-time codes at extreme values of signal to noise ratio (SNR). This paper investigates the performance of GRM codes over a wider range of SNR, to determine their usefulness in MIMO applications of interest to the telemetry community.
    • THE ARCHITECTURE OF AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION NETWORKS

      Roach, John; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The development of network-based data acquisition systems has resulted in a new architecture for supporting flight instrumentation that has the potential to revolutionize the way we test our aircraft. Unlike conventional flight test instrumentation, networks provide for a two-way communication path between all elements of the system, utilize packetized data, support communication protocols, have dynamic quality of service levels, can be subject to loss of data, utilize asynchronous transmission behavior and provide an even higher level of time synchronization. Different flight test architectures can be realized which combine each of the previous attributes in different ways; finding the best architecture for a set of given applications while minimizing cost and complexity is a very difficult problem. For the last 3 years, the Network Products Division at Teletronics has been involved in the design and evaluation of aircraft instrumentation networks for both customers and the iNET program. This paper describes the result of these efforts by discussing the high-level design of a modular architecture for an aircraft instrumentation network.
    • ARCHITECTURAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR A VARIABLE BIT RATE DATA ACQUISITION TELEMETRY ENCODER

      Lee, Jeffrey C.; L-3 Communications – Telemetry-West (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Modern telemetry systems require flexible bit rate telemetry encoders in order to optimize mission formats for varying data rate requirements and/or signal to noise conditions given a fixed transmitter power. Implementing a variable bit rate telemetry encoder requires consideration of several possible architectural topologies that place different system requirements on data acquisition modules within the encoder in order to maintain adequate signal fidelity of sensor information. This paper focuses on the requirements, design considerations and tradeoffs associated with differing architectural topologies for implementing a variable bit rate encoder and the resulting implications on the encoder systems data acquisition units.
    • OVERVIEW OF AN INTEGRATED INSTRUMENTATION DATA SYSTEM USED BY THE F-35 LIGHTNING II FLIGHT TEST PROGRAM

      Vu, Doug; Berdugo, Albert; Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Co.; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The Joint Strike Fighter program is the largest DOD contract ever awarded. There are three F-35 Lightning II variations, each intended to meet the specific needs of the Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, and U.S. Allies. The Data System required for this flight test program challenged the conventional ways used in instrumenting test aircraft. Typical data systems available today don’t provide the level of hardware and software integration required for today’s complex applications. For example, cockpit control panels, recording systems, TM transmitters, data acquisition systems and avionic bus interface units are all independent systems. Additionally, avionic bus catalogs, ground-based systems, and flight setup software have historically been independent components. This paper will describe the hardware and software components used by the F-35 flight test program to provide an integrated system. A special emphasis will be given to the methods used to accommodate rapid changes to the IEEE-1394B avionic bus catalog including the acquisition of that data, and the use of an IRIG-106 Chapter 10 distributed multiplexer / recorder system, which is being used simultaneously as a data acquisition system.
    • THE EVALUATION AND INTEGRATION OF AN INSTRUMENTATION AND TELEMETRY SYSTEM WITH SOQPSK MODULATION AND CONTROL INTEGRATED WITH AVIONICS DISPLAYS

      Wegener, John A.; Zettwoch, Robert N.; Roche, Michael C.; The Boeing Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      This paper describes the integration activities associated with the instrumentation and telemetry system developed for an F/A-18 Hornet Flight Test program, including bench integration, avionics integration, and aircraft ground and flight checkout. The system is controlled by a Boeing Integrated Defense System (IDS) Flight Test Instrumentation designed Instrumentation Control Unit (ICU), which interfaces to an avionics pilot display and Ground Support Unit (GSU) to set up the instrumentation during preflight and control the instrumentation during flight. The system takes in MIL-STD-1553, analog parameters, Ethernet, Fibre Channel, and video, and records these with onboard recorders. Selected subsets of this data may be routed to the telemetry system, which features two RF streams, each of which contains up to four PCM streams combined into a composite by a data combiner. The RF streams are transmitted by multi-mode digital transmitters capable of PCM-FM or Shaped Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (SOQPSK), with selectable Turbo-Product Code (TPC) Forward Error Correction (FEC). This paper describes integration of the system with the IDS Flight Test Integration Test Bench (ITB), production avionics integration facilities, and final aircraft ground checkout and initial flight tests. It describes results of integration activities and bench evaluation of the telemetry system.
    • RANGE SAFETY CASE STUDY: WESTERN RANGE CENTRALIZED TELEMETRY PROCESSING SYSTEM (WR CTPS), A LARGE DISTRIBUTED GROUND SYSTEM

      Mather, Jonathan; Shaw, Nancy; L-3 Communications Telemetry-West; Lockheed Martin Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      This paper presents a case study of the Western Range Centralized Telemetry Processing Subsystem (WR CTPS). This system was developed by Lockheed Martin Integrated Systems and Global Services and L-3 Communications Telemetry-West as part of the Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) IIA program. Requirements included real-time simultaneous acquisition of 16 PCM streams at rates of up to 30M bits per second; real-time processing; and data display on workstations connected over a gigabit Ethernet network. This system is designed for range safety and needs to be fault-tolerant while maintaining 100 percent data availability in the event of a single failure during an operation. The development of such a system demanded a rigorous Systems Engineering approach to ensure the successful upgrade and deployment onto the range infrastructure. This case study provides an overview of the system technical requirements and its architecture. The summary presents challenges encountered during the development and lessons learned while meeting them.
    • ACHIEVING PORTABILITY FOR LEGACY SOFTWARE USING JAVA

      Cooper, D. Kelly; TYBRIN Corporation; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Increasingly, many software developers are facing the challenge of adapting software applications developed on one platform to work on multiple platforms. While software standards have helped this effort, they do not go far enough, and many platforms only partially support these standards leaving many needed functions in platform specific libraries. This is particularly evident in the areas of graphics and user interfaces, threading and synchronization, and in network and file access. Fortunately, Java offers a common interface where native libraries diverge. This paper outlines a phased strategy for migrating platform specific applications to be platform independent while reusing the robust, existing algorithms.
    • Instrumentation and Data Processing Efficiencies Employed on the P-8A Poseidon System Development and Demonstration Program

      Galloway, Dawn M.; Winkelmann, Christian H.; The Boeing Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The P-8A Poseidon is a long-range anti-submarine warfare, anti-surface warfare, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance aircraft. The Test & Evaluation data requirements for the System Development and Demonstration (SDD) phase far exceed any Boeing military program to date. The data requirements include MIL-STD-1553, Gigabit Ethernet, 10/100 Ethernet, NTSC, Video/Audio, ARINC 429, RS232, CAN and PCM data in addition to being CAIS and RTPS compatible. The strategy for the design of the instrumentation and data processing architecture was to create a common system that could be used for data acquisition and processing for all seven test articles and used for both flight and ground testing. The common approach enables efficiencies and benefits to be shared in all testing and reduces the overall cost to the program.
    • DESIGN OF A MISSION DATA STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM FOR NASA DRYDEN FLIGHT RESEARCH CENTER

      Lux, Jessica; Downing, Bob; Sheldon, Jack; NASA Dryden Flight Research Center; Arcata Associates, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) employs the WATR Integrated Next Generation System (WINGS) for the processing and display of aeronautical flight data. This report discusses the post-mission segment of the WINGS architecture. A team designed and implemented a system for the near- and long-term storage and distribution of mission data for flight projects at DFRC, providing the user with intelligent access to data. Discussed are the legacy system, an industry survey, system operational concept, high-level system features, and initial design efforts.