Marcellin, Michael W.; Bilgin, Ali; Lalgudi, Hariharan G.; Marcellin, Michael W.; Bilgin, Ali; Nadar, Mariappan S.; University of Arizona; Siemens Corporate Research (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Real-time transmission of airborne images to a ground station is highly desirable in many telemetering applications. Such transmission is often through an error prone, time varying wireless channel, possibly under jamming conditions. Hence, a fast, efficient, scalable, and error resilient image compression scheme is vital to realize the full potential of airborne reconnaisance. JPEG2000, the current international standard for image compression, offers most of these features. However, the computational complexity of JPEG2000 limits its use in some applications. Thus, we present a scalable low complexity coder (SLCC) that possesses many desirable features of JPEG2000, yet having high throughput.

      Perrins, Erik; Damodaran, Kanagaraj; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      We propose serially concatenated convolutional codes with continuous phase modulation for aeronautical telemetry. Such a concatenated code has an outer encoder whose code words are permuted by an interleaver, and a modulation, which is viewed as a code and takes the interleaved words as its input and produces the modulated signal. Since bandwidth expansion is a concern when coding is introduced, we focus on high rate punctured codes of rates 2/3 through 9/10. These are obtained by puncturing the basic rate 1/2 convolutional codes with maximal free distance. At the receiver end we use a reduced complexity iterative decoding algorithm which is essentially a soft input soft output decoding algorithm. These simple highly powerful concatenated codes produce high coding gains with minimum bandwidth expansion.
    • SIMPLIFIED 2-state Detectors for SOQPSK-TG and SOQPSK-MIL

      Perrins, Erik; Kumaraswamy, Balachandra; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      We study simple trellis-based detectors for SOQPSK that have a minimal level of complexity. In particular, we show that the state complexity can be cut in half relative to previous approaches—from 4 states down to 2—with asymptotically optimum performance. We give two possible means of achieving this: the pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) technique and the pulse truncation (PT) technique; both of these techniques make use of recent advances in SOQPSK technology based on a continuous phase modulation (CPM) interpretation of SOQPSK. The proposed simplifications are significant since trellis-based SOQPSK detectors are 1–2 dB superior to widely-deployed symbol-by-symbol detectors. These performance gains come at the expense of complexity, and the proposed 2-state detectors minimize this expense. Thus, these simple detection schemes are applicable in settings where high-performance and low complexity are needed to meet restrictions on power consumption and cost.

      Guevara, Mauricio; Flyash, Boris; Army Research Development and Engineering Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The US ARMY, ARDEC; in cooperation with AMCOM AMRDEC, Missile Guidance and Engineering Directorates; the Office of Naval Research; Naval Surface Fire Support; and the Naval Surface Weapon Center, requires multiphase development of a common, low-cost, high G survivable, high accuracy, Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and Common, Deeply Integrated, Guidance and Navigation Unit (DI-GNU) for DoD gun launched guided munition and missile applications. The challenge for the Precision Munition Instrumentation Division (PMID) was to develop a Telemetry System to record the interior and exterior ballistics of a M831 TP-T projectile, which will be used as a carrier for soft recovery testing of IMUs and GNUs. This valuable data that would help The Government and contractors develop and validate multiple MEMS IMU design efforts, culminating with live fire verification performance test of pre-production in the Army’s 155-mm Soft Recovery Vehicle (SRVs) and missiles airframes.

      Losik, Len (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Telemetry Prognostics is Failure Prediction using telemetry for launch vehicle and satellite space flight equipment to stop launch failures, launch pad delays, satellite infant mortalities and satellite on orbit failures. This technology characterizes telemetry behaviors that are latent, transient, and go undetected by the most experienced engineering personnel and software diagnostic tools during integration and test, launch operations and on orbit activities stopping launch pad delays, launch failures, infant mortalities and on orbit failures. Telemetry prognostics yield a technology with state-of-the-art innovative techniques for determining critical on-board equipment remaining useful life taking into account system states, attitude reorientations, equipment usage patterns, failure modes and piece part failure characteristics to increase the reliability, usability, serviceability, availability and safety of our nation’s space systems.

