• TCP PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OVER IRIDIUM

      Torgerson, Leigh; Hutcherson, Joseph; McKelvey, James; California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      In support of iNET maturation, NASA-JPL has collaborated with NASA-Dryden to develop, test and demonstrate an over-the-horizon vehicle-to-ground networking capability, using Iridium as the vehicle-to-ground communications link for relaying critical vehicle telemetry. To ensure reliability concerns are met, the Space Communications Protocol Standards (SCPS) transport protocol was investigated for its performance characteristics in this environment. In particular, the SCPS-TP software performance was compared to that of the standard Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) over the Internet Protocol (IP). This paper will report on the results of this work.
    • TECHNOLOGY CONVERGENCE: OBSERVATIONS ON TRANSITIONAL APPROACHES FOR DATA ACQUISITION IN A TCP/IP ENVIRONMENT

      Weir, Malcolm; Ampex Data Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      This paper discusses how IRIG 106 Chapter 10 recording techniques could be employed in a network-centric environment, while maintaining as many of the strengths of the traditional approach. In the course of that discussion, aspects of the published standard which would have to be disregarded or reinterpreted for a network-centric approach to be adopted are illustrated.
    • TELEMETRY AND COMMAND FRAME ROUTING IN A MULTI-MISSION ENVIRONMENT

      Bester, Manfred; Stroozas, Brett; Bester Tracking Systems, Inc.; Stroozas Flight Ops (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      In a modern ground control network for space communications, secure peer-to-peer TCP/IP network socket connections are typically used to transfer real-time telemetry and command frames between satellite operations centers and remote ground stations. Reliable and timely reconfiguration of data paths for upcoming pass supports becomes rather complex when many spacecraft and ground stations are involved. This paper describes a routing software application that was developed to facilitate switching of telemetry and command data paths between multiple ground stations and spacecraft command and control systems, and to forward telemetry streams to multiple client applications in parallel. Fully automated configuration and monitoring of the data flows is accomplished via a remote control interface that is tied into a pass scheduling system. The software is part of the SatTrack Suite and currently supports multi-mission flight operations, including those of the recently launched THEMIS constellation mission at Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley.
    • TELEMETRY SYSTEMS SUSTAINMENT

      Trimble, Michael L.; Wells, John E.; Wurth, Timothy J.; NuWaves Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Tactical training ranges provide an opportunity for all of the armed forces to assess operational readiness. To perform this task the various training ranges have deployed numerous telemetry systems. The current design efforts in place to upgrade the capabilities and unify the ranges under one telemetry system do not address the training ranges' need to maintain their training capability with the legacy systems that have been deployed until the new systems are ready. Two systems that have recently undergone sustainment efforts are the Player and Event Tracking System (TAPETS) and the Large Area Tracking Range (LATR). TAPETS is a telemetry system operated by the U.S. Army Operational Test Command. The TAPETS system is comprised of the ground mobile station Standard Range Unit (SRU) and the aircraft Inertial Global Positioning System (GPS) Integration (IGI) Pod. Both systems require a transponder for the wireless communications link. LATR is an over the horizon telemetry system operated by the U.S. Navy at various test ranges to track ground based, ship based, and airborne participants in training exercises. The LATR system is comprised of Rotary Wing (RW), Fixed Wing (FW) Pods, Fixed Wing Internal (FWI), Ship, and Ground Participant Instrumentation Packages (PIPs) as well as Ground Interrogation Station (GIS) and relay stations. Like the TAPETS system, each of these packages and stations also require a transponder for the wireless communications link. Both telemetry systems have developed additional capabilities in order to better support and train the Armed Forces, which consequently requires more transponders. In addition, some areas were experiencing failures in their transponders that have been deployed for many years. The available spare components of some systems had been depleted and the sustainment requirements along with the increased demand for assets were beginning to impact the ability of the systems to successfully monitor the training ranges during exercises. The path to maintaining operational capability chosen for the TAPETS system was a mixed approach that consisted of identifying a depot level repair facility for their transponders and funding the development of new transponder printed circuit boards (PCB's) where obsolescence prevented a sufficient number of repairable units. In the case of LATR, the decision was made to create new transponders to take advantage of cost effective state-of-the-art RF design and manufacturing processes. The result of this effort is a new transponder that is operationally indistinguishable from the legacy transponder in all installation environments. The purpose of this paper is to present two successful system sustainment efforts with different approaches to serve as models for preserving the current level of training range capabilities until the next generation of telemetry systems are deployed. While the two programs illustrated here deal primarily with the transponder components of the systems, these same methods can be applied to the other aspects of legacy telemetry system sustainment efforts.
    • TELEMETRY TRANSCEIVER DESIGN USING BOC SIGNAL

