• DESIGN OF A CONFIGURATIONAND MANAGEMENT TOOL FORINSTRUMENTATION NETWORKS

      Roach, John; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The development of network-based data acquisition systems has resulted in a new architecture for supporting flight instrumentation that has the potential to revolutionize the way we test our aircraft. However, the inherent capability and flexibility in a networked test architecture can only be realized by the flight engineer if a sufficiently powerful toolset is available that can configure and manage the system. This paper introduces the concept of an instrumentation configuration and management system (ICMS) that acts as the central resource for configuring, controlling, and monitoring the instrumentation network. Typically, the ICMS supports a graphical user interface into the workings of the instrumentation network, providing the user with a friendly and efficient way to verify the operation of the system. Statistics being gathered at different peripherals within the network would be collected by this tool and formatted for interpretation by the user. Any error conditions or out-of-bounds situations would be detected by the ICMS and signaled to the user. Changes made to the operation of any of the peripherals in the network (if permitted) would be managed by the ICMS to ensure consistency of the system. Furthermore, the ICMS could guarantee that the appropriate procedures were being followed and that the operator had the required privileges needed to make any changes. This paper describes the high-level design of a modular and multi-platform ICMS and its use within the measurement-centric aircraft instrumentation network architecture under development by the Network Products Division at Teletronics.
    • REORDERING PACKET BASED DATA IN REAL-TIME DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS

      Kilpatrick, Stephen; Rasche, Galen; Cunningham, Chris; Moodie, Myron; Abbott, Ben; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Ubiquitous internet protocol (IP) hardware has reached performance and capability levels that allow its use in data collection and real-time processing applications. Recent development experience with IP-based airborne data acquisition systems has shown that the open, pre-existing IP tools, standards, and capabilities support this form of distribution and sharing of data quite nicely, especially when combined with IP multicast. Unfortunately, the packet based nature of our approach also posed some problems that required special handling to achieve performance requirements. We have developed methods and algorithms for the filtering, selecting, and retiming problems associated with packet-based systems and present our approach in this paper.
    • DIFFERENTIAL ENCODING REVEALED: AN EXPLANATION OF THE TIER-1 DIFFERENTIAL ENCODING IN IRIG 106

      Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      IRIG 106-04 specifies differential encoding for use with the interoperable Tier-1 modulations to deal with phase and delay-axis ambiguities associated with PLL-based carrier phase synchronization. The origins of the differential encoding have been shrouded in the mists of an unavailable technical report and a mysterious connection to previous published work in the open literature. This paper removes the mystery by showing that the differential encoding rule results from encoding bit-by-bit transitions in the phase trajectory of an offset QPSK modulated carrier.
    • TELEMETRY AND COMMAND FRAME ROUTING IN A MULTI-MISSION ENVIRONMENT

      Bester, Manfred; Stroozas, Brett; Bester Tracking Systems, Inc.; Stroozas Flight Ops (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      In a modern ground control network for space communications, secure peer-to-peer TCP/IP network socket connections are typically used to transfer real-time telemetry and command frames between satellite operations centers and remote ground stations. Reliable and timely reconfiguration of data paths for upcoming pass supports becomes rather complex when many spacecraft and ground stations are involved. This paper describes a routing software application that was developed to facilitate switching of telemetry and command data paths between multiple ground stations and spacecraft command and control systems, and to forward telemetry streams to multiple client applications in parallel. Fully automated configuration and monitoring of the data flows is accomplished via a remote control interface that is tied into a pass scheduling system. The software is part of the SatTrack Suite and currently supports multi-mission flight operations, including those of the recently launched THEMIS constellation mission at Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley.
    • HIGH-G TELEMETRY SYSTEM FOR TANK MUNITIONS