      Yongkang, Hu; Qishan, Zhang; Yanhong, Kou; Dongkai, Yang; Beihang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Despite the inherent resistance to narrowband signal interference afforded by GPS spread spectrum modulation, the low level of GPS signals makes them susceptible to narrowband interference. This paper discusses the application of a pre-correlation adaptive temporal filter for stationary and nonstationary narrowband interference suppression. Various adaptive algorithms are studied and implemented. Comparison of the convergence and tracking behavior of various algorithms is made.
    • The Sum-Rate Capacity of a Cognitive Multiple Access Sensor Network

      Panagos, Adam; Kosbar, Kurt; Dynetic, Inc.; University of Missouri (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      This paper investigates the sum-rate capacity of a cognitive multiple access (MAC) sensor network. The multiple access network consists of K sensors communicating to a common base station. Outside of the network exists another user of the radio spectrum. Each sensor of the MAC network is aware (i.e. cognitive) of this user, denoted the primary user, and transmits in a manner to avoid any interference to this user. No interference transmission is achieved using the dirty-paper coding technique. The sum-rate capacity is the theoretical maximum of the sum of the simultaneously achievable rates of each sensor within the network. Using a recently derived iterative algorithm, we quantify the sum-rate capacity of this network and investigate its behavior as a function of the number of sensors, cognitive signal-to-noise ratio (CSNR) and primary SNR (PSNR) in a Rayleigh fading environment. We also derive bounds and scaling results for the ergodic sum-rate capacity.

      Perrins, Erik; Chandran, Prashanth; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Shaped offset quadrature phase shift keying (SOQPSK) is a highly bandwidth efficient modulation technique used widely in military and aeronautical telemetry standards. It can be classified as a form of continuous phase modulation (CPM), but its major distinction from other CPM schemes is that it has a constrained (correlated) ternary data alphabet. CPM-based detection models for SOQPSK have been developed only recently. One roadblock standing in the way of these detectors being adopted is that existing symbol timing recovery techniques for CPM are not always applicable since the data symbols are correlated. We investigate the performance of one CPM-based timing error detector (TED) that can be used with SOQPSK, and apply it to the versions of SOQPSK used in military (MIL-STD SOQPSK) and telemetry group (SOQPSK-TG) standards. We derive the theoretical performance limits on the accuracy of timing recovery for SOQPSK, as given by the modified Cramer-Rao bound (MCRB), and show that the proposed TED performs close to these bounds in computer simulations and is free of false-lock points. We also show that the proposed scheme outperforms a non-data aided TED that was recently developed for SOQPSK. These results show that the proposed scheme has great promise in a wide range of applications due to its low complexity, strong performance, and lack of false-lock points.

      Torgerson, Leigh; Hutcherson, Joseph; McKelvey, James; California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      In support of iNET maturation, NASA-JPL has collaborated with NASA-Dryden to develop, test and demonstrate an over-the-horizon vehicle-to-ground networking capability, using Iridium as the vehicle-to-ground communications link for relaying critical vehicle telemetry. To ensure reliability concerns are met, the Space Communications Protocol Standards (SCPS) transport protocol was investigated for its performance characteristics in this environment. In particular, the SCPS-TP software performance was compared to that of the standard Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) over the Internet Protocol (IP). This paper will report on the results of this work.

      Weir, Malcolm; Ampex Data Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      This paper discusses how IRIG 106 Chapter 10 recording techniques could be employed in a network-centric environment, while maintaining as many of the strengths of the traditional approach. In the course of that discussion, aspects of the published standard which would have to be disregarded or reinterpreted for a network-centric approach to be adopted are illustrated.