      Dongkai, Yang; Li, Du; Qishan, Zhang; Beihang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      This paper focuses on the transceiver design using BOC signal in the telemetry field, including the transmitter and receiver. The transmitter is similar as that using BPSK except from the sub-carrier modulation. But the receiver design is totally different because the BOC signal has different performance. The acquisition methods of BOC signal have been discussed such as the single-side BPSK-like, double-sides BPSK-like and hybrid processing methods, which can restrain side-peak and eliminate ambiguities. The three acquisition process principles and their performances include arithmetic complexity are described, compared and simulated using MATLAB.
    • THE TEST AND TRAINING ENABLING ARCHITECTURE, TENA, AN IMPORTANT COMPONENT IN JOINT MISSION ENVIRONMENT TEST CAPABILITY (JMETC) SUCCESSES

      Hudgins, Gene; TENA Software Development Activity (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The Joint Mission Environment Test Capability (JMETC) is a distributed live, virtual, and constructive (LVC) testing capability developed to support the acquisition community and to demonstrate Net-Ready Key Performance Parameters (KPP) requirements in a customer-specific Joint Mission Environment (JME). JMETC provides connectivity to the Services’ distributed test capabilities and simulations, as well as industry test resources. JMETC uses the Test and Training Enabling Architecture, TENA, which is well-designed for supporting JMETC events. TENA provides the architecture and software capabilities necessary to enable interoperability among range instrumentation systems, facilities, and simulations. TENA, used in major field exercises and numerous distributed test events, provides JMETC with a technology already being deployed in DoD.
    • Thermocouple Measurements without Custom Electronics

      Wanis, Paul; L-3 Communications Telemetry & RF Products (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Thermocouple measurements require “cold junction” compensation in order to obtain a correct reading. This compensation has traditionally been done with custom circuitry. In flight test applications where volume and power are at a premium (e.g. weapons flight test) it is desirable to have a more flexible solution that uses standard analog data acquisition channels already available as part of the encoder circuitry and performs compensation with remote software. This can be done via digital compensation, but certain measures must be taken to maintain accuracy and minimize noise. This paper describes some of these techniques and their performance tradeoffs.
    • TOWARDS FULLY AUTOMATED INSTRUMENTATION TEST SUPPORT

      Jones, Charles H.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Imagine that a test vehicle has just arrived at your test facility and that it is fully instrumented with sensors and a data acquisition system (DAS). Imagine that a test engineer logs onto the vehicle’s DAS, submits a list of data requirements, and the DAS automatically configures itself to meet those data requirements. Imagine that the control room then contacts the DAS, downloads the configuration, and coordinates its own configuration with the vehicle’s setup. Imagine all of this done with no more human interaction than the original test engineer’s request. How close to this imaginary scenario is the instrumentation community? We’re not there yet, but through a variety of efforts, we are headed towards this fully automated scenario. This paper outlines the current status, current projects, and some missing pieces in the journey towards this end. This journey includes standards development in the Range Commander’s Council (RCC), smart sensor standards development through the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts, efforts by the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project, and other projects involved in reaching this goal.
    • TURBO-CODED APSK FOR TELEMETRY

