May, Linda R.; Honeywell Technology Solutions, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Wallops Flight Facility is NASA’s principal site for management and implementation of suborbital research programs. Recently, WFF resumed its successful satellite-launching history without sacrificing its culture of being low-cost and responsive. Part of what made this possible is the GPS radiosonde. During recent successful Minotaur I launches, this tiny instrument provided upper-air observations that were used in six categories of analysis necessary for such launches: toxics, blast, winds aloft, debris, weather and forecasting, and post-flight. In addition, the GPS radiosonde has reduced costs associated with Wind Weighting at Wallops, and is used in numerous range research projects.

      Burkes, Darryl A.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The primary objective of the NASA Space-Based Range Demonstration and Certification program was to develop and demonstrate space-based range capabilities. The Flight Demonstration 2 flights at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center were conducted to support Range Safety (commanding and position reporting) and high-rate (5 Mbps) Range User (video and data) requirements. Required ground support infrastructure included a flight termination system computer, the ground-data distribution network to send range safety commands and receive range safety and range user telemetry data and video, and the ground processing systems at the Dryden Mission Control Center to process range safety and range user telemetry data and video.

      Kosbar, Kurt; Pratt, Jason; University of Missouri (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Cognitive radio is a reasonably new branch of research aimed at more fully utilizing the RF spectrum. This is accomplished by allowing wireless communication systems to dynamically choose a frequency band, and a modulation technique, based on the current state of the RF spectrum as perceived by the cognitive radio network. This paper will give a brief introduction of cognitive radio networks, and describe a hardware platform designed at the IFT/UMR Telemetry Learning Center. The test-bed will accommodate future research into cognitive networks, by allowing the user to dynamically change both its carrier frequency and modulation technique through software. A general description of the design of the platform is provided.

      Rice, Michael; Palmer, Joseph; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      A single-tone frequency estimator for a non-uniformly sampled sinusoid is proposed. A nonuniformly sampled sinusoid may be generated from the received training sequences of a telemetry link. The frequency of the sinusoid matches the carrier-frequency-offset (CFO) of the received signal, and estimation of this quantity allows a receiver to compensate for the CFO. The performance bounds of this type of estimator have been investigated in the literature, though little work has been published on practical algorithms. The estimator proposed in this paper is a generalization of phase-increment estimators previously described in the literature. It exhibits a low computational complexity yet converges to theoretical bounds at high SNR. The paper argues that a periodic training sequence structure, combined with the new estimator, allows for a high-accuracy and lowcomplexity CFO compensator.

      Flyash, Boris; Platovskiy, Steve; Army Research Development and Engineering Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The High-G Telemetry System for Tank Munitions was designed for and used on the Tank Projectile Course Correction Project, which is a program to design, develop, manufacture, assemble and deliver a course correction system, for a 120mm projectile by increasing the probability of hit against stationary and moving targets. The Precision Munitions Instrumentation Division (PMID) of U.S. Army TACOM-ARDEC has been providing high “G” telemetry services for over 50 years. Some of the capabilities of the group involve design, development, fabrication, testing, and data acquisition and analysis. The Precision Munitions Instrumentation Division is supporting this program by designing and manufacturing a telemetry system for monitoring on-board divert mechanism operation and sensors during the gun launch and in-flight. The telemetry system that was designed for this effort was a six channel voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) FM/FM (frequency modulation) telemetry system. It was designed as a modular system that included a battery module, a multiplexer module, and a transmitter module. The system interfaced with a contractor’s electronics modules through a set of 15-pin MDM connectors. The telemetry package was integrated into a 120mm tank round and fired at approximately 50Kg’s. The telemeters were 100% successful in surviving the gun launch and collecting live flight data. Data transmitted by the telemeter included on-board sensor suite data, processor data, power levels, and others. The maximum frequency response of the system is 50 KHz, in order to transmit the processor’s digital data.

      Franz, Russell; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      An increasing number of flight research and airborne science experiments now contain network-ready systems that could benefit from a high-rate bidirectional air-to-ground network link. A prototype system, the High-Rate Wireless Airborne Network Demonstration, was developed from commercial off-the-shelf components while leveraging the existing telemetry infrastructure on the Western Aeronautical Test Range. This approach resulted in a cost-effective, long-range, line-of-sight network link over the S and the L frequency bands using both frequency modulation and shaped-offset quadrature phase-shift keying modulation. This paper discusses system configuration and the flight test results.

      Paulick, Michael J.; TYBRIN Corporation; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The Image Data Automated Processing System (IDAPS), developed by the 96th Communications Group Test and Analysis Division at Eglin AFB, uses a CAD-based image matching technique to calculate a trajectory of a store separation event. The latest evolution of this system has been in production for several years and has proven to be both an accurate and a valuable tool for evaluating flight releases of bombs, fuel tanks, missiles, and other stores. This paper describes a prototype capability that is being developed for assessing fin and wing deployment angles.