      Flyash, Boris; Platovskiy, Steve; Army Research Development and Engineering Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The High-G Telemetry System for Tank Munitions was designed for and used on the Tank Projectile Course Correction Project, which is a program to design, develop, manufacture, assemble and deliver a course correction system, for a 120mm projectile by increasing the probability of hit against stationary and moving targets. The Precision Munitions Instrumentation Division (PMID) of U.S. Army TACOM-ARDEC has been providing high “G” telemetry services for over 50 years. Some of the capabilities of the group involve design, development, fabrication, testing, and data acquisition and analysis. The Precision Munitions Instrumentation Division is supporting this program by designing and manufacturing a telemetry system for monitoring on-board divert mechanism operation and sensors during the gun launch and in-flight. The telemetry system that was designed for this effort was a six channel voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) FM/FM (frequency modulation) telemetry system. It was designed as a modular system that included a battery module, a multiplexer module, and a transmitter module. The system interfaced with a contractor’s electronics modules through a set of 15-pin MDM connectors. The telemetry package was integrated into a 120mm tank round and fired at approximately 50Kg’s. The telemeters were 100% successful in surviving the gun launch and collecting live flight data. Data transmitted by the telemeter included on-board sensor suite data, processor data, power levels, and others. The maximum frequency response of the system is 50 KHz, in order to transmit the processor’s digital data.
    • MEASUREMENT-CENTRIC DATA MODEL FOR INSTRUMENTATION CONFIGURATION

      Malatesta, William; Fink, Clay; Naval Air Systems Command; Johns Hopkins University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      CTEIP has launched the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project to foster advances in networking and telemetry technology to meet emerging needs of major test programs. In the past these programs have been constrained by vendor proprietary equipment configuration utilities that force a significant learning curve on the part of instrumentation personnel to understand hardware idiosyncrasies and require significant human interaction and manipulation of data to be exchanged between different components of the end-to-end test system. This paper describes an ongoing effort to develop a measurement-centric data model of airborne data acquisition systems. The motivation for developing such a model is to facilitate hardware and software interoperability and to alleviate the need for vendor-specific knowledge on the part of the instrumentation engineer. This goal is driven by requirements derived from scenarios collected by the iNET program. This approach also holds the promise of decreased human interaction with and manipulation of data to be exchanged between system components.
    • STOPPING LAUNCH PAD DELAYS, LAUNCH FAILURES, SATELLITE INFANT MORTALITIES AND ON ORBIT SATELLITE FAILURES USING TELEMETRY PROGNOSTIC TECHNOLOGY

      Losik, Len (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Telemetry Prognostics is Failure Prediction using telemetry for launch vehicle and satellite space flight equipment to stop launch failures, launch pad delays, satellite infant mortalities and satellite on orbit failures. This technology characterizes telemetry behaviors that are latent, transient, and go undetected by the most experienced engineering personnel and software diagnostic tools during integration and test, launch operations and on orbit activities stopping launch pad delays, launch failures, infant mortalities and on orbit failures. Telemetry prognostics yield a technology with state-of-the-art innovative techniques for determining critical on-board equipment remaining useful life taking into account system states, attitude reorientations, equipment usage patterns, failure modes and piece part failure characteristics to increase the reliability, usability, serviceability, availability and safety of our nation’s space systems.
    • A WIDEBAND CHANNEL MODEL FOR SHF-BAND TELEMETRY OVER WATER

      Rice, Michael; Lei, Qiang; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Data recorded during multipath channel sounding experiments, conducted off the coast of Pt. Mugu Naval Air Station at 8.0 GHz was used to model the multipath interference at SHF band over water. The modeling results show that a three ray model consisting of line-of-sight propagation and two reflected propagation paths is a good fit for the measured channel frequency responses. The properties of the multipath reflections are determined by geometry and sea state. For calm seas, the first reflection is a large amplitude short-delay reflection whereas for rough seas, the first reflection has a smaller amplitude and longer delay. The second reflection has a smaller amplitude and larger delay when the sea is calm.
    • THE TEST AND TRAINING ENABLING ARCHITECTURE, TENA, AN IMPORTANT COMPONENT IN JOINT MISSION ENVIRONMENT TEST CAPABILITY (JMETC) SUCCESSES

      Hudgins, Gene; TENA Software Development Activity (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The Joint Mission Environment Test Capability (JMETC) is a distributed live, virtual, and constructive (LVC) testing capability developed to support the acquisition community and to demonstrate Net-Ready Key Performance Parameters (KPP) requirements in a customer-specific Joint Mission Environment (JME). JMETC provides connectivity to the Services’ distributed test capabilities and simulations, as well as industry test resources. JMETC uses the Test and Training Enabling Architecture, TENA, which is well-designed for supporting JMETC events. TENA provides the architecture and software capabilities necessary to enable interoperability among range instrumentation systems, facilities, and simulations. TENA, used in major field exercises and numerous distributed test events, provides JMETC with a technology already being deployed in DoD.
    • VEHICLE NETWORK TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION

