• CALCULATING AERODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS FOR A NASA APOLLO BODY USING TELEMETRY DATA FROM FREE FLIGHT RANGE TESTING

      Brown, T. Gordon; Vong, Timothy; Topper, Ben; U.S. Army Research Laboratory; Data Matrix Solutions, Inc (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) was requested by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) to perform a free-flight experiment with a telemetry (TM) instrumented sub-scaled Apollo shaped reentry vehicle in order to determine its aerodynamic coefficients. ARL has developed a unique flight diagnostic capability for reconstructing flight trajectory and determining aerodynamic coefficients of projectiles by using sensor data telemetered from free flight experiments. A custom launch package was designed for this experiment that included the Apollo shaped projectile, which housed a modular telemetry unit, and a rapid prototyped sabot. The experiment was able to produce estimates for aerodynamic coefficients that were considered accurate and this technique is appealing to NASA for the development of their spacecraft in the future.
    • A Common Solution to Custom Network Applications

      Yin, Jennifer; Dehmelt, Chris; L-3 Communications – Telemetry East (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The deployment of networks has become ubiquitous in the avionics world, as they have opened the door to a rich suite of common and open hardware and software tools that provide greater functionality and interoperability. Unfortunately, a number of networked avionic and other related applications can be affected by vendor or application specific proprietary implementations. These “closed” implementations may reduce or eliminate the benefits of a standardized network, requiring the customization of the data acquisition system to allow it to properly operate with the other devices. This paper presents the approach that was recently employed for the development of a network interface module that can be quickly reconfigured to address the changing requirements of network applications, including monitoring of industry standard and proprietary networks, or providing the command and data interface to the data acquisition system itself. This reconfigurability of the module is shown in a review of four different specific applications.
    • COMPARISON OF NONCOHERENT DETECTORS FOR SOQPSK AND GMSK IN PHASE NOISE CHANNELS

      Perrins, Erik; Syed, Afzal; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      SOQPSK and GMSK are highly bandwidth efficient continuous phase modulation (CPM) schemes with several desirable qualities. In both cases, coherent detectors are available with good performance in AWGN. In this paper, we develop reduced complexity noncoherent detectors for SOQPSK and GMSK; and discuss a phase noise model. This is followed by a performance comparison of both the noncoherent detectors in channels with phase noise.
    • DATA DISPLAY INTERCHANGEABILITY FOR HETEROGENEOUS PLATFORMS

      Ross, Robert W.; K/Bidy, Gilles; L-3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      A test range facility may consist of a heterogeneous array of computer and workstation assets, given the need to support various new and legacy projects. The data display and analysis software for this heterogeneous environment can be equally diverse, with different application software available and/or supported on the workstations. The demands of managing an operator team skilled in the use of the various software applications, along with the support and maintenance costs, can be restrictive to a cost-effective and productive operation environment. The need for data display and analysis software that can run on all platforms in a heterogeneous environment plays a major role in creating an effective workforce capable of supporting multiple projects without the need to specialize on specific data display software. Likewise, the costs of maintenance and support are greatly reduced. A pure Java™ data display and analysis software product can meet the requirements of this need.
    • DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN OPTICAL TELEMETRY SYSTEM

      Spjut, Erik; Acon, Chris; George, Nisha; Kimbrell, Scott; Pivonka, Dan; Rowland, Clarence; Schulze, W. Buck; Harvey Mudd College (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The Edwards Air Force Base Undergraduate Clinic Team at Harvey Mudd College designed, built and tested a laser-based telemetry system for use on test aircraft at the EAFB Flight Test Center. The system was designed to communicate from an aircraft to a stationary, terrestrial receiver at a distance of up to 60 miles while traveling at speeds up to 230 mph. The transmitter system is restricted to the size of a standard 4’ tall 19" wide equipment rack. The transmitter is designed to maintain a constant laser footprint diameter of 100 meters at the receiver and use both coarse acquisition and closed-loop fine tracking systems. The minimum data rate is 10 Mbps. Sub-system testing and integration was not completed. Completed sub-systems included GPS/INS-based tracking (for coarse-tracking), position-sensitive-detector (PSD) optics (a finetracking system component), a transmitter gimbal assembly, software used to integrate and control hardware at the transmitter and receiver, and a complete receiver system. A PSD-based tracking system and an automatic collimation system were designed and constructed, but only partially tested.
    • DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF A MULTI-MODE MULTI-RATE TELEMETRY TRANSMITTER