      Hamilton, John; Fernandes, Ronald; Koola, Paul; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The Instrumentation Hardware Abstraction Language (IHAL) has been developed to be a neutral language that is focused on the description and control of instrumentation systems and networks. This paper describes the various instrumentation configuration management tools we have designed that make use of IHAL’s neutral specification of instrumentation networks. We discuss the features currently present in prototypes as well as future enhancements.

      Rice, Michael; Lavin, Christopher; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The Viterbi algorithm has uses for both the decoding of convolutional codes and the detection of signals distorted by intersymbol interference (ISI). The operation of these processes is characterized by a trellis. An ARTM Tier-1 space-time coded telemetry receiver required the use of an irregular Viterbi trellis decoder to solve the dual antenna problem. The nature of the solution requires the trellis to deviate from conventional trellis structure and become time-varying. This paper explores the architectural challenges of such a trellis and presents a solution using a modified systolic array allowing the trellis to be realized in hardware.
    • Instrumentation and Data Processing Efficiencies Employed on the P-8A Poseidon System Development and Demonstration Program

      Galloway, Dawn M.; Winkelmann, Christian H.; The Boeing Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The P-8A Poseidon is a long-range anti-submarine warfare, anti-surface warfare, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance aircraft. The Test & Evaluation data requirements for the System Development and Demonstration (SDD) phase far exceed any Boeing military program to date. The data requirements include MIL-STD-1553, Gigabit Ethernet, 10/100 Ethernet, NTSC, Video/Audio, ARINC 429, RS232, CAN and PCM data in addition to being CAIS and RTPS compatible. The strategy for the design of the instrumentation and data processing architecture was to create a common system that could be used for data acquisition and processing for all seven test articles and used for both flight and ground testing. The common approach enables efficiencies and benefits to be shared in all testing and reduces the overall cost to the program.

      Kupferschmidt, Benjamin; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Historically, different aspects of the configuration of an airborne instrumentation system were specified in a variety of different software applications. Instrumentation setup software handled the definition of measurements and PCM Formats while separate applications handled pre-flight checkout, calibration and post-flight data analysis. This led to the manual entry of the same data multiple times. Industry standards such as TMATS strive to address this problem by creating a data-interchange format for passing setup information from one application to another. However, a better alternative is to input all of the relevant setup information about the sensor and the measurement when it is initially created in the instrumentation vendor’s software. Furthermore, an additional performance enhancement can be achieved by adding the ability to perform sensor calibration and engineering unit conversions to pre-flight data visualization software that is tightly coupled with the instrumentation setup software. All of the setup information can then be transferred to the ground station for post-flight processing and data reduction. Detailed reports can also be generated for each measurement. This paper describes the flow of data through an integrated airborne instrumentation setup application that allows sensors and measurements to be defined, acquired, calibrated and converted from raw counts to engineering units. The process of performing a sensor calibration, configuring engineering unit conversions, and importing calibration and transducer data sheets will also be discussed.
    • International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 43 (2007)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10

      Ferrill, Paul; Golackson, Michael; Avionics Test and Analysis Corp.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The most recent version of IRIG 118, Test Methods for Telemetry Systems and Subsystems, was released in 1999 and does not include any guidance for testing IRIG 106 Chapter 10 recorder / reproducers. This paper will describe the methodology and tools used to perform a thorough testing process to ensure compliance with the IRIG 106-07 standard.

      Berdugo, Albert; Natale, Louis; Teletronics Technology Corporation; Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Co. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Sixteen years ago, RCC added Chapter 8 to the IRIG-106 standard for the acquisition of 100% MIL-STD-1553 data from up to eight buses for recording and/or transmission. In the past 5 years, the RCC recording committee added Chapter 10 to the IRIG-106 standard for acquisition of 100% data from PCM, MIL-STD-1553 busses, Video, ARINC-429, Ethernet, IEEE-1394, and others. IRIG-106 Chapter 10 recorder suppliers have further developed customer-specific interfaces to meet additional customer needs. These needs have included unique radar and avionic bus interfaces such as F-16 Fibre Channel, F-35 Fibre Channel, F-22 FOTR, and others. IRIG-106 Chapter 8 and Chapter 10 have provided major challenges to the user community when the acquired avionics bus data included data that must be filtered and never leave the test platform via TM or recording media. The preferred method of filtering data to ensure that it is never recorded or transmitted is to do so at the interface level with the avionic busses. This paper describes the data filtering used on the F-22 Program for the MIL-STD-1553 buses and the FOTR bus as part of the IRIG-106 Chapter 10 Multiplexer/Recorder System. This filtering method blocks selected data at the interface level prior to being transferred over the system bus to the media(s). Additionally, the paper describes the configuration method for defining the data to be blocked and the report generated in order to allow for a second party to verify proper programming of the system.
    • Iterative Decoding and Sparse Channel Estimation for an Underwater Acoustic Telemetry Modem

      Iltis, Ronald A.; University of California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      An acoustic modem employing direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) signaling is considered with LDPC coding. The underwater acoustic channel is tracked using a Kalman filter which requires accurate data decisions. To improve KF performance and reduce the overall error rate, joint iterative LDPC decoding and channel estimation is proposed based on a factor graph and sum-product algorithm approximation. In this scheme, the decoder posterior log likelihood ratios (LLRs) provide data decisions for the KF. Decoder extrinsic LLRs are similarly incorporated into the detector LLRs to yield improved priors for decoding. Error rate simulations of the overall modem are provided for a shallow-water channel model with Ricean/Rayleigh fading.