      Grace, Thomas; Hodack, Dave; Naval Air Systems Command (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      iNET is a project tasked to foster advances in networking and telemetry technology to meet emerging needs. This paper describes one objective of the project, which is standardization and interoperability. It begins to explore issues for achieving a level of interoperability among differing vendor’s hardware such as data acquisition units, data recorders, video systems, transceivers, and network encryption. Specifically, this paper addresses the expansion of the current demonstration system with the addition of multiple vendor data acquisition units. It will also attempt to address the level of standardization necessary for achieving interoperability while still enabling vendors to add their value added contributions into their products.
    • A FREQUENCY SCAN/FOLLOWING SCAN TWOWAY CARRIER ACQUISITION METHOD FOR USB SYSTEM

      Jiaxing, Liu; Hongjun, Yang; Southwest China Institute of Electronic Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      This paper introduces a frequency scan/following scan twoway carrier acquisition method for USB and its following scan slope decision algorithm. Some measures are used to improve twoway acquisition speed such as selecting initiation direction and returning to zero in the shortest path, which can be implemented by software. Theoretic analysis, mathematical expression, design method and experiment results are provided. Practical engineering application shows the twoway acquisition using this new method has many advantages such as fast speed, low cost and programmability. The method has been used in Chinese USB system widely.
    • AN UPDATE ON NETWORK-BASED SECURITY TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO TELEMETRY POST-PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS ACTIVITIES

      Kalibjian, Jeff; Hewlett-Packard Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Networked based technologies (i.e. TCP/IP) have come to play an important role in the evolution of telemetry post processing services. A paramount issue when using networking to access/move telemetry data is security. In past years papers have focused on individual security technologies and how they could be used to secure telemetry data. This paper will review currently available network based security technologies, update readers on enhancements, and discuss their appropriate uses in the various phases of telemetry post-processing and analysis activities.
    • DESIGN TRADE-OFFS FOR REAL-TIME CHAPTER 10 REPRODUCTION

      Tompkins, Bob; K/Bidy, Gilles; L-3 Communications, Telemetry-West (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      This paper presents an analysis of various methods to address the reproduction of recorded Chapter 10 data in real-time. The standard IRIG 106 Chapter 10 recording format is quickly becoming the most commonly used data recording format in the community. As such, a lot of emphasis has been put on recording requirements including time-stamping, data multiplexing, etc. However, there are additional needs that must be considered when using Chapter 10 as the only permanent data record. It is often necessary to reproduce the original data stream exactly as it was recorded with all its timing characteristics. This paper presents various tradeoffs discovered while designing a real-time playback system for recorded chapter 10 data files. In particular, techniques such as just-enough buffering, data re-ordering, pre-processing, etc will be discussed.
    • ON REDUCED COMPLEXITY TECHNIQUES FOR BANDWIDTH EFFICIENT CONTINUOUS PHASE MODULATIONS IN SERIALLY CONCATENATED CODED SYSTEMS

      Perrins, Erik; Kumaraswamy, Dileep; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Serially concatenated coded (SCC) systems with continuous phase modulations (CPMs) as recursive inner codes have been known to give very high coding gains at low operative signal to noise ratios (SNRs). Moreover, concatenated coded systems with iterative decoding approach the bit error rate (BER) bounds given by the maximum likelihood (ML) criterion. Although SCC systems by themselves are reduced complexity systems when compared to the ML decoding, when very highly bandwidth efficient CPMs such as pulse code modulation /frequency modulation (PCM/FM) is used [1], they present a problem of extremely high decoding complexity at the receiver. The complexity of a CPM is described by the size of its trellis which is a function of the modulation index, the cardinality of the source alphabet and the length of the frequency pulse used. The surveyed complexity reduction techniques adopt approximations which will reduce the size of the trellis with minimal expense of power. In this paper, we present reduced complexity approaches to sub-optimally decode SCC PCM/FM by mainly two approaches - 1) Frequency pulse truncation. 2) Decision feedback.
    • Thermocouple Measurements without Custom Electronics