      Ahmed, Walid K. M.; Wougk, Harald; Tyco Electronics Wireless Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Typical telemetry transmitter designs have focused on analog-circuit implementations, which suffer limitations when required to support multi-mode and multi-rate capabilities. In this paper, we introduce a transmitter design (and associated techniques) that employ an all-digital baseband line-up that utilizes only one single-rate clock. Thus, keeping the analog hardware to a minimum and providing the maximum possible flexibility through digital programmability, in order to efficiently support multi-mode (i.e., various modulation schemes) and multi-rate (i.e., various bit-rates) capabilities. The telemetry standard is defined in the IRIG 106-04 specification document published by the Range Commanders Council (RCC) government telemetry group [1]. The Telemetry standard supports several modulation schemes all of which fall under the general modulation family of continuous phase modulation (CPM). Out of such a family of modulation schemes, the work presented in this paper focuses on two modulation schemes as examples, namely, SOQPSK and the PCM/FM. However, this does not limit the scope of the ideas and techniques proposed in this paper. We present various design techniques as well as implementation considerations. We also present actual measured results using a test-bed and a synthesizer IC that have been developed in our laboratories. Finally, we compare the measured results with simulations in order to validate the performance of our implemented design.
    • DESIGN OF A CONFIGURATIONAND MANAGEMENT TOOL FORINSTRUMENTATION NETWORKS

      Roach, John; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The development of network-based data acquisition systems has resulted in a new architecture for supporting flight instrumentation that has the potential to revolutionize the way we test our aircraft. However, the inherent capability and flexibility in a networked test architecture can only be realized by the flight engineer if a sufficiently powerful toolset is available that can configure and manage the system. This paper introduces the concept of an instrumentation configuration and management system (ICMS) that acts as the central resource for configuring, controlling, and monitoring the instrumentation network. Typically, the ICMS supports a graphical user interface into the workings of the instrumentation network, providing the user with a friendly and efficient way to verify the operation of the system. Statistics being gathered at different peripherals within the network would be collected by this tool and formatted for interpretation by the user. Any error conditions or out-of-bounds situations would be detected by the ICMS and signaled to the user. Changes made to the operation of any of the peripherals in the network (if permitted) would be managed by the ICMS to ensure consistency of the system. Furthermore, the ICMS could guarantee that the appropriate procedures were being followed and that the operator had the required privileges needed to make any changes. This paper describes the high-level design of a modular and multi-platform ICMS and its use within the measurement-centric aircraft instrumentation network architecture under development by the Network Products Division at Teletronics.
    • DESIGN OF A MISSION DATA STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM FOR NASA DRYDEN FLIGHT RESEARCH CENTER

      Lux, Jessica; Downing, Bob; Sheldon, Jack; NASA Dryden Flight Research Center; Arcata Associates, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) employs the WATR Integrated Next Generation System (WINGS) for the processing and display of aeronautical flight data. This report discusses the post-mission segment of the WINGS architecture. A team designed and implemented a system for the near- and long-term storage and distribution of mission data for flight projects at DFRC, providing the user with intelligent access to data. Discussed are the legacy system, an industry survey, system operational concept, high-level system features, and initial design efforts.
    • DESIGN TRADE-OFFS FOR REAL-TIME CHAPTER 10 REPRODUCTION

      Tompkins, Bob; K/Bidy, Gilles; L-3 Communications, Telemetry-West (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      This paper presents an analysis of various methods to address the reproduction of recorded Chapter 10 data in real-time. The standard IRIG 106 Chapter 10 recording format is quickly becoming the most commonly used data recording format in the community. As such, a lot of emphasis has been put on recording requirements including time-stamping, data multiplexing, etc. However, there are additional needs that must be considered when using Chapter 10 as the only permanent data record. It is often necessary to reproduce the original data stream exactly as it was recorded with all its timing characteristics. This paper presents various tradeoffs discovered while designing a real-time playback system for recorded chapter 10 data files. In particular, techniques such as just-enough buffering, data re-ordering, pre-processing, etc will be discussed.
    • DEVELOPMENT OF A NETWORK-CENTRIC DATA ACQUISITION, RECORDING, AND TELEMETRY SYSTEM