      Wurth, Timothy J.; Rodzinak, Jason; NuWaves Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Meeting the filtering requirements for telemetry transmitters and receivers can be challenging. Telemetry systems use filters to eliminate unwanted spurious or mixing products. The use of tunable microwave filters for both L and S Band can improve filter selectivity and provide low insertion losses in the filter passband. Along with meeting specifications, these microwave filters with the ability to tune an octave, reduce size and cost by the reduction of multiple, fixed-frequency filters. As size, weight and power are often a concern with aeronautical telemetry systems, this paper will demonstrate that microstrip tunable filters can be small in size and use minimal power. Telemetry transmitters are subject to difficult spurious emission and interference specifications and require selective filters to eliminate spurious signals before the final amplification. Telemetry receivers on the other hand are subject to intense Image and Local Oscillator (LO) rejection requirements and demand low insertion loss for front-end filtering. Low insertion loss filtering before the Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) circuit limits degradation to the system noise figure (NF). By using different filter topologies and state-of-the-art, high-Q varactor diodes, tunable microwave filters can be optimized for two different functions. The two functions emphasize either low insertion loss or selectivity. An important design consideration with tunable filters, when compared to typical fixed frequency filters, is the degraded intermodulation performance. This is largely due to the non-linear behavior of the varactor diodes. This paper describes the benefits and limitations of microwave tunable filter architectures suitable for both aeronautical telemetry transmitters and telemetry receivers. Information on the computer modeling of varactor diodes will be covered as a critical part of the design. Potential design considerations for microwave tunable filters will also be covered. Through the use of simulation software and filter prototypes, this paper presents dramatically improved filter performance applicable to telemetry transmitters and receivers.

      L3 Communications – Telemetry East; Cridland, Doug; Dehmelt, Chris (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      While any vehicle that is typically part of a flight test campaign is heavily instrumented to validate its performance, long term vehicle health monitoring is performed by a significantly reduced number of sensors due to a number of issues including cost, weight and maintainability. The development and deployment of smart sensor buses has reached a time in which they can be integrated into a larger data acquisition system environment. The benefits of these types of buses include a significant reduction in the amount of wiring and overall system complexity by placing the appropriate signal conditioners close to their respective sensors and providing data back over a common bus, that also provides a single power source. The use of a smart-sensor data collection bus, such as IntelliBus™1 or IEEE-1451, along with the continued miniaturization of signal conditioning devices, leads to the interesting possibility of permanently embedding data collection capabilities within a vehicle after the initial flight test effort has completed, providing long-term health-monitoring and diagnostic functionality that is not available today. This paper will discuss the system considerations and the benefits of a smart sensor based system and how pieces can be transitioned from flight qualification to long-term vehicle health monitoring in production vehicles.

      Hayes, Bob; L-3 Communications Cincinnati Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Next generation satellite communication systems require efficient coding schemes that enable high data rates, require low overhead, and have excellent bit error rate performance. A newly rediscovered class of block codes called Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes has the potential to revolutionize forward error correction (FEC) because of the very high coding rates. This paper presents a brief overview of LDPC coding and decoding. An LDPC algorithm developed by Goddard Space Flight Center is discussed, and an overview of an accompanying VHDL development by L-3 Communications Cincinnati Electronics is presented.

      Katulka, G.; Hall, R.; Peregino, P.; Muller, P.; Hundley, N.; McGee, R.; Army Research Laboratory; Dynamic Sciences Inc.; Data Matrix Solutions (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the US Army are engaged in a high-risk/high-payoff project for the development of precision-guided 60mm mortars for the benefit of the optically designated attack munition (ODAM). This paper describes the antenna design and performance characteristics required for a telemetry-based onboard diagnostic system. Efforts executed at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD met our primary objective to demonstrate rapid response low-cost capability for body-mounted antennas compatible with commercially-available telemetry products. This presentation reviews the theoretical design and antenna radiation pattern characteristics, tuning process, and returned in-flight signal strength along the trajectory. Experimental results compared favorably with theoretical link analyses. Lessons learned, ongoing applications, and future improvements are also presented.

      Lee, Jeffrey C.; Steppler, Missy; L-3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Modern telemetry systems using state of the art field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and signal processing components require lower voltage supplies to support various CMOS core geometries while still needing multiple higher voltage rails to support legacy interfaces. Addressing these power supply requirements efficiently requires switching power supply topologies that if left unchecked can generate high input surge currents and high levels of detrimental noise for both the sensitive analog signal processing circuitry and the power supply input source. This paper focuses on the design considerations and tradeoffs associated with implementing an efficient telemetry encoder power supply while mitigating the resulting noise effects typically associated with switching power supplies. This noise can negatively affect the power supply input source and the linear signal processing circuitry within the telemetry encoder.