      Shaw, Christopher; Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      This paper considers the use of Amplitude-Phase Shift Keying (APSK) for a telemetry system. Variable rate turbo codes are used to improve the power efficiency of 16- and 32-APSK. We discuss compensation techniques for power amplifier nonlinearities. Simulation results show the improved spectral efficiency of this modulation scheme over those currently defined in telemetry standards.
    • UNLEASHING THE POWER OF XML

      Corry, Diarmuid; ACRA CONTROL Inc (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Over the last few years XML has been growing in importance as a language for describing the meta-data associated with a complete flight test. Three years ago ACRA CONTROL introduced XidML as an open, published XML standard describing flight test data acquisition from the air to the ground. Recently, XML has been adopted by the TMATS RCC committee and is currently being studied by iNET. While many papers have focused on what XML is and why it is a powerful language, few have related this to practical benefits for the end user. This paper attempts to address this gap. The paper describes simple cost effective tools for generating XML through an intuitive GUI, validating XML information against a schema and transforming XML into useful reports. In particular a suite of value added tools for XidML is described.
    • AN UPDATE ON NETWORK-BASED SECURITY TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO TELEMETRY POST-PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS ACTIVITIES

      Kalibjian, Jeff; Hewlett-Packard Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Networked based technologies (i.e. TCP/IP) have come to play an important role in the evolution of telemetry post processing services. A paramount issue when using networking to access/move telemetry data is security. In past years papers have focused on individual security technologies and how they could be used to secure telemetry data. This paper will review currently available network based security technologies, update readers on enhancements, and discuss their appropriate uses in the various phases of telemetry post-processing and analysis activities.
    • THE USE OF AN IRIG-106 CHAPTER 10 RECORDER AS A TELEMETRY SYSTEM

      Berdugo, Albert; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      IRIG-106 Chapter 10 has become the recording standard for most of the new flight test programs and many of the current ongoing programs. The primary goal of the standard was to define a common format for recording 100% bulk data such as PCM, MIL-STD-1553 busses, Video/Audio, ARINC-429, Ethernet, IEEE-1394, Analog Data, and others. In most cases the standard has provided the instrumentation engineers and the data analysts with a recording solution that meets their needs. Many programs require transmission of safety of flight data from a subset of the data acquired by the recorder. This may include selected video/audio channels, selected avionics bus data, and others. This requirement presents a dilemma to the flight test engineer who must duplicate part of the system for telemetry. This paper discusses several applications in which the IRIG-106 Chapter 10 recorder can be used as a telemetry system. It will include the transmission of bulk MIL-STD-1553 data per IRIG-106 Chapter 8, transmission of multiple Video/Audio and PCM data channels, and transmission of selected avionics data per IRIG-106 Chapter 4.
    • USING COOPERATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AGREEMENTS (CRADA) TO REDUCE THE TRANSITION TO PRODUCTION RISK OF A MISSILE TELEMETRY SECTION

      Kujiraoka, Scott R.; Fielder, Russell G.; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The Joint Advanced Missile Instrumentation (JAMI) Program’s main thrust has been the integration of Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking technology into the Department of Defense (DoD) Missile Test Ranges. This technology could be used for Time, Space, Position, and Information (TSPI), Flight Termination (FTS), or End Game Scoring purposes. However the Program’s main goal is to develop Proof-of-Concept components only. Transitioning Missile technology developed by the Government to Private Industry, so that it can be economically mass produced, has been quite a challenge. Traditionally, private industry has had to bid on proposals without much detailed information on how these components have been designed and fabricated. These unknown risks, Non-Recurring Engineering (NRE) and Missile Flight Qualification costs, routinely have significantly increased the price of these procurement contracts. In order so that the Fleet can economically utilize these components in the field, Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA) between the Government and Private Industry have been used to successfully transition Government developed technology to mass production. They can eliminate the NRE and flight qualification costs to provide for an economical and low risk method of providing the Fleet with the latest advances in GPS Tracking Technology. This paper will discuss how this is currently being accomplished in the development of a conformal wraparound instrumentation antenna for a five-inch diameter Missile Telemetry (TM) Section.
    • USING EXCEL MACROS FOR CHARTING