      Bester, Manfred; Stroozas, Brett; Bester Tracking Systems, Inc.; Stroozas Flight Ops (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      In a modern ground control network for space communications, secure peer-to-peer TCP/IP network socket connections are typically used to transfer real-time telemetry and command frames between satellite operations centers and remote ground stations. Reliable and timely reconfiguration of data paths for upcoming pass supports becomes rather complex when many spacecraft and ground stations are involved. This paper describes a routing software application that was developed to facilitate switching of telemetry and command data paths between multiple ground stations and spacecraft command and control systems, and to forward telemetry streams to multiple client applications in parallel. Fully automated configuration and monitoring of the data flows is accomplished via a remote control interface that is tied into a pass scheduling system. The software is part of the SatTrack Suite and currently supports multi-mission flight operations, including those of the recently launched THEMIS constellation mission at Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley.

      Trimble, Michael L.; Wells, John E.; Wurth, Timothy J.; NuWaves Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Tactical training ranges provide an opportunity for all of the armed forces to assess operational readiness. To perform this task the various training ranges have deployed numerous telemetry systems. The current design efforts in place to upgrade the capabilities and unify the ranges under one telemetry system do not address the training ranges' need to maintain their training capability with the legacy systems that have been deployed until the new systems are ready. Two systems that have recently undergone sustainment efforts are the Player and Event Tracking System (TAPETS) and the Large Area Tracking Range (LATR). TAPETS is a telemetry system operated by the U.S. Army Operational Test Command. The TAPETS system is comprised of the ground mobile station Standard Range Unit (SRU) and the aircraft Inertial Global Positioning System (GPS) Integration (IGI) Pod. Both systems require a transponder for the wireless communications link. LATR is an over the horizon telemetry system operated by the U.S. Navy at various test ranges to track ground based, ship based, and airborne participants in training exercises. The LATR system is comprised of Rotary Wing (RW), Fixed Wing (FW) Pods, Fixed Wing Internal (FWI), Ship, and Ground Participant Instrumentation Packages (PIPs) as well as Ground Interrogation Station (GIS) and relay stations. Like the TAPETS system, each of these packages and stations also require a transponder for the wireless communications link. Both telemetry systems have developed additional capabilities in order to better support and train the Armed Forces, which consequently requires more transponders. In addition, some areas were experiencing failures in their transponders that have been deployed for many years. The available spare components of some systems had been depleted and the sustainment requirements along with the increased demand for assets were beginning to impact the ability of the systems to successfully monitor the training ranges during exercises. The path to maintaining operational capability chosen for the TAPETS system was a mixed approach that consisted of identifying a depot level repair facility for their transponders and funding the development of new transponder printed circuit boards (PCB's) where obsolescence prevented a sufficient number of repairable units. In the case of LATR, the decision was made to create new transponders to take advantage of cost effective state-of-the-art RF design and manufacturing processes. The result of this effort is a new transponder that is operationally indistinguishable from the legacy transponder in all installation environments. The purpose of this paper is to present two successful system sustainment efforts with different approaches to serve as models for preserving the current level of training range capabilities until the next generation of telemetry systems are deployed. While the two programs illustrated here deal primarily with the transponder components of the systems, these same methods can be applied to the other aspects of legacy telemetry system sustainment efforts.

      Dongkai, Yang; Li, Du; Qishan, Zhang; Beihang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      This paper focuses on the transceiver design using BOC signal in the telemetry field, including the transmitter and receiver. The transmitter is similar as that using BPSK except from the sub-carrier modulation. But the receiver design is totally different because the BOC signal has different performance. The acquisition methods of BOC signal have been discussed such as the single-side BPSK-like, double-sides BPSK-like and hybrid processing methods, which can restrain side-peak and eliminate ambiguities. The three acquisition process principles and their performances include arithmetic complexity are described, compared and simulated using MATLAB.

