• DEVELOPMENT OF A NETWORK-CENTRIC DATA ACQUISITION, RECORDING, AND TELEMETRY SYSTEM

      Moodie, Myron; Newton, Todd; Abbott, Ben; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The growth of the Internet and the resulting increasing speeds and decreasing prices of network equipment have spurred much interest in applying networks to flight test applications. However, the best-effort, variable-latency nature of network transport causes challenges that must be addressed to provide reliable data acquisition and timing performance. This paper describes the major issues that must be addressed when designing and implementing real-time networking applications. An overview of a recently implemented large-scale, network-centric data acquisition, recording, and telemetry system for commercial flight test applications provides a real-world example of what is currently achievable.
    • DEVELOPMENT OF AN UNMANNED AIRBORNE TELEMETRY TRACKING AND RELAY SYSTEM

      Pho, Tam P.; Wysong, Henry D.; Aerocross Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Aerocross Systems, Inc. is developing a low-cost unmanned airborne telemetry relay system to augment the USAF Air Armament Center’s Eglin Gulf Range instrumentation resources. The system is designed to remotely autotrack and relay S-Band telemetry and VHF/UHF voice communications from test articles beyond the line-of-sight of land-based instrumentation. The system consists of a medium altitude/endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), a Mission Control Station, and a remotely operated telemetry/voice tracking and relay instrumentation suite. Successfully developed and deployed, the system will contribute to lower range costs while enhancing range instrumentation performance.
    • DEVELOPMENT, EVALUATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SURFACE-MOUNT, HIGH-G ACCELEROMETER

      Peregino, Philip J., II; Bukowski, Edward F.; U.S. Army Research Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The Endevco model 7270A high-g accelerometer has been used successfully in numerous flight tests at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory. The accelerometer is available in ranges as low as 6,000 g’s up to 200,000 g’s so they can be used in a variety of situations to measure setback, set forward and balloting in artillery rounds, mortars and tank projectiles to name a few. However, one of the disadvantages of the model 7270A is its physical size, in the era of die level and surface mount components, the 7270A is relatively large. The sensing element is packaged inside a metal case with screw holes for mounting to a rigid surface. In addition, there are wires protruding from the case for electrical connections. In the area of munitions, small cavities don’t always afford the room for a large gauge. It was desirable to repackage the die in a smaller container and make it a surface mount component for a printed circuit board. A contract was developed for Endevco to repackage the die and to develop a tri-axial version with the repackaged die. The newly developed accelerometers were tested and evaluated by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory.
    • DIFFERENTIAL ENCODING REVEALED: AN EXPLANATION OF THE TIER-1 DIFFERENTIAL ENCODING IN IRIG 106

      Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      IRIG 106-04 specifies differential encoding for use with the interoperable Tier-1 modulations to deal with phase and delay-axis ambiguities associated with PLL-based carrier phase synchronization. The origins of the differential encoding have been shrouded in the mists of an unavailable technical report and a mysterious connection to previous published work in the open literature. This paper removes the mystery by showing that the differential encoding rule results from encoding bit-by-bit transitions in the phase trajectory of an offset QPSK modulated carrier.
    • DIVERSITY BRANCH SELECTION IN REAL WORLD APPLICATION

      Formeister, Richard; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Multipath propagation continues to be the dominant channel impairment in many aeronautical mobile telemetry (AMT) applications. Avoidance and diversity techniques continue to be the only practical means to combat this problem. In 2004 limited results from the development of a new post-detection, no-hit diversity selector were reported. Late breaking results from flight test were reported orally. A review of the methodology, flight test results and conclusions are presented in this paper. Also presented is an update describing enhancements of the implementation which emphasize operational flexibility as well as support for alternate demodulator products.
    • THE EFFECT OF NETWORK CENTRIC OPERATIONS IN TELEMETRY FOR AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST AND EVALUATION