      Moodie, Myron; Newton, Todd; Abbott, Ben; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The growth of the Internet and the resulting increasing speeds and decreasing prices of network equipment have spurred much interest in applying networks to flight test applications. However, the best-effort, variable-latency nature of network transport causes challenges that must be addressed to provide reliable data acquisition and timing performance. This paper describes the major issues that must be addressed when designing and implementing real-time networking applications. An overview of a recently implemented large-scale, network-centric data acquisition, recording, and telemetry system for commercial flight test applications provides a real-world example of what is currently achievable.
    • DEVELOPMENT OF AN UNMANNED AIRBORNE TELEMETRY TRACKING AND RELAY SYSTEM

      Pho, Tam P.; Wysong, Henry D.; Aerocross Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Aerocross Systems, Inc. is developing a low-cost unmanned airborne telemetry relay system to augment the USAF Air Armament Center’s Eglin Gulf Range instrumentation resources. The system is designed to remotely autotrack and relay S-Band telemetry and VHF/UHF voice communications from test articles beyond the line-of-sight of land-based instrumentation. The system consists of a medium altitude/endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), a Mission Control Station, and a remotely operated telemetry/voice tracking and relay instrumentation suite. Successfully developed and deployed, the system will contribute to lower range costs while enhancing range instrumentation performance.
    • DEVELOPMENT, EVALUATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SURFACE-MOUNT, HIGH-G ACCELEROMETER

      Peregino, Philip J., II; Bukowski, Edward F.; U.S. Army Research Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The Endevco model 7270A high-g accelerometer has been used successfully in numerous flight tests at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory. The accelerometer is available in ranges as low as 6,000 g’s up to 200,000 g’s so they can be used in a variety of situations to measure setback, set forward and balloting in artillery rounds, mortars and tank projectiles to name a few. However, one of the disadvantages of the model 7270A is its physical size, in the era of die level and surface mount components, the 7270A is relatively large. The sensing element is packaged inside a metal case with screw holes for mounting to a rigid surface. In addition, there are wires protruding from the case for electrical connections. In the area of munitions, small cavities don’t always afford the room for a large gauge. It was desirable to repackage the die in a smaller container and make it a surface mount component for a printed circuit board. A contract was developed for Endevco to repackage the die and to develop a tri-axial version with the repackaged die. The newly developed accelerometers were tested and evaluated by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory.
    • DIFFERENTIAL ENCODING REVEALED: AN EXPLANATION OF THE TIER-1 DIFFERENTIAL ENCODING IN IRIG 106

      Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      IRIG 106-04 specifies differential encoding for use with the interoperable Tier-1 modulations to deal with phase and delay-axis ambiguities associated with PLL-based carrier phase synchronization. The origins of the differential encoding have been shrouded in the mists of an unavailable technical report and a mysterious connection to previous published work in the open literature. This paper removes the mystery by showing that the differential encoding rule results from encoding bit-by-bit transitions in the phase trajectory of an offset QPSK modulated carrier.
    • DIVERSITY BRANCH SELECTION IN REAL WORLD APPLICATION

      Formeister, Richard; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Multipath propagation continues to be the dominant channel impairment in many aeronautical mobile telemetry (AMT) applications. Avoidance and diversity techniques continue to be the only practical means to combat this problem. In 2004 limited results from the development of a new post-detection, no-hit diversity selector were reported. Late breaking results from flight test were reported orally. A review of the methodology, flight test results and conclusions are presented in this paper. Also presented is an update describing enhancements of the implementation which emphasize operational flexibility as well as support for alternate demodulator products.
    • THE EFFECT OF NETWORK CENTRIC OPERATIONS IN TELEMETRY FOR AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST AND EVALUATION

      Santos, Eunice E.; Jones, Charles H.; Harris, Charles; Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      We discuss how aspects of telemetry can be effectively incorporated and modeled as a component within network-centric operations and warfare paradigms. Telemetry is particularly vital in Air Force Flight Test and Evaluation. As such, this paper has a specific emphasis and provides discussion within this domain. We also present how an existing framework for networkcentric operations and warfare can be particularly beneficial to telemetry modeling, and discuss the potential insights and utility within this context.
    • ENHANCED FLIGHT TERMINATION SYSTEM FLIGHT DEMONSTRATION AND RESULTS