      Kelly, Bryan; Honeywell Aerospace (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      This paper introduces a set of macros that automate the importing of antenna data into Excel and charting that data. These macros (as discussed here) import data from a ViaSat ACUs (Antenna Control Unit) and a TCS ACU (Telemetry & Communications Systems Inc). After the import is complete, the macros can build a set of charts, all formatted and labeled in a predetermined and standard manner. A task that may take half a day or more can be completed in minutes. The concept and layout of the macros lend them to quick adaptation to your data. In scenarios of “test and collect” followed by “import and chart”, the data can be imported and charted within the minute.
    • VEHICLE NETWORK TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION

      Grace, Thomas; Hodack, Dave; Naval Air Systems Command (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      iNET is a project tasked to foster advances in networking and telemetry technology to meet emerging needs. This paper describes one objective of the project, which is standardization and interoperability. It begins to explore issues for achieving a level of interoperability among differing vendor’s hardware such as data acquisition units, data recorders, video systems, transceivers, and network encryption. Specifically, this paper addresses the expansion of the current demonstration system with the addition of multiple vendor data acquisition units. It will also attempt to address the level of standardization necessary for achieving interoperability while still enabling vendors to add their value added contributions into their products.
    • A WIDEBAND CHANNEL MODEL FOR SHF-BAND TELEMETRY OVER WATER

      Rice, Michael; Lei, Qiang; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Data recorded during multipath channel sounding experiments, conducted off the coast of Pt. Mugu Naval Air Station at 8.0 GHz was used to model the multipath interference at SHF band over water. The modeling results show that a three ray model consisting of line-of-sight propagation and two reflected propagation paths is a good fit for the measured channel frequency responses. The properties of the multipath reflections are determined by geometry and sea state. For calm seas, the first reflection is a large amplitude short-delay reflection whereas for rough seas, the first reflection has a smaller amplitude and longer delay. The second reflection has a smaller amplitude and larger delay when the sea is calm.
    • A WIRELESS NETWORK-BASED RFNET SOLUTION FOR FLIGHT TEST

      Xuming, Fan; Xiaoxian, Bai; Baoqiang, Zhao; Junmin, Zhang; Chinese Flight Test Establishment (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      An rfNET solution based on IEEE 802.11 wireless network is presented to perform one-way remote transmission of airborne instrumentation data and multi-channel video images in flight test by modifying the wireless network bridge and UDP protocol. Its architecture and structure is introduced briefly and the results of ground transmission test and flight demonstration transmission are provided. It also points out the major problems of this solution for engineering application and their solutions.
    • WIRELESS SENSOR SYSTEM FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS

      Pellarin, Steve; Musteric, Steven; Teletronics Technology Corporation; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Adding an instrumentation / telemetry system to a test article has historically required an intrusive installation. Power, wiring, and available space typically present significant challenges. There has been a long-standing need in the test and training community for a non-intrusive, flexible and modular instrumentation and telemetry system that can be installed on an aircraft or other test article without the need for permanent modifications. In addition, as available space in aircraft weapon bays, small weapons, and unmanned vehicles becomes a premium, the miniaturization of remote sensors and telemetry units becomes critical. This paper describes the current status of the Advanced Subminiature Telemetry System (ASMT) Initial Test Capability Project. It discusses the challenges that have been overcome in developing a wireless sensor network system for use in an airborne test environment. These include wireless sensor packaging design, selection of operating frequencies, COTS wireless devices, batteries, system synchronization and data bandwidth calculations. The paper will also document the progress to date including preliminary test results.
    • XML META-DATA EXPERIMENTS

      K/Bidy, Gilles; L-3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      As part of the technology upgrades driven by the iNet initiative, there is a need to establish a meta-data standard to describe configuration information for the system under test. The technology identified for such a standard is XML and XSD schemas. This paper presents findings from various experiments to import and export existing telemetry configuration information to XML based on the new Meta-data model. In addition, this paper will discuss the possible conversions to and from the existing IRIG TMATS standard.