      Santos, Eunice E.; Jones, Charles H.; Harris, Charles; Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      We discuss how aspects of telemetry can be effectively incorporated and modeled as a component within network-centric operations and warfare paradigms. Telemetry is particularly vital in Air Force Flight Test and Evaluation. As such, this paper has a specific emphasis and provides discussion within this domain. We also present how an existing framework for networkcentric operations and warfare can be particularly beneficial to telemetry modeling, and discuss the potential insights and utility within this context.
    • ENHANCED FLIGHT TERMINATION SYSTEM FLIGHT DEMONSTRATION AND RESULTS

      Tow, David; Arce, Dennis; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Bourne Technologies, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      This paper discusses the methodology, requirements, tests, and implementation plan for the live demonstration of the Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS) using a missile program at two locations in Florida: Eglin Air Force Base (AFB) and Tyndall AFB. The demonstration included the integration of EFTS Flight Termination Receivers (FTRs) onto the missile and the integration of EFTS-program-developed transmitter assets with the mission control system at Eglin and Tyndall AFBs. The initial test stages included ground testing and captive-carry flights, followed by a launch in which EFTS was designated as the primary flight termination system for the launch.
    • ENHANCING THE PCM/FM LINK - WITHOUT THE MATH

      Fewer, Colm; Wilmot, Sinbad; ACRA CONTROL INC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Since the 1970s PCM/FM has been the dominant modulation scheme used for RF telemetry. However more stringent spectrum availability as well as increasing data rates means that more advanced transmission methods are required to keep pace with industry demands. ARTM Tier-I and Tier-II are examples of how the PCM/FM link can be enhanced. However these techniques require a significant increase in the complexity of the receiver/detector for optimal recovery. This paper focuses on a quantitative approach to improving the rate and quality of data using existing PCM/FM links. In particular ACRA CONTROL and BAE SYSTEMS set themselves the goal of revisiting the pre-modulation filter, diversity combiner and bit-sync. By implementing programmable adaptive hardware, it was possible to explore the various tradeoffs offered by modifying pulse shapes and spectral occupancy, inclusion of forward error correction and smart source selection. This papers looks at the improvements achieved at each phase of the evaluation.
    • EVALUATING IEEE 1588 IN A HOMOGENOUS SWITCHED NETWORK TEST ARTICLE SEGMENT

      Wilmot, Sinbad; Corry, Diarmuid; ACRA CONTROL INC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      At the 2007 iNet Technology Demonstrator multiple vendors are asked to participate to develop and evaluate protocols for time synchronization, configuration identification and heterogeneous data packet transfer. The iNet initiative from RCC is aimed at focusing and collating telemetry network developments within the wider sphere of commercial and military network developments. The KAM-500 is an inherently networked data-acquisition system offering seamless gateways to many heterogeneous data sources, such as different sensor devices, avionics-busses, networks and video sources. This paper offers insights into the impact of traffic and network configuration on the performance of heterogeneous data acquisition in a homogenous-switched network based a 1588 enabled controller module.
    • THE EVALUATION AND INTEGRATION OF AN INSTRUMENTATION AND TELEMETRY SYSTEM WITH SOQPSK MODULATION AND CONTROL INTEGRATED WITH AVIONICS DISPLAYS

      Wegener, John A.; Zettwoch, Robert N.; Roche, Michael C.; The Boeing Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      This paper describes the integration activities associated with the instrumentation and telemetry system developed for an F/A-18 Hornet Flight Test program, including bench integration, avionics integration, and aircraft ground and flight checkout. The system is controlled by a Boeing Integrated Defense System (IDS) Flight Test Instrumentation designed Instrumentation Control Unit (ICU), which interfaces to an avionics pilot display and Ground Support Unit (GSU) to set up the instrumentation during preflight and control the instrumentation during flight. The system takes in MIL-STD-1553, analog parameters, Ethernet, Fibre Channel, and video, and records these with onboard recorders. Selected subsets of this data may be routed to the telemetry system, which features two RF streams, each of which contains up to four PCM streams combined into a composite by a data combiner. The RF streams are transmitted by multi-mode digital transmitters capable of PCM-FM or Shaped Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (SOQPSK), with selectable Turbo-Product Code (TPC) Forward Error Correction (FEC). This paper describes integration of the system with the IDS Flight Test Integration Test Bench (ITB), production avionics integration facilities, and final aircraft ground checkout and initial flight tests. It describes results of integration activities and bench evaluation of the telemetry system.
    • EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL-OFF-THE-SHELF LITHIUM BATTERIES FOR USE IN BALLISTIC TELEMETRY SYSTEMS