      Tow, David; Arce, Dennis; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Bourne Technologies, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      This paper discusses the methodology, requirements, tests, and implementation plan for the live demonstration of the Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS) using a missile program at two locations in Florida: Eglin Air Force Base (AFB) and Tyndall AFB. The demonstration included the integration of EFTS Flight Termination Receivers (FTRs) onto the missile and the integration of EFTS-program-developed transmitter assets with the mission control system at Eglin and Tyndall AFBs. The initial test stages included ground testing and captive-carry flights, followed by a launch in which EFTS was designated as the primary flight termination system for the launch.
    • ENHANCING THE PCM/FM LINK - WITHOUT THE MATH

      Fewer, Colm; Wilmot, Sinbad; ACRA CONTROL INC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Since the 1970s PCM/FM has been the dominant modulation scheme used for RF telemetry. However more stringent spectrum availability as well as increasing data rates means that more advanced transmission methods are required to keep pace with industry demands. ARTM Tier-I and Tier-II are examples of how the PCM/FM link can be enhanced. However these techniques require a significant increase in the complexity of the receiver/detector for optimal recovery. This paper focuses on a quantitative approach to improving the rate and quality of data using existing PCM/FM links. In particular ACRA CONTROL and BAE SYSTEMS set themselves the goal of revisiting the pre-modulation filter, diversity combiner and bit-sync. By implementing programmable adaptive hardware, it was possible to explore the various tradeoffs offered by modifying pulse shapes and spectral occupancy, inclusion of forward error correction and smart source selection. This papers looks at the improvements achieved at each phase of the evaluation.
    • EVALUATING IEEE 1588 IN A HOMOGENOUS SWITCHED NETWORK TEST ARTICLE SEGMENT

      Wilmot, Sinbad; Corry, Diarmuid; ACRA CONTROL INC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      At the 2007 iNet Technology Demonstrator multiple vendors are asked to participate to develop and evaluate protocols for time synchronization, configuration identification and heterogeneous data packet transfer. The iNet initiative from RCC is aimed at focusing and collating telemetry network developments within the wider sphere of commercial and military network developments. The KAM-500 is an inherently networked data-acquisition system offering seamless gateways to many heterogeneous data sources, such as different sensor devices, avionics-busses, networks and video sources. This paper offers insights into the impact of traffic and network configuration on the performance of heterogeneous data acquisition in a homogenous-switched network based a 1588 enabled controller module.
    • THE EVALUATION AND INTEGRATION OF AN INSTRUMENTATION AND TELEMETRY SYSTEM WITH SOQPSK MODULATION AND CONTROL INTEGRATED WITH AVIONICS DISPLAYS

      Wegener, John A.; Zettwoch, Robert N.; Roche, Michael C.; The Boeing Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      This paper describes the integration activities associated with the instrumentation and telemetry system developed for an F/A-18 Hornet Flight Test program, including bench integration, avionics integration, and aircraft ground and flight checkout. The system is controlled by a Boeing Integrated Defense System (IDS) Flight Test Instrumentation designed Instrumentation Control Unit (ICU), which interfaces to an avionics pilot display and Ground Support Unit (GSU) to set up the instrumentation during preflight and control the instrumentation during flight. The system takes in MIL-STD-1553, analog parameters, Ethernet, Fibre Channel, and video, and records these with onboard recorders. Selected subsets of this data may be routed to the telemetry system, which features two RF streams, each of which contains up to four PCM streams combined into a composite by a data combiner. The RF streams are transmitted by multi-mode digital transmitters capable of PCM-FM or Shaped Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (SOQPSK), with selectable Turbo-Product Code (TPC) Forward Error Correction (FEC). This paper describes integration of the system with the IDS Flight Test Integration Test Bench (ITB), production avionics integration facilities, and final aircraft ground checkout and initial flight tests. It describes results of integration activities and bench evaluation of the telemetry system.
    • EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL-OFF-THE-SHELF LITHIUM BATTERIES FOR USE IN BALLISTIC TELEMETRY SYSTEMS

      Bukowski, Edward F.; U.S. Army Research Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      As technological advances continue to be made in the commercial sectors of portable and wireless communication products, additional advancements in battery technology have also been made. These advancements have allowed for the rapid growth of a large variety of commercially available batteries which have the capability to meet or even exceed the current power and size requirements for numerous ballistic telemetry systems. The replacement of a custom built battery with a COTS battery would provide immediate advantages such as lower cost, shorter lead times and higher availability. The overall objective of this paper is to provide ballistic telemetry systems engineers and designers with multiple low cost, readily available alternatives to traditional custom made power sources.