      Wanis, Paul; L-3 Communications Telemetry & RF Products (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Thermocouple measurements require “cold junction” compensation in order to obtain a correct reading. This compensation has traditionally been done with custom circuitry. In flight test applications where volume and power are at a premium (e.g. weapons flight test) it is desirable to have a more flexible solution that uses standard analog data acquisition channels already available as part of the encoder circuitry and performs compensation with remote software. This can be done via digital compensation, but certain measures must be taken to maintain accuracy and minimize noise. This paper describes some of these techniques and their performance tradeoffs.
    • IHAL-BASED INSTRUMENTATION CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT TOOLS

      Hamilton, John; Fernandes, Ronald; Koola, Paul; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The Instrumentation Hardware Abstraction Language (IHAL) has been developed to be a neutral language that is focused on the description and control of instrumentation systems and networks. This paper describes the various instrumentation configuration management tools we have designed that make use of IHAL’s neutral specification of instrumentation networks. We discuss the features currently present in prototypes as well as future enhancements.
    • MANAGEMENT OF NETWORK-BASED FLIGHT TEST SYSTEMS

      Moore, Michael S.; Grim, Evan T.; Kamat, Ganesh U.; Moodie, Myron L.; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Network-based instrumentation systems are rapidly replacing traditional fixed serial interconnected instrumentation in both commercial and military flight test environments. Modern network-based flight test systems are composed of large numbers of devices including high-speed network switches, data acquisition devices, recorders, telemetry interfaces, and wireless network transceivers, all of which must be managed in a coordinated fashion. Management of the network system includes configuring, controlling, and monitoring the health and status of the various devices. Configuration by hand is not a realistic option, so algorithms for automatic management must be implemented to make these systems economical and practical. This paper describes the issues that must be addressed for managing network-based flight test systems and describes a network management approach that was developed and employed to manage a large-scale network-based flight test system.
    • LONG TERM VEHICLE HEALTH MONITORING

      L3 Communications – Telemetry East; Cridland, Doug; Dehmelt, Chris (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      While any vehicle that is typically part of a flight test campaign is heavily instrumented to validate its performance, long term vehicle health monitoring is performed by a significantly reduced number of sensors due to a number of issues including cost, weight and maintainability. The development and deployment of smart sensor buses has reached a time in which they can be integrated into a larger data acquisition system environment. The benefits of these types of buses include a significant reduction in the amount of wiring and overall system complexity by placing the appropriate signal conditioners close to their respective sensors and providing data back over a common bus, that also provides a single power source. The use of a smart-sensor data collection bus, such as IntelliBus™1 or IEEE-1451, along with the continued miniaturization of signal conditioning devices, leads to the interesting possibility of permanently embedding data collection capabilities within a vehicle after the initial flight test effort has completed, providing long-term health-monitoring and diagnostic functionality that is not available today. This paper will discuss the system considerations and the benefits of a smart sensor based system and how pieces can be transitioned from flight qualification to long-term vehicle health monitoring in production vehicles.
    • EVALUATION OF UBIQUITIOUS USE OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK TECHNOLOGY IN DATA ACQUISITION AND TELEMETRY APPLICATIONS

      Kenney, Joshua D.; Cunningham, Chris J.; Abbott, Ben A.; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Industrial wireless sensor networks can be designed to meet the strict requirements of specific distributed applications. Emerging standards have enabled the development of low-cost, lowpower sensor nodes that are quickly becoming a commodity, enabling the realization of efficient and reliable data acquisition and telemetry in many systems. Moreover, new and exciting possibilities arise from the distributed computing power of the sensor nodes, the ability to monitor and aggregate data across large arrays of sensors, and the ability to model dynamic and rugged environments that were previously beyond the reach of traditional data acquisition and telemetry systems.
    • Iterative Decoding and Sparse Channel Estimation for an Underwater Acoustic Telemetry Modem

      Iltis, Ronald A.; University of California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      An acoustic modem employing direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) signaling is considered with LDPC coding. The underwater acoustic channel is tracked using a Kalman filter which requires accurate data decisions. To improve KF performance and reduce the overall error rate, joint iterative LDPC decoding and channel estimation is proposed based on a factor graph and sum-product algorithm approximation. In this scheme, the decoder posterior log likelihood ratios (LLRs) provide data decisions for the KF. Decoder extrinsic LLRs are similarly incorporated into the detector LLRs to yield improved priors for decoding. Error rate simulations of the overall modem are provided for a shallow-water channel model with Ricean/Rayleigh fading.