      Hudgins, Gene; TENA Software Development Activity (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The Joint Mission Environment Test Capability (JMETC) is a distributed live, virtual, and constructive (LVC) testing capability developed to support the acquisition community and to demonstrate Net-Ready Key Performance Parameters (KPP) requirements in a customer-specific Joint Mission Environment (JME). JMETC provides connectivity to the Services’ distributed test capabilities and simulations, as well as industry test resources. JMETC uses the Test and Training Enabling Architecture, TENA, which is well-designed for supporting JMETC events. TENA provides the architecture and software capabilities necessary to enable interoperability among range instrumentation systems, facilities, and simulations. TENA, used in major field exercises and numerous distributed test events, provides JMETC with a technology already being deployed in DoD.
    • Thermocouple Measurements without Custom Electronics

      Wanis, Paul; L-3 Communications Telemetry & RF Products (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Thermocouple measurements require “cold junction” compensation in order to obtain a correct reading. This compensation has traditionally been done with custom circuitry. In flight test applications where volume and power are at a premium (e.g. weapons flight test) it is desirable to have a more flexible solution that uses standard analog data acquisition channels already available as part of the encoder circuitry and performs compensation with remote software. This can be done via digital compensation, but certain measures must be taken to maintain accuracy and minimize noise. This paper describes some of these techniques and their performance tradeoffs.

      Jones, Charles H.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Imagine that a test vehicle has just arrived at your test facility and that it is fully instrumented with sensors and a data acquisition system (DAS). Imagine that a test engineer logs onto the vehicle’s DAS, submits a list of data requirements, and the DAS automatically configures itself to meet those data requirements. Imagine that the control room then contacts the DAS, downloads the configuration, and coordinates its own configuration with the vehicle’s setup. Imagine all of this done with no more human interaction than the original test engineer’s request. How close to this imaginary scenario is the instrumentation community? We’re not there yet, but through a variety of efforts, we are headed towards this fully automated scenario. This paper outlines the current status, current projects, and some missing pieces in the journey towards this end. This journey includes standards development in the Range Commander’s Council (RCC), smart sensor standards development through the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts, efforts by the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project, and other projects involved in reaching this goal.

      Shaw, Christopher; Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      This paper considers the use of Amplitude-Phase Shift Keying (APSK) for a telemetry system. Variable rate turbo codes are used to improve the power efficiency of 16- and 32-APSK. We discuss compensation techniques for power amplifier nonlinearities. Simulation results show the improved spectral efficiency of this modulation scheme over those currently defined in telemetry standards.

      Corry, Diarmuid; ACRA CONTROL Inc (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Over the last few years XML has been growing in importance as a language for describing the meta-data associated with a complete flight test. Three years ago ACRA CONTROL introduced XidML as an open, published XML standard describing flight test data acquisition from the air to the ground. Recently, XML has been adopted by the TMATS RCC committee and is currently being studied by iNET. While many papers have focused on what XML is and why it is a powerful language, few have related this to practical benefits for the end user. This paper attempts to address this gap. The paper describes simple cost effective tools for generating XML through an intuitive GUI, validating XML information against a schema and transforming XML into useful reports. In particular a suite of value added tools for XidML is described.

      Kalibjian, Jeff; Hewlett-Packard Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Networked based technologies (i.e. TCP/IP) have come to play an important role in the evolution of telemetry post processing services. A paramount issue when using networking to access/move telemetry data is security. In past years papers have focused on individual security technologies and how they could be used to secure telemetry data. This paper will review currently available network based security technologies, update readers on enhancements, and discuss their appropriate uses in the various phases of telemetry post-processing and analysis activities.

      Berdugo, Albert; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      IRIG-106 Chapter 10 has become the recording standard for most of the new flight test programs and many of the current ongoing programs. The primary goal of the standard was to define a common format for recording 100% bulk data such as PCM, MIL-STD-1553 busses, Video/Audio, ARINC-429, Ethernet, IEEE-1394, Analog Data, and others. In most cases the standard has provided the instrumentation engineers and the data analysts with a recording solution that meets their needs. Many programs require transmission of safety of flight data from a subset of the data acquired by the recorder. This may include selected video/audio channels, selected avionics bus data, and others. This requirement presents a dilemma to the flight test engineer who must duplicate part of the system for telemetry. This paper discusses several applications in which the IRIG-106 Chapter 10 recorder can be used as a telemetry system. It will include the transmission of bulk MIL-STD-1553 data per IRIG-106 Chapter 8, transmission of multiple Video/Audio and PCM data channels, and transmission of selected avionics data per IRIG-106 Chapter 4.