      Bukowski, Edward F.; U.S. Army Research Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      As technological advances continue to be made in the commercial sectors of portable and wireless communication products, additional advancements in battery technology have also been made. These advancements have allowed for the rapid growth of a large variety of commercially available batteries which have the capability to meet or even exceed the current power and size requirements for numerous ballistic telemetry systems. The replacement of a custom built battery with a COTS battery would provide immediate advantages such as lower cost, shorter lead times and higher availability. The overall objective of this paper is to provide ballistic telemetry systems engineers and designers with multiple low cost, readily available alternatives to traditional custom made power sources.
    • EVALUATION OF UBIQUITIOUS USE OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK TECHNOLOGY IN DATA ACQUISITION AND TELEMETRY APPLICATIONS

      Kenney, Joshua D.; Cunningham, Chris J.; Abbott, Ben A.; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Industrial wireless sensor networks can be designed to meet the strict requirements of specific distributed applications. Emerging standards have enabled the development of low-cost, lowpower sensor nodes that are quickly becoming a commodity, enabling the realization of efficient and reliable data acquisition and telemetry in many systems. Moreover, new and exciting possibilities arise from the distributed computing power of the sensor nodes, the ability to monitor and aggregate data across large arrays of sensors, and the ability to model dynamic and rugged environments that were previously beyond the reach of traditional data acquisition and telemetry systems.
    • Evolving Range and DISA Networks Using Pseudo Wire

      Merritt, Joseph; Avtec Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The Eastern and Western Ranges along with DISA share a similar vision around Net-Centricity such that "Anyone, anywhere can get to any data source and exploit the information they are authorized to access." Their legacy infrastructure is built around TDM and ATM transport networks, which are link based and connection oriented. To achieve the vision the infrastructure must evolve towards a packet switched network (PSN) that is meshed based. Consequently, a means to interwork non-IP enabled services is required. Pseudo Wire protocol encapsulation provides the means for extending telemetry, data, voice, and video services in native formats over Ethernet, IP, and MPLS networks in a reliable way that delivers greater operational efficiency and a smooth migration to a single converged network.
    • FAST ACQUISITION ALGORITHM FOR HYBRID DS/FH RECEIVER

      Bo, Zhang; Yixun, Ren; Dongkai, Yang; Qishan, Zhang; BeiHang University; TT&C and Telecommunication Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      This paper introduced a fast scanning and waiting acquisition method for a DS/FH receiver used in the telemetry field. Mathematic model of the hybrid DS/FH system’s acquisition process is given and discussed. The average acquisition time expression using this method and generalized average acquisition time formula is derived also. The validity of the proposed algorithm is verified after simulation. In the circumstances of Additive Gauss White Noise for the channel, simulation result at Ec/N0= -15dB shows that the average acquisition time is decreased almost 4 times than that of waiting and searching method.
    • FIBRE CHANNEL BUS MONITORING WITH AIRBORNE DATA MULTIPLEXER / RECORDER SYSTEM

      Berdugo, Albert; Pesciotta, Eric; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Modern aircraft now employ widely accepted and standardized technology commonly found in COTS applications. One such technology, Fibre Channel, has been deployed to transport both low and high-speed measurement data. Data as varied as “command and control”, “Radar Sensors” and “video” are being transmitted over fibre channel on many aircrafts. Some of these applications require data monitoring in listening mode only where transmission from the instrumentation equipment is not allowed or possible. As a result, standard off the shelf Fibre Channel devices cannot be used, and a development of a general purpose Fibre Channel monitor/ analyzer device and product is required. This paper discusses the concept, merits, and implementation of fibre channel bus monitoring in modern data acquisition systems. Techniques for tapping into an optical fibre channel network, as well as, a recording format for IRIG106 Chapter 10 are included. An overview of fibre channel topologies and protocols is also provided.
    • FIXED RANGE DEVELOPMENT

      Reid, Robert J.; Naval Undersea Warfare Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      In FY07 the Naval Undersea Warfare Center in Newport Rhode Island began the development of 2 major undersea tracking range replacements programs. The first program is called the Southern California ASW Range (SOAR) Refurbishment (SOAR-R) and the second program is called the Barking Sands Undersea Range Expansion (BSURE) Refurbishment (BSURE-R). These ranges will be located off the coast of San Clemente Island, California and Kauai, Hawaii respectively. The in-water instrumentation of the undersea tracking range is a series acoustic receive and transmit sensors nodes that are interconnected electrically and optically through a cable. These sensors make up arrays. A wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) telemetry schema is being developed for these arrays.
    • A FLEXIBLE SWITCHING ARCHITECTURE FOR DIVERSE SIGNAL TYPES

      Gery, Brian; Apogee Labs, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Modern telemetry systems often require signal switching hardware to facilitate signal routing reconfiguration between missions. As these systems have grown more complex with high signal counts and diverse signal types in the same system, the need for flexible switching hardware that can adapt to these changing requirements has emerged. A novel architecture for diverse signal switching hardware is presented that addresses the changing requirements of modern telemetry systems. While conventional commercial switching gear handles each signal type in a separate group, the proposed architecture allows digital and analog signal types to be switched, multiplexed, scaled, and combined (as the signal types allow) all within the same chassis, and between signal types.
    • A FREQUENCY SCAN/FOLLOWING SCAN TWOWAY CARRIER ACQUISITION METHOD FOR USB SYSTEM

      Jiaxing, Liu; Hongjun, Yang; Southwest China Institute of Electronic Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      This paper introduces a frequency scan/following scan twoway carrier acquisition method for USB and its following scan slope decision algorithm. Some measures are used to improve twoway acquisition speed such as selecting initiation direction and returning to zero in the shortest path, which can be implemented by software. Theoretic analysis, mathematical expression, design method and experiment results are provided. Practical engineering application shows the twoway acquisition using this new method has many advantages such as fast speed, low cost and programmability. The method has been used in Chinese USB system widely.
    • GPS RADIOSONDE: MIGHTY MIDGET OF THE MODERN RANGE

      May, Linda R.; Honeywell Technology Solutions, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Wallops Flight Facility is NASA’s principal site for management and implementation of suborbital research programs. Recently, WFF resumed its successful satellite-launching history without sacrificing its culture of being low-cost and responsive. Part of what made this possible is the GPS radiosonde. During recent successful Minotaur I launches, this tiny instrument provided upper-air observations that were used in six categories of analysis necessary for such launches: toxics, blast, winds aloft, debris, weather and forecasting, and post-flight. In addition, the GPS radiosonde has reduced costs associated with Wind Weighting at Wallops, and is used in numerous range research projects.
    • GROUND SUPPORT FOR THE SPACE-BASED RANGE FLIGHT DEMONSTRATION 2

      Burkes, Darryl A.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The primary objective of the NASA Space-Based Range Demonstration and Certification program was to develop and demonstrate space-based range capabilities. The Flight Demonstration 2 flights at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center were conducted to support Range Safety (commanding and position reporting) and high-rate (5 Mbps) Range User (video and data) requirements. Required ground support infrastructure included a flight termination system computer, the ground-data distribution network to send range safety commands and receive range safety and range user telemetry data and video, and the ground processing systems at the Dryden Mission Control Center to process range safety and range user telemetry data and video.